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28 Sep 1994 - 11 Dec 1995

Topics

  1. wf (319)
  2. wnet (55)
  3. voa (416)
  4. library (10)
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  6. unknown (270)

Messages - voa

voa.2 usisbel,
Read me first, please. read.me
voa.3 usisbel,
Opste uputstvo sa opisom sistema procitaj
voa.5 usisbel,
Frekvencije "Glasa Amerike" frequenc.voa
voa.6 usisbel,
talk to america, voice of america talkshow.txt
voa.7 usisbel,
readme voa readme-v
voa.8 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia_f
voa.9 usisbel,
nato-bosnia nato-bos
voa.10 usisbel,
space shuttle shuttle-
voa.11 usisbel,
talk-to-america talk-to-
voa.12 usisbel,
us-nato-bosnia u-s_-_na
voa.13 usisbel,
Yugo yugo_sit
voa.14 usisbel,
space shuttle shuttle_
voa.15 usisbel,
germany germany-
voa.16 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia_f
voa.17 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia_-
voa.18 usisbel,
voa-digest voa
voa.19 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia
voa.20 usisbel,
holbrook h
voa.21 usisbel,
holbrook 2 holbrook
voa.22 usisbel,
slovenia s
voa.23 usisbel,
serbia serbia
voa.24 usisbel,
serbia 2 serbia
voa.25 usisbel,
slovenia 2 slovenia
voa.26 usisbel,
un-summit un
voa.27 usisbel,
yugo-sit yugo
voa.28 usisbel,
talk to amerika talk
voa.29 usisbel,
talk to america schedule talk1
voa.30 usisbel,
next generation shuttle1
voa.31 usisbel,
space shuttle shuttle2
voa.32 usisbel,
un-croatia 1 un-croatia1
voa.33 usisbel,
un-summit un-summ
voa.34 usisbel,
un-croatia 2 un-croatia2
voa.35 usisbel,
un-croatia 3 un-croatia3
voa.36 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia
voa.37 usisbel,
albright albright
voa.38 usisbel,
evol evol
voa.39 usisbel,
special special
voa.40 usisbel,
frogs frogs
voa.41 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia1
voa.42 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia2
voa.43 usisbel,
bosnia bosnia3
voa.44 usisbel,
jews jews
voa.45 usisbel,
us-russia u-s_ru
voa.46 usisbel,
voa editorial voa
voa.47 usisbel,
press press
voa.48 usisbel,
shuttle - privatization privat
voa.49 usisbel,
soyuz-mir soyuz
voa.50 usisbel,
special special
voa.51 usisbel,
us-bosnia us-bosni
voa.53 usisbel,
DATE=3/16/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175601 TITLE=BOSNIA FEDERATION / U.S. (S) BYLINE=DAVID GOLLUST DATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENT CONTENT= VOICED AT: // EDITORS: A HOLDING SPOT // INTRO: OBSERVANCES ARE BEING HELD IN WASHINGTON (TODAY/THURSDAY) ON THE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF THE U-S-SPONSORED FEDERATION OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS STEPPING UP DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS FOR PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZSEGOVINA. TEXT: THE OBSERVANCES AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT ARE AIMED AT SHORING UP THE TENUOUS ALLIANCE BETWEEN BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS -- WHICH U-S OFFICIALS SEE AS AN ESSENTIAL COUNTERWEIGHT AGAINST SERB POWER IN THE REGION. PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN AS WELL AS OTHER SENIOR CROATIAN OFFICIALS ARE ATTENDING THE GATHERING, ALONG WITH THE FEDERATION'S PRESIDENT KRESIMIR ZUBAK AND LEADERS OF THE BOSNIAN COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY. A NEW ORGANIZATION LED BY THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPEAN UNION IS BEING FORMED TO RAISE MONEY TO SUPPORT THE FEDERATION, WHICH U-S OFFICIALS FREELY ADMIT HAS NOT TAKEN SHAPE AS RAPIDLY OR FULLY AS HOPED. A SENIOR STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL TOLD REPORTERS THAT WHILE THE CRISIS OVER U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN CROATIA HAS BEEN DEFUSED, THE CLOUDS OF WAR ARE CLEARLY DARKENING OVER BOSNIA, WHERE A SHAKY U-N CEASE-FIRE IS DUE TO EXPIRE IN MAY. THE SENIOR OFFICIAL SAID IF THE MUSLIM / CROAT FEDERATION FAILS TO HOLD TOGETHER, HOPES OF A PEACEFUL SOLUTION IN BOSNIA FALL APART. HE SAID THE ONLY WAY TO DEAL WITH THE SERBS WHO CONTROL 70 PER CENT OF THE COUNTRY IS TO SHOW SOLIDARITY AND OPPOSITION TO THEIR BEHAVIOR. (SIGNED) NEB/DAG/CF 16-Mar-95 9:50 AM EST (1450 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1719 total bytes, 1719 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
voa.54 usisbel,
DATE=3/16/95TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORTNUMBER=2-175631TITLE=U-S/BOSNIA FEDERATION WRAP (S)BYLINE=DAVID GOLLUSTDATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENTCONTENT=VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES THURSDAY LAUNCHED A DIPLOMATIC EFFORT TO SHORE UP THE SHAKY FEDERATION OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS, NOW ONE YEAR OLD. ANNIVERSARY EVENTS ORGANIZED BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION BROUGHT TOGETHER LEADERS FROM BOSNIA, CROATIA AND THE FEDERATION ITSELF, AND CAME AMID GROWING CONCERN ABOUT WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN THE CURRENT TRUCE IN BOSNIA EXPIRES. MORE FROM V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT.TEXT: THE MEETINGS AND CEREMONIES AT THE WHITE HOUSE AND STATE DEPARTMENT WERE AIMED AT GENERATING NEW DIPLOMATIC AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION -- WHICH WAS LAUNCHED IN WASHINGTON ONE YEAR AGO BUT IS STILL LITTLE MORE THAN A SHELL.U-S OFFICIALS SEE A STRONG FEDERATION AS AN ESSENTIAL COUNTERWEIGHT TO THE SERBS POWER IN BOSNIA -- AND A CRITICAL FACTOR IN PREVENTING A RETURN TO FULL-SCALE WARFARE WHEN THE U-N-BROKERED CEASEFIRE THERE EXPIRES MAY FIRST.ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS THAT WITH THECRISIS OVER U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN CROATIA HAVING BEEN DEFUSED -- U-S DIPLOMATS ARE NOW TURNING THEIR FULL ATTENTION TO BOSNIA: ///HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY/// HAVING AVERTED WHAT WE BELIEVE WAS A VIRTUALLY-CERTAIN WAR IN THE KRAJINA IN THE LAST FEW DAYS, WE ARE NOW GOING BACK TO BOSNIA, WHERE THE CLOUDS OF WAR ARE DARKENING. THE FOUR-MONTH PERIOD, THE CEASEFIRE, IS RUNNING OUT. THE INCIDENTS ARE INCREASING. ///END ACT /// THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPEAN UNION HAVE SET UP AN INFORMAL ORGANIZATION TO RAISE MONEY FOR THE FEDERATION, AND ARE SAID TO HAVE ALREADY GATHERED SOME 300-MILLION DOLLARS IN PLEDGES FROM COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD. (SIGNED)NEB/DAG/PT16-Mar-95 6:47 PM EST (2347 UTC)NNNNSource: Voice of America
voa.55 usisbel,
DATE=3/16/95 TYPE=COMPUTER DIGEST 95-56 NUMBER=3-21266 TITLE=IBM, CYBERSPACE FAIR, LIBRARIES, CD PHOTOS, CLIFF STOLL BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST: A NEW KEYBOARD FOR LAPTOPS, A PROPOSAL FOR A WORLD'S FAIR IN CYBERSPACE, LIBRARIES WITHOUT LIBRARIANS, STORING PHOTOGRAPHS ON CD, AND, A WELL-RESPECTED COMPUTER EXPERT HAS SOME SECOND THOUGHTS ON THE USEFULNESS OF THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY. ***** IBM TEXT: SMALL, SO-CALLED SUBNOTEBOOK COMPUTERS, ARE EXTREMELY POPULAR. BUT THERE IS ONE PROBLEM: THEIR SIZE OFTEN NECESSITATES SMALLER, AND HARDER TO USE, KEYBOARDS. JOHN KARDIS, AN IBM MECHANICAL ENGINEER HAS COME UP WITH A SOLUTION. HE DESIGNED AN EXPANDABLE KEYBOARD WHICH OPENS LIKE A BUTTERFLY. KIMBALL BROWN OF THE COMPUTER MARKET RESEARCH FIRM DATAQUEST, TOLD NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE THAT THE DEVELOPMENT IS A "BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY." IBM, WHICH PLANS TO MARKET THE NEW MODEL SOMETIME THIS SPRING "SAYS THE COMPANY HAS LOGGED MORE ADVANCE ORDERS THAN FOR ANY OTHER PERSONAL COMPUTER IN ITS HISTORY." ***** CYBERSPACE FAIR TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES NOTES THAT "WORLD EXPOSITIONS, BEGINNING IN THE 19TH CENTURY, POPULARIZED INNOVATIONS LIKE THE ELECTRIC LIGHT, THE RAILROAD, THE TELEPHONE AND TELEVISION." NOW, SAYS THE NEWSPAPER, THERE IS "AN AMBITIOUS PLAN FOR CREATING A WORLD'S FAIR IN CYBERSPACE TO DEMONSTRATE THE CAPABILITIES OF GLOBAL INFORMATION NETWORKS." ALREADY ENDORSED BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, AND SEVERAL COMPANIES AND PRIVATE GROUPS, THE INTERNET 1996 WORLD EXPOSITION IS BEING ORGANIZED BY THE INTERNET MULTICASTING SERVICE OF WASHINGTON DC. THE CYBERSPACE WORLD'S FAIR "IS EXPECTED TO BE ACCESSIBLE FROM PERSONAL COMPUTERS LINKED TO THE INTERNET, AND ALSO FROM A PROPOSED NETWORK OF PUBLIC" FACILITIES IN CITIES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD." VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE SAYS THAT "A WORLD'S FAIR FOR THE INFORMATION AGE WILL GIVE PEOPLE A LOOK AT THE NOT-TOO-DISTANT FUTURE -- A FUTURE IN WHICH ALL OF US WILL BE CONNECTED BY A GLOBAL NETWORK OF NETWORKS." ***** LIBRARIES TEXT: A NEW HIGH-TECH DEVICE IS ALLOWING LIBRARY USERS TO CHECK OUT BOOKS BY THEMSELVES, WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF A LIBRARIAN. THE 3-M SELF-CHECK SYSTEM HAS USERS "INSERT THEIR LIBRARY CARDS CARRYING A BAR CODE WITH INFORMATION, FOR SCANNING AS THEY WOULD WITH AN AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINE. ONCE APPROVED, THE USER PLACES BOOKS ON A SCANNER THAT DEACTIVATES THE BOOK'S SECURITY STRIP." A RECEIPT IS PRINTED OUT WHICH CONTAINS THE VOLUME'S DUE DATE. GEORGE NEEDHAM, DIRECTOR OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY ASSOCIATION, TOLD THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER THAT SOME PEOPLE DON'T WANT TO LOSE HUMAN INTERACTION. BUT, SAYS MISTER NEEDHAM, SYSTEMS LIKE THE SELFCHECK, ALLOW LIBRARIANS TO WORK CLOSER WITH USERS, "HELPING THEM LEARN THE LIBRARY AND FIND THE BOOKS THEY WANT." ***** CD PHOTOS TEXT: SEVERAL AGENCIES, IN THE UNITED STATES, SPECIALIZE IN PROVIDING PHOTOGRAPHS TO CUSTOMERS. THE LOS ANGELES TIMES REPORTS THAT MOST OF THESE COMPANIES KEEP THEIR PICTURE ARCHIVES IN ROWS OF METAL CABINETS. TECHNOLOGY IS CHANGING THAT. THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT INSTEAD, PHOTOS ARE BEING SCANNED ONTO COMPACT DISCS, "EACH HOLDING ABOUT 5,000 IMAGES -- OR ONE FILE CABINET'S WORTH." THE PICTURES, "REDUCED TO THE ONES AND ZEROS OF COMPUTER CODE, WOULD BE AVAILABLE TO CLIENTS VIA TELEPHONE LINES." CRAIG AURNESS, PRESIDENT OF WESTLIGHT, A SANTA MONICA PHOTO AGENCY, SAYS THAT THE TREND TOWARD USING CD DEVICES WILL REDUCE THE NEED FOR KEEPING NEGATIVES AND USING CHEMICALS TO PRINT PICTURES. MR. AURNESS TOLD THE L-A TIMES THAT THE NEW TECHNOLOGY WOULD RESULT IN THE USE OF MORE PHOTOS THAN EVER. ***** CLIFF STOLL TEXT: CLIFF STOLL IS A CALIFORNIA-BASED HIGH-TECH EXPERT WHO'S BEEN BEEN WORKING WITH COMPUTERS FOR 15-YEARS NOW. HE GAINED MUCH ATTENTION A FEW YEARS BACK BY CATCHING GERMAN SPIES PROWLING THROUGH COMPUTER NETWORKS. NOW, IN A NEW BOOK ENTITLED "SILICON SNAKE OIL," MR. STOLL ARGUES THAT WHILE "THE INTERNET BEGAN AS A TECHNICAL COMMUNITY, WITH CONVIVIAL NEIGHBORS WHO'D HELP EACH OTHER," SOMETHING HAS CHANGED. HE SAYS THAT OVER TIME, THE INTERNET HAS EVOLVED INTO A MASS OF ONLY "POSSIBLY USEFUL INFORMATION." AND, ACCORDING TO MR. STOLL, "JUST BECAUSE WE'VE CREATED THIS UBIQUITOUS GLOBAL NETWORK DOES NOT MEAN THAT WE ARE ANY CLOSER TO SOLVING OUR MOST PRESSING DILEMMAS. IN FACT HE SAYS, THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY MIGHT JUST BE FURTHERING THE DISTANCE BETWEEN US -- A DISTANCE MEASURED NOT IN PIXELS AND BYTES BUT METERED OUT IN MUDDLED SCRIPT AND BEAUTIFULLY IMPERFECT LINES DRAWN BY HUMAN HANDS." ***** 16-Mar-95 4:55 PM EST (2155 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5672 total bytes, 5672 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continueITU Telecom Information Exchange Services (TIES) NEB Newswire for UTC Thursday 37. FINE PARTICLE POLLUTION CAN BE FATAL (S) [2] By SAM IKER/WASHINGTON 38. FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURE By JIM TEEPLE/MIAMI 39. GEOGRAPHERS MEETING (L) [2] By PAUL FRANCUCH/CHICAGO 40. GEOGRAPHERS MEETING (S) By PAUL FRANCUCH/CHICAGO 41. GERMANY ECON (S) By EVANS HAYS/BONN 42. GERMANY/KURDS (L ONLY) By EVANS HAYS/BONN 43. GORE IN ESTONIA 44. HOUSEWIDE MEETING - "MAKING DEMOCRACY WORK" By GARY EDQUIST 45. HOW THE IRISH SAVED CIVILIZATION.. THE By BEARDSLEY/KEEFE/WASHINGTON --> 46. IBM, CYBERSPACE FAIR, LIBRARIES, CD PHOTOS, CLIFF By DAN NOBLE..GTON 47. IMMIGRATION MOOD CHANGE By DON HENRY/WASHINGTON 48. INDIA/CENTRAL ASIA (L-ONLY) By MICHAEL DRUDGE/NEW DELHI 49. INDOCHINA/REFUGEES (L) [2] By DOUGLAS ROBERTS/GENEVA 50. INDOCHINA/REFUGEES (S) By DOUGLAS ROBERTS/GENEVA 51. INDONESIA / TIMOR By JILL GATHMANN/ WASHINGTON 52. INDONESIA / TIMOR [2] By JILL GATHMANN/ WASHINGTON 53. INDONESIA / TIMOR [3] By JILL GATHMANN/ WASHINGTON 54. INTERNATIONAL JAZZ PIANIST, LASZLO GARDONY (L) By AGGIE HOUSER.. YORK Press?Help,qQuit,uupamenu,DDownloadPage:3/6
voa.56 usisbel,
DATE=3/16/95TYPE=NEWS FEATURENUMBER=5-19920TITLE=SCIENCE TODAY: OZONE-TREE GROWTH BYLINE=STEPHEN G. IRMODATELINE=WASHINGTONCONTENT=VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SCIENTISTS SAY INCREASING OZONE POLLUTION IN THE AIR DRAMATICALLY RETARDS THE GROWTH OF TREES AND THAT EVEN SMALL AMOUNTS OF THE GAS CAN IMPAIR TREE DEVELOPMENT. V-O-A'S STEPHEN IRMO REPORTS ON THE RESULTS OF A STUDY PUBLISHED IN TODAY'S (THURSDAY'S 3-16) ISSUE OF THE SCIENCE JOURNAL, "NATURE."TEXT: THE "LOBLOLLY" (PRON: LAHB-'LAHL-EE) PINE TREE IS A VITAL ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC PRESENCE IN THE PINE FORESTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. THIS PINE TREE DOMINATES ABOUT 25-MILLION HECTARES OF WOODLAND AND EVERY YEAR ADDS MORE THAN FOUR AND A HALF BILLION DOLLARS TO THE ECONOMY OF THE REGION.DURING THE MID 1980'S, ECOLOGISTS DETECTED SIGNIFICANT AND UNEXPLAINED DECLINES IN THE GROWTH OF UNMANAGED STANDS OF LOBLOLLY PINE. SUSPECTING A PARTICULARLY REACTIVE COMPONENT OF AIR POLLUTION, INVESTIGATORS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORYIN TENNESSEE MEASURED OZONE LEVELS AGAINST TREE GROWTH OVER A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS. PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGIST SANDY MCLAUGHLIN SAYS HE AND HIS COLLEAGUES FOUND THAT EVEN SLIGHTLY ELEVATED LEVELS OF OZONE COULD SLOW TREE GROWTH BY AS MUCH AS 50-PERCENT: // MCLAUGHLIN ACTUALITY // THE TREES ARE LOSING WATER AT A MORE RAPID RATE WHEN OZONE IS PRESENT. THE MEASUREMENTS THAT WE'VE MADE INDICATE THAT THIS IS AN INTERACTIVE EFFECT THAT MAKES THE TREE APPARENTLY MORE SENSITIVE TO THE DRYING CONDITIONS THAT OCCUR NORMALLY DURING THE GROWING CYCLE, SO OZONE APPEARS TO BE AMPLIFYING THE NORMAL DRYING CYCLES THAT OCCUR DURING THE GROWING SEASON. // END ACTUALITY //INVESTIGATORS FOUND OZONE LEVELS RISE IN HOTTER, DRIER YEARS AND FALL DURING WET YEARS. THE PRESENCE OF THE GAS ADVERSELY AFFECTSTHE NATURAL SHRINKING AND SWELLING OF THE TREE STEM. ALTHOUGH OTHER FACTORS ARE AT WORK, THE OAK RIDGE STUDY ISOLATES OZONE AS THE PRINCIPLE CULPRIT.OZONE IS A STRONG OXIDANT. ACCORDING TO SANDY MCLAUGHLIN, THE GAS DAMAGES PLANT MEMBRANES BY BREAKING APART CERTAIN CHEMICAL BONDS THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THOSE MEMBRANES. THEIR DESTRUCTION MAKES IT HARDER FOR THE TREES TO CONTROL THE VITAL FLOW OF WATER: // MCLAUGHLIN ACTUALITY // THIS COULD MEAN THAT THE STOMATES (OPENINGS IN LEAVES THROUGH WHICH GASES ARE EXCHANGED) REMAIN OPEN LONGER OR THE WATER FLUX RATES THROUGH THE LEAVES ARE MORE RAPID. ALTERNATIVELY IT COULD MEAN THAT THE ROOT SYSTEMS THEMSELVES HAVE LOST SOME CAPACITY TO TAKE UP WATER AND SUPPLY THE CANOPY. THE NET EFFECT IS THAT THE TREES ARE SHOWING EVIDENCE OF A WATER DEFICIT. // END ACTUALITY //// OPT // OZONE IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE PROTECTS THE EARTH FROM THE SUN'S ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. BUT CLOSER TO THE SURFACE, WHERE IT IS GENERATED BY CAR EXHAUSTS, COAL-BURNING ELECTRICITY PLANTS ANDOTHER FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION, THE GAS IS A HIGHLY REACTIVE POLLUTANT.SANDY MCLAUGHLIN SAYS RESEARCHERS NEED TO IMPROVE THEIR UNDERSTANDING NOT ONLY OF HOW INCREASING LOW-ALTITUDE OZONE AFFECTS LIVING ORGANISMS BUT ALSO GAIN A BETTER SENSE OF WHAT IT MAY PORTEND FOR FUTURE EARTH CLIMATE. // OPT MCLAUGHLIN ACTUALITY // THE GLOBAL CHANGE MODELS THAT ARE ATTEMPTING TO UNDERSTAND WHERE GLOBAL WARMING MAY TAKE US HAVE PREDICTED THAT WE MAY WELL SEE INCREASED MOISTURE STRESS IN THE SOIL, REDUCED RAINFALL, INCREASED TEMPERATURES AND THE CURRENT RATES OF INCREASE IN NITROGEN OXIDES WHICH ARE CONTRIBUTORS OF OZONE AND -- MAY WELL MEAN THAT WE HAVE EVEN HIGHER OZONE LEVELS IN THE FUTURE. // END ACTUALITY, END OPT //IN FUTURE STUDIES, SCIENTISTS PLAN TO BROADEN THE SCOPE OF THEIR RESEARCH TO MEASURE HOW OZONE AFFECTS OTHER TREE SPECIES SUCH AS HARDWOODS. THEY'LL ALSO USE SOPHISTICATED AND EXTREMELY SENSITIVE INSTRUMENTS TO MEASURE THE DAMAGE DONE TO TREE LEAVES BY OZONE HIGH IN THE FOREST CANOPY. (SIGNED)NEB/SI/CF16-Mar-95 7:50 AM EST (1250 UTC)NNNNSource: Voice of America
voa.57 usisbel,
DATE=3/16/95TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORTNUMBER=2-175604TITLE=NATO BOSNIA (L-ONLY)BYLINE=JOHN FRASERDATELINE=BRUSSELSCONTENT=VOICED AT: INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS HAVE GIVEN DETAILS OF PLANS FOR THE WESTERN ALLIANCE'S LARGEST EVER PEACE-TIME OPERATION -- THE POSSIBLE EVACUATION OF 24-THOUSAND UNITED NATIONS PERSONNEL FROM BOSNIA. THE PLANS ARE BEING DRAWN UP IN THE EVENT NATO IS ASKED TO COORDINATE THE OPERATION. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.TEXT: FRENCH DIPLOMATS SAY THAT NATO WOULD FIELD (DEPLOY) UP TO 70-THOUSAND PERSONNEL FOR THE OPERATION WHICH WOULD GO AHEAD IF AND WHEN THE UNITED NATIONS DECIDES ON A WITHDRAWAL FROM BOSNIA.THE PLAN HAS BEEN GIVEN THE CODE NAME "DETERMINED EFFORT" AND WOULD TAKE SEVERAL MONTHS TO COMPLETE.IN ITS MOST AMBITIOUS FORM, THE PLAN WOULD NOT ONLY INVOLVE THEREMOVAL OF UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPERS, BUT WOULD ALSO COVER THEVAST STOCKS OF EQUIPMENT THAT THE UNITED NATIONS HAS IN BOSNIA.THE PLAN HAS BEEN REVIEWED BY THE 16 ALLIANCE AMBASSADORS MEETINGIN BRUSSELS (ON WEDNESDAY), BUT HAS STILL TO BE FORMALLY APPROVEDBECAUSE SOME DETAILS NEED TO BE REFINED.THE OPERATION WOULD BE LED BY A UNITED STATES ADMIRAL, LEIGHTON SMITH, WHO IS HEAD OF NATO'S SOUTHERN COMMAND IN NAPLES. HIS DEPUTY WOULD BE A FRENCHMAN, LIEUTENANT GENERAL BERNARD JANVIER, WHO IS HEAD OF THE UNITED NATIONS FORCES IN BOSNIA. A BRITISH LIEUTENANT GENERAL, MICHAEL WALKER, WOULD LEAD THE EVACUATION FORCE ON THE GROUND.NATO OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS NO IMMEDIATE PROSPECT OF A WITHDRAWAL FROM BOSNIA BUT IT IS PRUDENT TO HAVE A FULL AND COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR THE OPERATION IF IT BECOMES NECESSARY.THE OPERATION WOULD FACE SEVERAL HAZARDS. THERE COULD BE INHOSPITABLE WEATHER, SOME FACTIONS IN BOSNIA MIGHT TRY TO ATTACKTHE UNITED NATIONS FORCES OR TO SEIZE THEIR EQUIPMENT AND THERE COULD BE A PROBLEM OF CIVILIANS WHO MIGHT PANIC AT THE PROSPECT OF HAVING THE PROTECTION OF THE UNITED NATIONS REMOVED.IN CASE OF A CRISIS, UNITED STATES TROOPS COULD STAND IN RESERVE TO BE USED IF THE SITUATION DETERIORATES. GERMANY WOULD BE INVOLVED IN THE OPERATION, BUT WOULD PROBABLY SEND ITS TROOPS TO NEIGHBORING CROATIA RATHER THAN TO BOSNIA ITSELF.NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE DETAILED PULL-OUT PLAN INCLUDES IDEAS ON WHAT TO DO TO DEAL WITH ANGRY CROWDS, HOW TO RESCUE UNITED NATIONS PERSONNEL WHO MAY BE TAKEN HOSTAGE AND HOW TO PROTECT UNITED NATIONS EQUIPMENT. (SIGNED)NEB/JF/SKH/CF16-Mar-95 10:55 AM EST (1555 UTC)NNNNSource: Voice of America
voa.58 usisbel,
DATE=3/16/95TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORTNUMBER=2-175612TITLE=BOSNIA FEDERATION/U-S (S-UPDATE)BYLINE=DAVID GOLLUSTDATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENTCONTENT=VOICED AT: INTRO: KEY OFFICIALS FROM BOSNIA AND CROATIA ARE IN WASHINGTON FOR OBSERVANCES OF THE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF THE U-S-SPONSORED FEDERATION OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS. AS V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS, THE STATE DEPARTMENT AND WHITE HOUSE MEETINGS ARE PART OF A STEPPED-UP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION EFFORT FOR PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.TEXT: THE HIGH-PROFILE EVENTS ARE AIMED AT SHORING UP THE TENUOUS ALLIANCE BETWEEN BETWEEN BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS -- WHICH U-S OFFICIALS SEE AS ESSENTIAL TO COUNTER SERB POWER IN THEREGION. BACKED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION, THE ADMINISTRATION IS SETTING UP A NEW ORGANIZATION TO RAISE MONEY FOR THE FEDERATION, WHICH OFFICIALS HERE CONCEDE HAS DEVELOPED MUCH MORE SLOWLY THAT HOPED FOR A YEAR AGO. AT A RECEPTION, SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER SAID THE FEDERATION AGREEMENT COULD BE THE FRAMEWORK FOR AN OVERALL SETTLEMENT IN BOSNIA. ITS SUCCESS, HE SAID, WOULD SHATTER THE NOTION THAT BOSNIA'S ETHNIC COMMUNITIES CANNOT WORK TOGETHER IN AUNIFIED ENTITY: ///CHRISTOPHER ACTUALITY/// AS THE FEDERATION DEVELOPS AND SUCCEEDS, IT IS A SHARP REBUKE TO ALL OF THOSE WHO WOULD SAY THAT WE MUST CARVE UP POST-WAR EUROPE ALONG ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS LINES. ///END ACT///AMONG THOSE ATTENDING THE OBSERVANCES ARE CROATIA'S PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN, THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION'S PRESIDENT KRESIMIR ZUBAK AND LEADERS OF BOSNIA'S COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY.HAVING HELPED DEFUSE THE CRISIS OVER CROATIA'S MOVE TO EXPEL U-N PEACEKEEPERS, THE ADMINISTRATION'S PRIORITY NOW IS TO TRY TO EXTEND BOSNIA'S SHAKY CEASE-FIRE, DUE TO EXPIRE IN MAY. (SIGNED)NEB/DAG/MMK16-Mar-95 1:56 PM EST (1856 UTC)NNNNSource: Voice of America
voa.59 usisbel,
DATE=03/16/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE - TTA NUMBER=3-21268 TITLE=BATTLING BREAST CANCER (L) BYLINE=JESSICA BERMAN TELEPHONE=619-0925 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=BRIAN CISLAKCONTENT= [ACTUALITIES AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES]INTRO: BREAST CANCER IS A LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH AMONG WOMEN AROUND THE WORLD. BUT IMPROVED METHODS OF DETECTION MEAN THAT MANY WOMEN ARE WINNING THE BATTLE AGAINST THIS KILLER. VOA SCIENCE AND MEDICINE CORRESPONDENT JESSICA BERMAN REPORTS.TEXT: THE STATISTICS ARE SOBERING: BREAST CANCER WILL STRIKE ONE WOMAN IN NINE IN THE COURSE OF HER LIFE. THE DISEASE IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF CANCER IN WOMEN, AND THE SECOND LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH. BUT BREAST CANCER NEED NOT BE A DEATH SENTENCE. EXPERTS SAY THAT FINDING THE CANCER AT A VERY EARLY STAGE IS THE KEY TO BEATING THE DISEASE. SUSAN FLAMM HOENIG ('HO-NIG) IS A BREAST CANCER SPECIALIST AT THE LOMBARDI CANCER CENTER AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON, D-C. SHE SAYS THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST BREAST CANCER IS A MONTHLY, BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION.TAPE: CUT ONE -- HOENIG :17 "BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION HAS BEEN CRITICIZED (BY PEOPLE WHO SAY) THAT WOMEN ARE NOT ABLE TO DO IT PROPERLY, AND THAT IT DOESN'T REALLY HELP. I REALLY DISAGREE WITH THAT. I THINK THAT'S SOMETHING THAT ALL WOMEN CAN LEARN TO DO AND I THINK THAT WOMEN CAN GET TO KNOW THEIR OWN BREASTS AND BE ABLE TO DETECT THINGS."TEXT: DOCTOR HOENIG ADDS THAT MANY WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER HAVE FOUND THEIR OWN CANCEROUS LUMPS THROUGH SELF-EXAMINATION. /// OPT /// SHE BELIEVES THAT EVERY WOMAN SHOULD BE TAUGHT THE PROPER WAY TO CHECK FOR LUMPS WHILE SHE'S A TEENAGER. /// END OPT /// IN ADDITION, SUSAN HOENIG SAYS THAT A WOMAN SHOULD GET A YEARLY BREAST EXAMINATION BY A DOCTOR. AND PART OF THAT EXAMINATION SHOULD INCLUDE PERIODIC MAMMOGRAPHY, AN X-RAY PROCEDURE THAT CAN REVEAL LUMPS AND POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS AREAS OF THICKENING WITHIN THE BREAST TISSUE. THE REASON BOTH ROUTINE MAMMOGRAMS AND SELF-EXAMINATIONS ARE ESSENTIAL -- ACCORDING TO GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY'S SUSAN FLAMM HOENIG -- IS THAT NEITHER IS A PERFECT DETECTION TOOL. TAPE: CUT TWO -- HOENIG :23 "I THINK WHAT MANY WOMEN DON'T REALIZE IS THAT AT LEAST TEN- TO FIFTEEN-PERCENT OF THE TIME, THE MAMMOGRAM WILL NOT SHOW A CANCER THAT CAN BE FELT ON PHYSICAL EXAM. SO WHILE IT'S TRUE THAT A MAMMOGRAM MOST OF THE TIME IS FINDING SOMETHING MUCH EARLIER THAN YOU CAN FEEL, THEY ARE COMPLIMENTARY. WOMEN SHOULD NOT SIMPLY BE REASSURED BY HAVING A NEGATIVE MAMMOGRAM. THEY REALLY WANT TO DO BOTH PROCEDURES."TEXT: DOCTOR HOENIG ALSO ADVISES WOMEN TO FOLLOW UP ON ANY ABNORMALITY THEY MAY FIND THROUGH A BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF RISK FACTORS FOR BREAST CANCER. WOMEN WHO BEGIN MENSTRUATING EARLY -- BEFORE AGE 12 -- ARE AT INCREASED RISK OF BREAST CANCER, AS ARE WOMEN WHO ARE WELL INTO THEIR FIFTIES WHEN WHEN THEY STOP MENSTRUATING. AND THE OLDER A WOMAN IS WHEN SHE GIVES BIRTH FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE HIGHER HER RISK OF DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER LATER IN LIFE. RESEARCHERS THINK THAT CANCER IN THESE INSTANCES IS TIED TO A LONGER LIFETIME EXPOSURE TO THE FEMALE HORMONE, ESTROGEN. WHILE ALL NORMAL WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE PRODUCE ESTROGEN, TOO MUCH OF IT -- UNOPPOSED BY ANOTHER FEMALE HORMONE CALLED PROGESTERONE -- IS THOUGHT TO INVITE BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER. BREAST CANCER, AS WELL AS CANCER OF THE OVARIES, CAN ALSO BE INHERITED. LAST YEAR, AMERICAN RESEARCHERS POSITIVELY IDENTIFIED A FLAWED GENE -- CALLED BRCA-1 ('BRA-CA-ONE) -- THAT'S BEEN STRONGLY IMPLICATED IN FAMILIAL BREAST CANCER. MARK SKOLNIK IS VICE PRESIDENT OF MYRIAD ('MEER-EE-ID) GENETICS IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH -- WHOSE RESEARCHERS PINPOINTED BRCA-1. THE SCIENTISTS ARE NOW WORKING ON A TEST TO SCREEN WOMEN FOR BREAST CANCER, LONG BEFORE THEY DEVELOP ANY SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS.TAPE: CUT THREE -- SKOLNIK :43 "ABOUT FIVE- TO TEN-PERCENT OF WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER HAVE A GENETIC PREDISPOSITION. SO, OF THOSE WOMEN, THIS TEST WOULD BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THEM. SO IT'S MOST IMPORTANT IF YOU HAVE A RELATIVE WHO'S HAD BREAST CANCER OR OVARIAN CANCER. AND IF YOU'RE ONE OF THOSE WOMEN WITH BREAST OR OVARIAN CANCER AND YOU WANT TO KNOW IF YOU HAD A GENETIC PREDISPOSITION, OR IF YOU'RE A RELATIVE OF A WOMAN WITH SUCH DISEASE, THEN YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO GIVE A BLOOD SAMPLE. WE WOULD EXTRACT THE D-N-A (THE GENETIC MATERIAL WITHIN CELLS THAT PROGRAMS ALL BODILY FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES) AND THEN PERFORM A TEST TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE GENE THAT WE IDENTIFIED LAST FALL IS NORMAL OR ABNORMAL IN YOU."TEXT: ACCORDING TO DOCTOR SKOLNIK, WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL GENES CAN HAVE UP TO AN EIGHTY-FIVE PERCENT LIFETIME RISK OF DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER AND A FIFTY-PERCENT RISK OF OVARIAN CANCER. SO, HOW MIGHT A GENETICS TEST BE USED IN THE PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER? AGAIN, GENETICS RESEARCHER MARK SKOLNIK.TAPE: CUT FOUR -- SKOLNIK :21 "IF YOU KNEW YOU WERE AT VERY HIGH RISK FOR BREAST CANCER, YOU COULD HAVE MORE FREQUENT MAMMOGRAPHY. YOU'D KNOW TO BE VERY DILIGENT WITH BREAST SELF-EXAMS, AND ESSENTIALLY DO WHATEVER YOU COULD TO CATCH IT EARLY. THERE ARE NEW FORMS OF IMAGING THAT ARE COMING ALONG THAT ARE VERY EXPENSIVE, BUT MIGHT BE APPROPRIATE FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE AT VERY HIGH RISK."TEXT: DOCTOR SKOLNIK SAYS RESEARCHERS HOPE TO HAVE A GENETICALLY-BASED, BREAST CANCER SCREENING TEST AVAILABLE FOR USE BY DOCTORS SOMETIME NEXT YEAR. BUT, AGAIN, SUCH A TEST WOULD PROBABLY NOT BE USEFUL FOR THE ESTIMATED SEVENTY-FIVE- TO EIGHTY-PERCENT OF WOMEN WHOSE BREAST CANCERS ARE NOT INHERITED. IN TERMS OF LOWERING THE RISK FOR BREAST CANCER, RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT A HIGH-FIBER, LOW-FAT DIET -- AND REGULAR EXERCISE -- MAY HELP WARD-OFF THE DISEASE. BREAST CANCER IS RELATIVELY RARE IN COUNTRIES WHERE PEOPLE EAT A LOT OF WHOLE GRAINS AND A LIMITED AMOUNT OF PROCESSED, OR "JUNK," FOOD. BUT STUDIES SHOW THAT ONCE WOMEN FROM COUNTRIES OF LOW PREVALENCE MOVE TO DEVELOPED NATIONS LIKE THE UNITED STATES OR THE NETHERLANDS -- AND THEY START EATING HIGH-FAT DIETS -- THEIR RISK FOR BREAST CANCER CLIMBS. (SIGNED)NEB/JB/BC 16-Mar-95 3:56 PM EST (2056 UTC)NNNNSource: Voice of America
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DATE=3/16/95TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORTNUMBER=2-175633TITLE=U-S / BOSNIA WRAP (S&L)BYLINE=DEBORAH TATEDATELINE=WHITE HOUSECONTENT=VOICED AT: /// EDITORS : PLEASE USE OPT PARTS FOR LONG VERSION ///INTRO: SENIOR OFFICIALS FROM BOSNIA AND CROATIA HAVE MET WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON AND OTHER ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS AND CALLED ON THE UNITED STATES TO PUT MORE PRESSURE ON SERBIA TO HELP END THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE TALKS (THURSDAY) CAME ONTHE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF THE U-S - SPONSORED FEDERATION OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS. V-O-A'S WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON TOLD THE BOSNIAN AND CROAT OFFICIALS THAT THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FEDERATION SHOWS THAT A MULTI-ETHNIC DEMOCRACY IS STILL POSSIBLE IN WAR-RAVAGED BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.AMONG THOSE ATTENDING THE WHITE HOUSE MEETING WERE CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN, FEDERATION PRESIDENT KRESIMIR ZUBAK ANDEJUP GANIC OF BOSNIA'S COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY. THEY WERE HOLDING TALKS WITH U-N AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT AND NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR ANTHONY LAKE WHEN PRESIDENT CLINTON DROPPED BY BRIEFLY. // OPT // THE HIGH-PROFILE MEETING WAS AIMED AT GIVING THE TENUOUS FEDERATION A POLITICAL BOOST. THE ALLIANCE HAS BECOME BOGGED DOWN BY VARIOUS POLITICAL AND LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS, AND U-SOFFICIALS FEAR THAT IF IT WERE TO BREAK APART, THERE WOULD BE LITTLE CHANCE OF COAXING THE BOSNIAN SERBS INTO A PEACE ACCORD. // END OPT // MR. GANIC CALLED HIS TALKS WITH THE PRESIDENT 'ENCOURAGING' AND 'CONSTRUCTIVE', AND WAS HAPPY WITH MR. CLINTON'S RE-AFFIRMATION OF SUPPORT FOR BOSNIA. // GANIC ACTUALITY-- OPT--// WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR US IS THE STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT THAT HE SUPPORTS THE INTEGRITY AND SOVEREIGNTY OF BOSNIA. THAT IS THE POSITION OF THE UNITED STATES, AND HE SUPPORTS THE FEDERATION AS WELL. // END ACT --OPT-- //BUT MR. GANIC SAID HE WOULD LIKE TO SEE THE UNITED STATES APPLY GREATER PRESSURE IN THE FORM OF STEPPED UP SANCTIONS ON SERBIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO PERSUADE THEM TO JOIN AN INTERNATIONALLYSPONSORED PEACE PLAN FOR BOSNIA. // GANIC ACTUALITY // WE HOPE DIPLOMACY WILL BE EXERCISED AND SUPPLEMENTED WITH OTHER TOOLS TO CONVINCE THE BELGRADE REGIME AND THE KARADJIC SERBS TO ACCEPT THE PEACE PLAN. // END ACT //// OPT // MR. CLINTON ALSO MET PRIVATELY WITH CROATIAN PRESIDENT TUDJMAN IN THE OVAL OFFICE. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAYS IN A WRITTEN STATEMENT MR. CLINTON EXPRESSED HIS APPRECIATION AND ADMIRATION TO MR. TUDJMAN FOR HIS RECENT AGREEMENT TO WORK ON A MANDATE FOR A NEW U-N FORCE IN CROATIA. //END OPT //EARLIER, THE STATE DEPARTMENT HELD A CEREMONY MARKING THE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT ALLIANCE. (SIGNED)NEB/DT/CB/PT16-Mar-95 8:35 PM EST (0135 UTC)NNNNSource: Voice of America
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DATE=3/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175688 TITLE=SHUTTLE O'NITER (S ONLY) BYLINE=VICTOR BEATTIE DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE U-S SPACE AGENCY WILL ATTEMPT TO LAND THE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOR TODAY (SATURDAY) AT EITHER THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER IN FLORIDA OR EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE IN CALIFORNIA. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS THE LANDING WILL BRING A SCIENTIFICALLY-EXCITING AND RECORD-BREAKING 17-DAY MISSION TO AN END: TEXT: NASA POSTPONED FRIDAY'S SCHEDULED LANDING AT THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER DUE TO BAD WEATHER. FORECASTERS EXPECT LITTLE IMPROVEMENT TODAY. NASA WOULD PREFER TO LAND ENDEAVOR IN FLORIDA AND AVOID THE ONE-MILLION DOLLAR FLIGHT ON TOP OF A SPECIALLY-DESIGNED BOEING 7-4-7 BACK TO FLORIDA. FRIDAY, MISSION CONTROL ORDERED SHUTTLE COMMANDER STEPHEN OSWALD TO KEEP THE ENDEAVOR IN ORBIT FOR ONE MORE DAY. BUT OFFICIALS SAY THE CREW IS READY FOR RE-ENTRY: /// MISSION CONTROL ACTUALITY /// ABOARD THE SPACECRAFT ALL THE EXPERIMENTS AND INVESTIGATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED DURING THE PAST 16-DAYS HAVE BEEN PACKED AWAY AND WILL REMAIN THAT WAY AFTER THE WAVE-OFF OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR LANDING (FRIDAY). /// END ACTUALITY /// THE CREW USED MULTI-MILLION-DOLLAR ULTRA-VIOLET TELESCOPES TO TAKE PICTURES OF GALAXIES AND OTHER CELESTIAL OBJECTS, INCLUDING THE MOON. SCIENTISTS PROVIDED A LIST OF 600 TARGETS AND THE CREW WAS ABLE TO ACHIEVE ABOUT HALF OF THEM, EXCEEDING EXPECTATIONS. THURSDAY, ENDEAVOR BECAME THE LONGEST-IN-ORBIT MISSION FOR THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM, SURPASSING THE 15-DAY MISSION OF COLUMBIA LAST YEAR. (SIGNED). NEB/RAE 18-Mar-95 1:13 AM EST (0613 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/17/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-19946 TITLE=SCIENCE TODAY: ULCER VACCINE BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: ITALIAN RESEARCHERS HAVE DEVELOPED AN EXPERIMENTAL ORAL VACCINE EFFECTIVE AGAINST ULCERS AND STOMACH CANCER IN MICE, AND EXPECT TO BEGIN TESTING IT IN PEOPLE NEXT YEAR. V-O-A'S SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY REPORTS THAT IF IT WORKS, IT WILL COMBAT A MICROBE FOUND IN HALF THE WORLD POPULATION. TEXT: THE BACTERIUM WHICH CAUSES NEARLY ALL STOMACH ULCERS WAS DISCOVERED IN 1983 BY A U-S DOCTOR. UNTIL THEN, STRESS OR EXCESS STOMACH ACID WAS CONSIDERED THE CAUSE OF THE DISORDER. THE ORGANISM IS ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSTANTIAL FRACTION OF STOMACH CANCERS, THE SECOND MOST FREQUENT CANCER IN THE WORLD. THE INFECTION SPREADS THROUGH CONTACT WITH SALIVA OR FECAL MATTER, SO CROWDED, UNSANITARY CONDITIONS MAKE IT COMMON THROUGHOUT MUCH OF THE WORLD. EIGHTY PER CENT OF THE PEOPLE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE INFECTED BY AGE 20. IN INDUSTRIAL NATIONS, WHERE HYGIENE AND SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS ARE BETTER, 50 PER CENT OF PEOPLE ARE INFECTED BY AGE SIXTY. IN THE RICHER COUNTRIES, VAST SUMS OF MONEY ARE SPENT ON ANTIBIOTICS AND OTHER TREATMENTS TO FIGHT THIS BACTERIUM, WHICH BURROWS INTO THE STOMACH LINING AND CAUSES INFLAMMATION. BUT LIKE MANY ORGANISMS, THIS ONE CAN BECOME DRUG RESISTANT. MICROBIOLOGIST RINO RAPPUOLI ['REE-NO RUH-'PWO-LEE] AT THE IMMUNOBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN SIENA, ITALY, SAYS A CHEAPER ALTERNATIVE IS NECESSARY: // RAPPUOLI ACTUALITY // IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, WE HAVE THERAPIES WHICH ARE VERY EXPENSIVE BUT WE HAVE THEM. SO IF WE CAN AFFORD THEM, WE CAN TREAT THE DISEASE. TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA EVERY YEAR, WE SPEND IN EUROPE AND THE U-S TOGETHER FIVE BILLION U-S DOLLARS TO TREAT THESE DISEASES. OBVIOUSLY, THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES WILL NEVER BE ABLE TO AFFORD THAT, SO THERE IS NO TREATMENT. THE ONLY WAY THESE DISEASES CAN BE APPROACHED THERE IS BY VACCINATION. // END ACTUALITY // NOW, MR. RAPPUOLI AND HIS COLLEAGUES HAVE MADE PREVENTION BY VACCINATION A REALISTIC HOPE. THEY REPORT IN THE U-S JOURNAL "SCIENCE" [MARCH 17TH ISSUE] THAT THEY HAVE SUCCESSFULLY IMMUNIZED LABORATORY MICE AGAINST ULCER INFECTION. THEY DEVELOPED A VACCINE USING PURIFIED COMPONENTS OF THE BACTERIUM. THE VACCINE DOES NOT CAUSE INFECTION, BUT INCLUDES ONLY THE MOLECULES NECESSARY TO STIMULATE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM INTO REACTING SO IT CAN LEARN TO RECOGNIZE A REAL INFECTION WHEN IT COMES. IN 13 EXPERIMENTS INVOLVING 300 MICE, ABOUT 80 PER CENT OF THOSE WHICH HAD BEEN INOCULATED AVOIDED STOMACH ULCERS WHEN INFECTED WITH THE MICROBE. BUT ALL UNTREATED ANIMALS GOT THEM. // RAPPUOLI ACTUALITY // WE SHOWED THAT THE VACCINE IS FEASIBLE. SO FROM THE RESULT THAT WE GET IN THE ANIMAL MODEL, WE CAN CONCLUDE THAT IF THIS OBSERVATION MADE IN THE ANIMAL MODEL WOULD HOLD TRUE IN HUMANS, MAYBE IN THE LONG TERM WE WILL BE ABLE TO PREVENT DISEASES LIKE GASTRIC ULCER AND GASTRIC CANCER JUST BY VACCINATION. // END ACTUALITY // // OPT // THE WORK IS CALLED A BREAKTHROUGH BY A U-S SCIENTIST WHO STUDIES THIS BACTERIUM. IN ADDITION TO LEADING TO A POSSIBLE VACCINE, MICROBIOLOGIST LUCY TOMPKINS OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN CALIFORNIA SAYS IT WILL HELP RESEARCHERS BETTER UNDERSTAND HOW THE ORGANISM INTERACTS WITH THE STOMACH BY PROVIDING THEM WITH A SUITABLE ANIMAL -- THE MOUSE -- IN WHICH TO STUDY IT. // OPT // UNTIL NOW, SHE SAYS, THE LACK OF A USEFUL ANIMAL MODEL HAS HINDERED RESEARCH. THE PROBLEM HAS BEEN THAT THE VERSION OF THE BACTERIUM MANY ANIMALS GET DOES NOT HAVE THE SAME EFFECT IN THEIR GASTRIC TRACT AS THE HUMAN VERSION HAS IN PEOPLE. FURTHERMORE, MS. TOMPKINS SAYS STRAINS OF THE HUMAN VERSION GROWN IN LABORATORIES HAVE NOT TAKEN IN ANIMALS. // OPT TOMPKINS ACTUALITY // THAT SUGGESTS THERE ARE VERY IMPORTANT GENES AND FACTORS THAT ARE PRODUCED BY THE ORGANISM THAT ARE LOST WHEN THE ORGANISM IS GROWN IN THE LABORATORY --FACTORS THAT THE ORGANISM NEEDS IN ITS VERY FIRST STEP IN CAUSING THE PERSISTENT INFECTION. // END ACTUALITY // // OPT // BUT MS. TOMPKINS NOTES THAT THE ITALIAN GROUP OVERCAME THIS PROBLEM BY TRANSFERRING BACTERIA FROM FRESH HUMAN BIOPSIES INTO LABORATORY MICE. // END OPT // MR. RAPPUOLI SAYS HE EXPECTS TO TEST THE ULCER VACCINE IN HUMANS WITHIN ONE YEAR. THESE WILL BE SMALL SCALE TESTS TO DETERMINE THE VACCINE'S SAFETY. LATER, LARGER TESTS OF THE VACCINE'S EFFECTIVENESS IN PREFVENTING INFECTION WOULD PROBABLY BE CONDUCTED SOMEWHERE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD, WHERE THE INFECTIONS ARE MOST COMMON. (SIGNED) NEB/DEM/PT 17-Mar-95 9:28 PM EST (0228 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175704 TITLE=SHUTTLE LANDING (S - ONLY) BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE U-S SPACE SHUTTLE "ENDEAVOUR" HAS RETURNED TO EARTH FOLLOWING AN ASTRONOMY MISSION THAT SET A SHUTTLE RECORD. V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY REPORTS. TEXT: BAD WEATHER AT THE PRIMARY LANDING SITE IN FLORIDA FORCED "ENDEAVOUR" AND ITS SEVEN ASTRONAUTS TO REMAIN IN ORBIT ONE DAY LONGER THAN PLANNED. IT FINALLY TOUCHED DOWN AT EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE IN CALIFORNIA'S MOJAVE DESERT SATURDAY AFTER 16-AND-A-HALF-DAYS IN ORBIT -- THE LONGEST SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION. THROUGHOUT THE MISSION, THREE TELESCOPES MOUNTED IN THE CARGO BAY COLLECTED DATA FROM HUNDREDS OF DISTANT STARS, GALAXIES, AND QUASARS, AND FROM THE GAS AND DUST BETWEEN STARS. THE INSTRUMENTS VIEWED THE HEAVENS IN ULTRAVIOLET WAVELENGTHS BECAUSE SUCH EMISSIONS CAN SHOW CELESTIAL ACTIVITY INVISIBLE TO THE EYE AND OPTICAL TELESCOPES. THE OBSERVATIONS TOOK PLACE IN ORBIT BECAUSE ULTRAVIOLET EMISSIONS ARE BLOCKED BY EARTH'S OBSCURING ATMOSPHERE. THE NEXT SPACE SHUTTLE TO BE LAUNCHED WILL BE THE "ATLANTIS" IN LATE MAY OR EARLY JUNE ON A MISSION TO DOCK WITH THE RUSSIAN SPACE STATION "MIR." IT WILL BE THE FIRST U-S/RUSSIAN SPACE LINK-UP IN 20 YEARS. "ATLANTIS" WILL BRING TWO RUSSIAN COSMONAUTS TO "MIR" AND RETRIEVE THREE CREW MEMBERS FLOWN UP THERE THIS PAST WEEK ON A "SOYUZ" ROCKET. THEY INCLUDE U-S ASTRONAUT NORM THAGARD -- THE FIRST AMERICAN TO FLY ON A RUSSIAN SPACECRAFT. (SIGNED) NEB/DEM/JWH 18-Mar-95 4:47 PM EST (2147 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/19/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175714 TITLE=SARAJEVO/RUSSIAN (S ONLY) BYLINE=DANIEL YOVICH DATELINE=SARAJEVO CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIERS HAVE ARRESTED A U-N MILITARY OBSERVER SOUTH OF SARAJEVO. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE ARREST IS PART OF AN INCREASING PATTERN OF HARASSMENT AGAINST U-N PERSONNEL. DANIEL YOVICH REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO. TEXT: UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE OUTRAGED OVER THE ARREST OF A U-N MILITARY OBSERVER. MAJOR ALEXEI NIKOLENKOF, AGE 32, IS BEING HELD BY BOSIAN SERB FORCES AT A MILITARY PRISON SOUTH OF SARAJEVO. MAJOR NIKOLENKOF IS ONE OF NINE RUSSIAN MEMBERS OF THE OVER SIX- HUNDRED-STRONG U-N MILITARY OBSERVER UNIT ASSIGNED TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. LIKE THE OTHER MILITARY OBSERVERS, MAJOR NIKOLENKOF ENJOYS DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY AS A PART OF HIS DUTIES. IT IS THIS FACT, SAYS U-N PROTECTION FORCE SPOKESMAN ALEXANDER IVANKO, THAT HAS ANGERED U-N OFFICIALS. UNLIKE THE SOLDIERS OF THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE, MILITARY OBSERVERS ARE UNARMED. A STRONGLY WORDED LETTER OF PROTEST HAS BEEN SENT TO BOSNIAN SERB ARMY HEADQUARTERS. MR. IVANKO SAYS THE BOSNIAN-SERBS HAVE FAILED TO REPLY AND A U-N NEGOTIATING TEAM HAS BEEN SENT TO THE SERB JAIL TO TRY AND WIN MAJOR NIKOLENKOF'S RELEASE. ALSO IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, AT LEAST TWO MEN ARE DEAD AND THREE CIVILIANS WOUNDED IN SEPARATE SNIPER INCIDENTS THIS WEEKEND. MR. IVANKO SAYS BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND BOSNIAN SERB FORCES ALSO EXCHANGED SPORADIC MORTAR FIRE ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE CITY. (SIGNED) NEB/DY/LTJ-T/BG 19-Mar-95 10:49 AM EST (1549 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/19/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175717 TITLE=SARAJVO FIGHTING (S ONLY) BYLINE=DANIEL YOVICH DATELINE=SARAJEVO CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-N TROOPS OPENED FIRE ON BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIERS NEAR THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT AFTER AN ATTACK ON A U-N CARGO PLANE. U-N OFFICIALS SAY IT WAS AN APPROPRIATE MILITARY RESPONSE TO CONTINUE ATTACKS ON AIRCRAFT AT THE U-N CONTROLLED AIRFIELD. DANIEL YOVICH REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO. TEXT: UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS HAVE RETALIATED WITH AUTOMATIC CANNONFIRE, TARGETING A BOSNIAN SERB MOTOR POSITION BELIEVED TO HAVE FIRED ON A U-N CARGO PLANE. U-N PROTECTION FORCE SPOKESMAN, LIEUTENANT COLONEL GARY COWARD, SAYS FRENCH SOLDIERS FIRED 10 20-MILLIMETER ROUNDS FROM AN ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER AFTER THE CREW SAW BOSNIAN SERBS SOLDIERS FIRE ONE MORTAR ROUND THAT LANDED ABOUT 50 METERS FROM THE U-N PLANE. NO U-N PERSONNEL WERE INJURED IN THE INCIDENT. COLONEL COWARD SAYS NO DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF THE BOSNIA SERB POSITION IS AVAILABLE. THE MORTAR ATTACK IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF CEASE-FIRE VIOLATIONS THAT HAS U-N OFFICIALS WORRIED. NATO WAR PLANES HAVE BEEN PATROLLING THE SKIES OVER SARAJEVO IN RESPONSE TO A RAPIDLY DETERIORATING SITUATION. COLONEL COWARD SAYS THE U-N MILITARY RETALIATION IS MEANT TO SEND A MESSAGE TO THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY COMMANDERS. FURTHER FORCE IS NOT BEING RULED OUT, HE SAYS, IF AGGRESSIVE ACTS CONTINUE. (SIGNED) NEB/DY/CB-T/BG 19-Mar-95 1:45 PM EST (1845 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
voa.66 usisbel,
DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175775 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L-UPDATE) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS NOTE: WRITETHRU /// INTRO: MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT FORCES HAVE LAUNCHED MAJOR NEW ATTACKS ON SERB POSITIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. IN RETALIATION, THE SERBS HAVE SHELLED AN IMPORTANT GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN, KILLING OR WOUNDING MANY BOSNIAN ARMY SOLDIERS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE BOSNIAN ARMY BEGAN WHAT APPEARS TO BE A COORDINATED OFFENSIVE AGAINST SERB POSITIONS NEAR THE NORTHEASTERN TOWN OF TUZLA AND NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TRAVNIK IN NORTH CENTRAL BOSNIA. AS MANY AS TWO THOUSAND TROOPS ARE BELIEVED INVOLVED. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY MAY TRY TO CAPTURE STRATEGIC MOUNT MAJEVICA, AROUND TUZLA, AND SERB-HELD MOUNT VLASIC, AROUND TRAVNIK. /// OPT /// HUNDREDS OF SHELLS WERE FIRED IN THE FIGHTING ON THE NORTHEASTERN FRONT. THE YUGOSLAV NEWS AGENCY, TANJUG, REPORTS HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT BETWEEN SERB AND BOSNIAN ARMY TROOPS. /// END OPT /// IN RETALIATION FOR THE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE, SERB ARTILLERY SHELLED TUZLA. A BOSNIAN ARMY BARRACKS THERE TOOK A DIRECT HIT. THE U-N COMMAND IN SARAJEVO CONFIRMS AT LEAST 50 BOSNIAN SOLDIERS WERE KILLED OR WOUNDED. THERE ARE UNCONFIRMED REPORTS THAT THE CASUALTIES ARE MUCH HIGHER. A U-N SPOKESMAN TOLD V-O-A IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW HOW MANY OF THE CASUALTIES IN TUZLA HOSPITALS ARE DUE TO THE SHELLING ATTACK AND HOW MANY ARE DUE TO THE GROUND FIGHTING. THE MUSLIM ATTACKS ON THE SERBS THAT BEGAN BEFORE DAWN ON MONDAY COULD BE THE KIND OF MAJOR GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE THAT HAS BEEN EXPECTED ONCE COLD, WINTER WEATHER IS OVER IN BOSNIA. BUT, INSTEAD OF MILD, EARLY SPRING WEATHER, A SNOWSTORM SWEPT ACROSS NORTHERN AND CENTRAL BOSNIA, AND THE FIGHTING IS SAID TO HAVE DIED DOWN, AT LEAST TEMPORARILY. /// OPT /// IN SARAJEVO, SNIPERS HAVE KILLED OR WOUNDED MORE CIVILIANS. BUT A U-N MILITARY PLANE SAFELY FLEW INTO THE CITY DESPITE FREQUENT SERB ATTACKS ON AIRCRAFT OVER THE PAST 10 DAYS. THE SARAJEVO AIRLIFT REMAINS SUSPENDED BECAUSE THE SERBS WILL NOT GUARANTEE THE SAFETY OF RELIEF FLIGHTS. /// END OPT /// MEANWHILE, THE CROATIAN SERB LEADER, MILAN MARTIC, HAS REJECTED ANY DEPLOYMENT OF UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS IN TERRITORY HIS FORCES CONTROL ALONG CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS SAID PEACEKEEPERS MUST BE STATIONED ALONG THE BORDERS UNDER A NEW U-N MANDATE IN CROATIA. THE CURRENT MANDATE EXPIRES AT THE END OF THE MONTH. MR. MARTIC DISCUSSED THE U-N PRESENCE IN CROATIA DURING TALKS IN BELGRADE WITH UNITED NATIONS MEDIATOR THORVALD STOLTENBERG. MR. STOLTENBERG SAYS HE THINKS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SERB LEADER AND THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT OVER THE DEPLOYMENT OF PEACEKEEPERS WILL BE RESOLVED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/BG 20-Mar-95 1:59 PM EST (1859 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
voa.67 usisbel,
DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175763 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SERB FORCES HAVE SHELLED AN IMPORTANT MUSLIM-HELD TOWN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, KILLING OR WOUNDING AT LEAST 50 AND, POSSIBLY, AS MANY AS 200 BOSNIAN ARMY SOLDIERS. THE SHELLING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN IN RETALIATION FOR A NEW BOSNIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE IN THE TUZLA AREA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THERE HAS BEEN VERY LITTLE SIGNIFICANT FIGHTING IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA SINCE THE LATEST OFFICIAL CEASEFIRE WENT INTO EFFECT IN MOST OF THE COUNTRY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE YEAR. BUT THE TRUCE IN AND AROUND THE TOWN OF TUZLA HAS BEEN SHATTERED BY A SERB ARTILLERY ATTACK ON THE TOWN, A UNITED NATIONS/DECLARED SAFE AREA. THE U-N MILITARY COMMAND IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE LARGEST NUMBER OF CASUALTIES OCCURRED WHEN A BOSNIAN ARMY BARRACKS IN TUZLA TOOK A DIRECT HIT. U-N OFFICIALS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL TOLD V-O-A THE SHELLING FOLLOWED THE LAUNCHING OF A NEW BOSNIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE IN THE TUZLA REGION. THE OFFENSIVE MAY INVOLVE TWO-THOUSAND TROOPS. U-N OFFICIALS SAY IT COULD BE THE KIND OF MUSLIM-LED OPERATION THAT HAS BEEN WIDELY EXPECTED ONCE COLD, WINTER WEATHER IS OVER IN BOSNIA. THE SERBS HAD WARNED THEY WOULD ATTACK MILITARY TARGETS IN TUZLA IF THE ARMY BEGAN NEW OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS THERE. SERB FORCES ALSO ARE REPORTED TO HAVE SHELLED THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE TOWN OF TRAVNIK IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, AND SNIPERS HAVE BEEN ACTIVE AGAIN IN SARAJEVO. THE U-N COMMAND CANCELLED A PLANNED MILITARY FLIGHT INTO THE CITY BECAUSE OF FREQUENT SERB ATTACKS ON AIRCRAFT OVER THE PAST 10 DAYS. NO MILITARY FLIGHTS IN THE CITY ARE SCHEDULED, AND THE SARAJEVO AIRLIFT REMAINS SUSPENDED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/JWH 20-Mar-95 10:53 AM EST (1553 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
voa.68 usisbel,
DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175780 TITLE=MIR NEWS CONFERENCE (L -ONLY) BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS: RUSSIAN ACTS AVAILABLE IN THE BUBBLE. /// INTRO: THE RUSSIAN COSMONAUT WHO HOLDS THE WORLD'S SPACE ENDURANCE RECORD IS APPEALING TO HIS FELLOW CITIZENS NOT TO LET THEIR COUNTRY'S BATTERED SPACE PROGRAM GO BACK TO THE STONE AGE. VALERY POLYAKOV SPOKE DURING A NEWS CONFERENCE FROM THE SPACE STATION MIR AS HE AND TWO COLLEAGUES PREPARE TO RETURN TO EARTH LATER THIS WEEK. AS V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY REPORTS, THEY WILL LEAVE BEHIND A REPLACEMENT CREW, INCLUDING THE FIRST U-S ASTRONAUT TO FLY ON A RUSSIAN SPACECRAFT. TEXT: THE TWO CREWS HAVE BEEN MAKING THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THEM SINCE THE NEW TEAM ARRIVED LAST THURSDAY ABOARD A SOYUZ ROCKET. FOR MUCH OF MONDAY, THIS MEANT PACKING EQUIPMENT TO BE RETURNED TO EARTH WHEN VALERY POLYAKOV AND COLLEAGUES ALEXANDER VIKTORENKO AND ELENA KONDAKOVA DEPART FOR EARTH LATE WEDNESDAY, G-M-T. DR. POLYAKOV -- A PHYSICIAN -- WILL HAVE SPENT 442 CONTINUOUS DAYS IN ORBIT -- LONGER THAN ANY OTHER HUMAN. IN THAT TIME, HE HAS CONDUCTED MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE IMPACT OF WEIGHTLESSNESS ON THE BODY. DURING THE JOINT NEWS CONFERENCE WITH THE NEW MIR CREW, HE PAID TRIBUTE TO COSMONAUTS WHO HE SAID CHARTED THIS COURSE BEFORE HIM, ADDING THAT HE SIMPLY WENT A LITTLE FARTHER ALONG IT. // POLYAKOV ACTUALITY IN RUSSIAN, ENGLISH TRANSLATION // ALL OF US ARE TRYING TO PAVE IT FOR OUR CHILDREN AND GRANDCHILDREN WHO, TOGETHER WITH REPRESENTATIVES FROM OTHER COUNTRIES, WILL GO TO MARS IN THE '30S [FOURTH DECADE] OF THE NEXT CENTURY. THAT'S WHY I AM FLYING THIS MISSION WITH A FEELING OF DEEP SATISFACTION AND WITH THE INTENT TO PASS ON MY EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE TO THOSE WHO WOULD WANT TO USE IT. // END ACTUALITY // DR. POLYAKOV ALSO REFERRED TO THE PROBLEMS BESETTING HIS COUNTRY'S SPACE PROGRAM. RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS HAS MEANT SHARP CUTS IN ITS SPACE BUDGET, FORCING SUSPENSION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SPACE SHUTTLE AND A NEW LARGE ROCKET, AMONG OTHER THINGS. THE VETERAN COSMONAUT CALLED FOR CONTINUED RUSSIAN INVESTMENT IN SPACE. // POLYAKOV ACTUALITY IN RUSSIAN, ENGLISH TRANSLATION // I AM ALSO TRYING TO CONVINCE OUR TAXPAYERS THAT MANNED SPACE MISSIONS ARE A SOURCE OF LEARNING AND WE CAN NOT GO BACK TO THE STONE AGE. WE HAVE TO MAINTAIN OUR PIONEERING SPIRIT AS WELL AS OUR LEADERSHIP. // END ACTUALITY // // OPT // GIVEN HIS MARATHON SPACE VENTURE, DR. POLYAKOV WAS ASKED IF ONE THINKS BETTER IN SPACE OR ON THE GROUND. HE TOOK THE OPPORTUNITY TO CRITICIZE THE YELTSIN GOVERNMENT'S POLICY IN CHECHNYA, WHERE THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE HAVE DIED SINCE RUSSIAN TROOPS SENT TROOPS IN DECEMBER TO CRUSH A SEPARATIST REBELLION. "I GUESS IT'S BETTER TO THINK IN OUTER SPACE," HE SAID, "BECAUSE LOOKING DOWN FROM HERE, THEY WOULD NEVER HAVE STARTED THE WAR IN OUR OWN COUNTRY." // END OPT // THE U-S ASTRONAUT WHO IS PART OF THE MIR REPLACEMENT CREW -- DR. NORM THAGARD, ALSO A PHYSICIAN -- TOLD REPORTERS HE FOUND NO SURPRISES WHEN HE ARRIVED AT MIR LAST WEEK, ALTHOUGH HE SAID THERE WERE A FEW DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN TRAINING DOCUMENTS AND THE WAY THINGS REALLY ARE UP THERE. HE OFFERED THIS ADVICE TO ASTRONAUTS AND COSMONAUTS WHO FOLLOW HIM ON LATER MISSIONS: // THAGARD ACTUALITY // GET AS MUCH TRAINING AS YOU CAN. WHEN YOU GET HERE, YOU'LL FIND THAT THINGS ARE LOCATED ALL OVER. THE DOCUMENTATION, OF COURSE, IS NOT QUITE WHAT WE'RE USED TO, SO TRAIN, TRAIN, TRAIN, WHICH IS THE SECRET TO ANY SPACE FLIGHT. // END ACTUALITY // DR. THAGGARD HAS FOUND MIR SOMEWHAT CLUTTERED. SINCE ITS LAUNCH IN 1986, THE RUSSIAN SPACE STATION HAS BEEN HOME TO 18 CREWS, WHO HAVE LEFT MANY PERSONAL AND OFFICIAL ITEMS BEHIND. THE U-S ASTRONAUT DESCRIBED MIR AS LOOKING LIKE SOMEONE'S UTILITY ROOM. AS HE SAID, IT HAS OBVIOUSLY BEEN LIVED AND WORKED IN FOR NINE YEARS. (SIGNED) NEB/DEM/BG 20-Mar-95 3:10 PM EST (2010 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
voa.69 usisbel,
DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175780 TITLE=MIR NEWS CONFERENCE (L -ONLY) BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS: RUSSIAN ACTS AVAILABLE IN THE BUBBLE. /// INTRO: THE RUSSIAN COSMONAUT WHO HOLDS THE WORLD'S SPACE ENDURANCE RECORD IS APPEALING TO HIS FELLOW CITIZENS NOT TO LET THEIR COUNTRY'S BATTERED SPACE PROGRAM GO BACK TO THE STONE AGE. VALERY POLYAKOV SPOKE DURING A NEWS CONFERENCE FROM THE SPACE STATION MIR AS HE AND TWO COLLEAGUES PREPARE TO RETURN TO EARTH LATER THIS WEEK. AS V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY REPORTS, THEY WILL LEAVE BEHIND A REPLACEMENT CREW, INCLUDING THE FIRST U-S ASTRONAUT TO FLY ON A RUSSIAN SPACECRAFT. TEXT: THE TWO CREWS HAVE BEEN MAKING THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THEM SINCE THE NEW TEAM ARRIVED LAST THURSDAY ABOARD A SOYUZ ROCKET. FOR MUCH OF MONDAY, THIS MEANT PACKING EQUIPMENT TO BE RETURNED TO EARTH WHEN VALERY POLYAKOV AND COLLEAGUES ALEXANDER VIKTORENKO AND ELENA KONDAKOVA DEPART FOR EARTH LATE WEDNESDAY, G-M-T. DR. POLYAKOV -- A PHYSICIAN -- WILL HAVE SPENT 442 CONTINUOUS DAYS IN ORBIT -- LONGER THAN ANY OTHER HUMAN. IN THAT TIME, HE HAS CONDUCTED MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE IMPACT OF WEIGHTLESSNESS ON THE BODY. DURING THE JOINT NEWS CONFERENCE WITH THE NEW MIR CREW, HE PAID TRIBUTE TO COSMONAUTS WHO HE SAID CHARTED THIS COURSE BEFORE HIM, ADDING THAT HE SIMPLY WENT A LITTLE FARTHER ALONG IT. // POLYAKOV ACTUALITY IN RUSSIAN, ENGLISH TRANSLATION // ALL OF US ARE TRYING TO PAVE IT FOR OUR CHILDREN AND GRANDCHILDREN WHO, TOGETHER WITH REPRESENTATIVES FROM OTHER COUNTRIES, WILL GO TO MARS IN THE '30S [FOURTH DECADE] OF THE NEXT CENTURY. THAT'S WHY I AM FLYING THIS MISSION WITH A FEELING OF DEEP SATISFACTION AND WITH THE INTENT TO PASS ON MY EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE TO THOSE WHO WOULD WANT TO USE IT. // END ACTUALITY // DR. POLYAKOV ALSO REFERRED TO THE PROBLEMS BESETTING HIS COUNTRY'S SPACE PROGRAM. RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS HAS MEANT SHARP CUTS IN ITS SPACE BUDGET, FORCING SUSPENSION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SPACE SHUTTLE AND A NEW LARGE ROCKET, AMONG OTHER THINGS. THE VETERAN COSMONAUT CALLED FOR CONTINUED RUSSIAN INVESTMENT IN SPACE. // POLYAKOV ACTUALITY IN RUSSIAN, ENGLISH TRANSLATION // I AM ALSO TRYING TO CONVINCE OUR TAXPAYERS THAT MANNED SPACE MISSIONS ARE A SOURCE OF LEARNING AND WE CAN NOT GO BACK TO THE STONE AGE. WE HAVE TO MAINTAIN OUR PIONEERING SPIRIT AS WELL AS OUR LEADERSHIP. // END ACTUALITY // // OPT // GIVEN HIS MARATHON SPACE VENTURE, DR. POLYAKOV WAS ASKED IF ONE THINKS BETTER IN SPACE OR ON THE GROUND. HE TOOK THE OPPORTUNITY TO CRITICIZE THE YELTSIN GOVERNMENT'S POLICY IN CHECHNYA, WHERE THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE HAVE DIED SINCE RUSSIAN TROOPS SENT TROOPS IN DECEMBER TO CRUSH A SEPARATIST REBELLION. "I GUESS IT'S BETTER TO THINK IN OUTER SPACE," HE SAID, "BECAUSE LOOKING DOWN FROM HERE, THEY WOULD NEVER HAVE STARTED THE WAR IN OUR OWN COUNTRY." // END OPT // THE U-S ASTRONAUT WHO IS PART OF THE MIR REPLACEMENT CREW -- DR. NORM THAGARD, ALSO A PHYSICIAN -- TOLD REPORTERS HE FOUND NO SURPRISES WHEN HE ARRIVED AT MIR LAST WEEK, ALTHOUGH HE SAID THERE WERE A FEW DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN TRAINING DOCUMENTS AND THE WAY THINGS REALLY ARE UP THERE. HE OFFERED THIS ADVICE TO ASTRONAUTS AND COSMONAUTS WHO FOLLOW HIM ON LATER MISSIONS: // THAGARD ACTUALITY // GET AS MUCH TRAINING AS YOU CAN. WHEN YOU GET HERE, YOU'LL FIND THAT THINGS ARE LOCATED ALL OVER. THE DOCUMENTATION, OF COURSE, IS NOT QUITE WHAT WE'RE USED TO, SO TRAIN, TRAIN, TRAIN, WHICH IS THE SECRET TO ANY SPACE FLIGHT. // END ACTUALITY // DR. THAGGARD HAS FOUND MIR SOMEWHAT CLUTTERED. SINCE ITS LAUNCH IN 1986, THE RUSSIAN SPACE STATION HAS BEEN HOME TO 18 CREWS, WHO HAVE LEFT MANY PERSONAL AND OFFICIAL ITEMS BEHIND. THE U-S ASTRONAUT DESCRIBED MIR AS LOOKING LIKE SOMEONE'S UTILITY ROOM. AS HE SAID, IT HAS OBVIOUSLY BEEN LIVED AND WORKED IN FOR NINE YEARS. (SIGNED) NEB/DEM/BG 20-Mar-95 3:10 PM EST (2010 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
voa.70 usisbel,
DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-19950 TITLE=MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION BYLINE=DON HENRY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AN ANNUAL HIGHER EDUCATION SURVEY INDICATES MINORITY ENROLLMENT AT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CONTINUES TO GO UP, BUT AT A SLOWER PACE THAN IN THE PAST FEW YEARS. VOA'S DON HENRY REPORTS THE STUDY ALSO SHOWS BLACKS AND HISPANICS REMAIN BEHIND NON-HISPANIC WHITES IN HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION AND COLLEGE ATTENDANCE RATES. TEXT: THE ANNUAL STUDY BY THE AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION SHOWS GAINS IN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF MINORITY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND IN THE NUMBER EARNING DEGREES. WHITE STUDENT ENROLLMENT ACTUALLY DECLINED ABOUT TWO PERCENT AT COLLEGES DURING 1993, WHILE IT WENT UP ABOUT THAT MUCH FOR MINORITIES COMPARED TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR. IN PART, THIS IS A REFLECTION OF OVERALL POPULATION TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES. NEVERTHELESS, THE GAP BETWEEN WHITES AND MINORITIES IS NOT BEING CLOSED VERY FAST. THE STUDY INDICATES THIS IS MOSTLY BECAUSE ONLY 33 PERCENT OF BLACK AND 36 PER CENT OF HISPANIC HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WENT ON TO COLLEGE, COMPARED TO 42 PERCENT OF WHITES. // OPT // THE STUDY DOES NOT HAVE DATA FOR ASIAN AMERICANS IN THIS CATEGORY. // END OPT // DEBORAH CARTER, CO-AUTHOR OF THE STUDY, SAYS HOWEVER THAT HISPANICS APPEAR TO BE SETTING THE STAGE FOR FUTURE GAINS. // CARTER ACT // THEIR HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATE WENT UP TO ABOUT 61 PER CENT AND THAT'S THE HIGHEST IT'S BEEN SINCE THE MID-80'S. // END ACT // FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS, THE STUDY SHOWS THE HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATE HELD STEADY AROUND 75 PERCENT, AND IT REMAINED AROUND 83 PER CENT FOR WHITES. // OPT // ALTHOUGH CURRENT DATA ARE NOT AVAILABLE FOR ASIAN AMERICANS ON THIS, EXPERTS BELIEVE THE ASIAN HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION RATE IS ABOUT THAT OF WHITE STUDENTS -- AT LEAST 80 PERCENT. // END OPT // THE STUDY SHOWS MINORITIES NOW ARE DOING A BETTER JOB OF COMPLETING COLLEGE. BACHELOR DEGREES WENT UP 11 PERCENT AND MASTER'S DEGREES ROSE BY 15 PERCENT OVER THE PREVIOUS YEAR. AND DEBORAH CARTER SAYS BLACKS REGISTERED THE MOST GAIN AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL. // CARTER ACT // FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS AT THE DOCTORATE LEVEL BETWEEN 1992 AND 1993, THEY INCREASED ABOUT 15 PER CENT AND THAT'S THE LARGEST GAIN THAT WE'VE SEEN IN THE LAST 10 YEARS. // END ACT // THE EDUCATION RESEARCH EXECUTIVE CREDITS HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS FOR THE GAINS IN MINORITY SUCCESS IN RECENT YEARS. // CARTER ACT // WHAT THIS IS INDICATIVE OF IS THAT COLLEGES ARE MAKING MORE EFFORT. THEY ARE MAKING THE VOLUNTARY EFFORT TO RECRUIT AND TO TRY TO IMPROVE RETENTION AND THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS THAT GO ON IN GRADUATE OPPORTUNITIES. AND THAT'S ONE OF THE REASONS WHY WE ARE SO CONCERNED ABOUT THE PENDING CUTS TO GRADUATE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS FOR MINORITIES. // OPT // THOSE ARE BEING PROPOSED TO BE CUT OUT OF EXISTENCE, SO WE'RE REAL CONCERNED ABOUT THAT JUST AT THE TIME WHEN WE'RE SEEING SOME HEADWAY BEING MADE AGAIN. // END OPT // // END ACT // THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS PROPOSED ELIMINATING SOME FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANT CATEGORIES IN THE NEXT FISCAL YEAR ON THE GROUNDS THAT THEY DUPLICATE OTHER AID OPPORTUNITIES. OVER ALL, STUDY CO-AUTHOR DEBORAH CARTER SAYS THE GOOD NEWS THIS YEAR IS THAT MORE MINORITY STUDENTS ARE EARNING DEGREES. SHE SAYS THE BAD NEWS IS THAT THE GROWTH RATE IN COLLEGE ATTENDANCE BY MINORITIES IS SLOWING DOWN -- FROM AN AVERAGE OF EIGHT PERCENT IN 1991 AND '92 TO ONLY TWO PERCENT IN 1993. (SIGNED) NEB/DOH/CF 20-Mar-95 12:05 PM EST (1705 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175793 TITLE=CAR NEWS (L-ONLY) BYLINE=PAUL FRANCUCH DATELINE=CHICAGO CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A MAJOR CONSUMER PUBLICATION HERE IN THE UNITED STATES HAS COME OUT WITH ITS ANNUAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEW AND USED CAR PURCHASES. AND DETROIT'S "BIG THREE" AUTOMAKERS FACE GOVERNMENT SCRUTINY OVER NEW CAR LENDING PRACTICES. FOR DETAILS, HERE'S V-O-A'S PAUL FRANCUCH. TEXT: THE RESPECTED PUBLICATION "CONSUMER REPORTS" MONDAY CAME OUT WITH ITS LISTING OF THE BEST CAR BUYS FOR 1995, ALONG WITH A LISTING OF WHICH USED CARS HAVE PROVEN TO BE THE MOST RELIABLE. THE GOOD NEWS FOR AUTOMAKERS IS THAT OF THE 115 NEW CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS TESTED THIS MODEL YEAR BY "CONSUMER REPORTS," ALMOST THREE-QUARTERS OF THEM RECEIVED A RATING OF "VERY GOOD" OR "EXCELLENT." THE RATINGS ARE BASED ON ASSESSMENT OF SUCH THINGS AS COMFORT, VEHICLE PERFORMANCE AND FUEL ECONOMY. FOR USED CARS AND TRUCKS, THE BEST RATINGS NEWS WENT TO JAPANESE MANUFACTURERS. THE BAD NEWS WAS FOR DETROIT. "CONSUMER REPORTS" SURVEYED NEARLY 600-THOUSAND OWNERS OF VEHICLE MODELS PURCHASED BETWEEN 1987 AND 1993. ON THE TOP TEN MOST RELIABLE LIST, ALL VEHICLES WERE JAPANESE, WITH HONDA'S "ACCORD" TOPPING THE LIST. THE "ACCORD" HAS BEEN OVERTAKEN IN RECENT YEARS BY FORD'S "TAURUS" MODEL AS THE MOST POPULAR CAR SOLD HERE IN THE UNITED STATES. BUT "CONSUMER REPORTS" FOUND THAT OWNERS OF SOME OLDER TAURUS MODELS WITH SMALLER ENGINES FOUND IT AMONG THE LEAST RELIABLE OF USED CARS. IN FACT, THE BOTTOM TEN ON THE LIST WERE ALL AMERICAN-MADE VEHICLES, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF ONE KOREAN-BUILD HYUNDAI. DETROIT-BASED AUTO COMPANIES ARE ALSO BEING INVESTIGATED BY THE U-S GOVERNMENT'S FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION FOR POSSIBLY DISCRIMINATING AGAINST MINORITY GROUPS WHEN GRANTING NEW CAR LOANS. REPRESENTATIVES OF GENERAL MOTORS, FORD AND CHRYSLER SAY THEY'VE RECEIVED GOVERNMENT INQUIRIES ON THE MATTER. EACH COMPANY DENIES THEY DISCRIMINATE IN THEIR LENDING PRACTICES. (SIGNED) NEB/PCF/CB/PT 20-Mar-95 6:14 PM EST (2314 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE NUMBER=3-21313 TITLE=BROADWAY COMPOSER STEPHEN SONDHEIM (L) BYLINE=CAROLYN WEAVER TELEPHONE=619-2659 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=SWANEY CONTENT= [INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES ONLY] TAPEB: CUT ONE -- "SYMPHONIC SWEENEY TODD" (ESTABLISH, THEN LOSE UNDER) INTRO: THIS YEAR, BROADWAY CELEBRATES THE CENTENARY OF OSCAR HAMMERSTEIN [STYNE] THE SECOND -- THE LYRICIST WHO CONTRIBUTED THE WORDS TO "OKLAHOMA!" AND OTHER CLASSICS OF THE AMERICAN MUSICAL THEATER. IT'S ALSO THE YEAR THAT STEPHEN SONDHEIM -- BROADWAY'S REIGNING COMPOSER/LYRICIST AND MR. HAMMERSTEIN'S FORMER PROTEGE -- TURNS 65. [MARCH 22] MR. SONDHEIM'S MUSICALS -- THEY INCLUDE "SWEENEY TODD," "COMPANY," "SUNDAY IN THE PARK WITH GEORGE," AND "PASSION" -- HAVE OFTEN BEEN DESCRIBED AS DARK, AMBIVALENT, AND WORLDLY-WISE. YET FORTY YEARS INTO HIS CAREER, HE STILL SEEMS THE FRESHEST AND MOST FERTILE MUSICAL IMAGINATION ON BROADWAY. CAROLYN WEAVER PROFILES THE ARTIST WHOSE COMPLEX MUSIC AND MODERN SENSIBILITY REDEFINED THE AMERICAN MUSICAL THEATER. TEXT: WHEN STEPHEN SONDHEIM CAME ALONG IN THE 1960S, AMERICAN MUSICAL THEATER WAS STILL LARGELY A ROMANCE OF SUNNY, YOUTHFUL OPTIMISM. STEPHEN SONDHEIM SHOWED THAT MUSICAL PLAYS COULD ALSO BE ABOUT DIVORCE AND DEFEAT, AGING AND DISENCHANTMENT. THEY COULD TAKE UP ABSTRACT INTELLECTUAL TOPICS LIKE THE NATURE OF ART, OR IMPERIALISM -- THEY COULD BE ABOUT SEXUAL VIOLENCE **OR POLITICAL ASSASSINATION. SONDHEIM'S MUSIC, TOO, WAS ALWAYS UNPREDICTABLE, NEVER EASY -- MIMICKING THE SELF-DOUBT OF HIS CONFLICTED CHARACTERS. TAPEB: CUT TWO -- "JOANNA" FROM SWEENEY TODD (ROLL UNDER AT ** ABOVE, SWEEP UP AT :20, HOLD TO TAKE UNDER AT ABOUT :55 ON "IN YOUR YELLOW HAIR") TEXT: STEPHEN SONDHEIM WAS BORN IN NEW YORK IN 1930. AFTER HIS PARENTS DIVORCED, HE WAS RAISED BY HIS MOTHER, ALTHOUGH HE SAYS SHE SPENT LITTLE TIME WITH HIM. SONDHEIM'S PATH AS A COMPOSER WAS FOSTERED BY AN ODD COINCIDENCE. WHEN HE WAS TWELVE YEARS OLD, HE WENT TO VISIT A FRIEND IN THE COUNTRY, JAMES HAMMERSTEIN [STYNE]. JAMES WAS THE SON OF OSCAR HAMMERSTEIN THE SECOND -- THE LYRICIST FOR "OKLAHOMA," "SHOWBOAT," AND "CAROUSEL" -- ALL CLASSICS OF MUSICAL THEATER. TAPEA: CUT ONE -- JAMES HAMMERSTEIN :26 "HE CAME FOR A WEEKEND, WHEN I THINK HE WAS TWELVE AND I WAS ELEVEN. HE PLANNED TO GO OFF TO CAMP THE FOLLOWING MONDAY OR TUESDAY, AND WE HAD SUCH A GOOD TIME THAT HE CANCELED CAMP AND STAYED WITH US FOR THE SUMMER, AND THAT TURNED INTO ALMOST A PERMANENT RELATIONSHIP, STAYING AT OUR HOUSE. HE WAS MUCH HAPPIER AT OUR HOME THAN AT HIS OWN." TEXT: WHEN STEPHEN SONDHEIM WROTE HIS FIRST MUSICAL -- AS A FIFTEEN-YEAR OLD -- HE SHOWED IT TO OSCAR HAMMERSTEIN, ASKING FOR HIS PROFESSIONAL OPINION. SONDHEIM HAS OFTEN DESCRIBED THAT AFTERNOON AS THE ONE WHERE HE LEARNED THE BASICS OF THE CRAFT OF SONG-WRITING. AND HE LEARNED SOMETHING ELSE, AS HE TOLD "60 MINUTES" SEVERAL YEARS AGO -- NOT TO BE AN IMITATOR, EVEN OF THE MAN HE MOST ADMIRED. TAPEA: CUT TWO -- STEPHEN SONDHEIM :32 "I'M A CITY BOY, AND OSCAR, THOUGH HE WAS A CITY BOY, WROTE A LOT OF BUCOLIC IMAGES. HE DID TALK ABOUT LARKS LEARNING TO PREY, AND -- AND HE SAID, 'I BELIEVE THESE -- YOU DON'T. AND WHEN I HEAR YOUR LYRICS, I KNOW THAT'S NOT WHAT YOU FEEL.' HE SAID, 'WRITE THE WAY YOU FEEL, DON'T WRITE THE WAY I FEEL.' AND THEN HE SAID THE KEY THING, HE SAID, 'IF YOU DO THAT, YOU'LL BE NINETY PERCENT AHEAD OF THE GAME, AND NINETY PERCENT AHEAD OF EVERYONE ELSE.' AND AS SOON AS HE PUT IT ON THE COMPETITIVE LEVEL, I THOUGHT, 'OH, OH, I GET TO BE BETTER THAN EVERYBODY ELSE IF I WRITE LIKE MYSELF?' SO I DID, RIGHT FROM THAT MOMENT." TAPEB: CUT THREE -- "AGONY" FROM INTO THE WOODS. (SNEAK UNDER VOICE CUT, IN FULL AT :04, TAKE UNDER AT :35) TEXT: SONDHEIM STUDIED CLASSICAL MUSIC AT WILLIAMS COLLEGE, AND THEN WITH THE AVANT-GARDE COMPOSER MILTON BABBITT. BUT HE FIRST CAME TO ATTENTION NOT FOR HIS MUSIC -- BUT FOR HIS LYRICS -- FOR "WEST SIDE STORY" IN 1957. HIS ACID, WITTY WORDS COMMENTED ON SOCIAL HYPOCRISY, ETHNIC HATREDS, AND EVEN THE MOCK SELF-PITY OF GANG MEMBERS -- IN RHYMES THAT HAD NEVER BEEN MADE BEFORE OR SINCE. TAPEA: CUT THREE -- STEPHEN SONDHEIM :17 "EVERYTHING THAT FOLLOWS THE ACCENT SHOULD BE EXACTLY ALIKE. SO LET'S SAY -- UM, NATION AND DECIMATION RHYME, BUT NATION AND CONSTERNATION DO NOT -- IF YOU WANT A LINE TO LAND, PARTICULARLY IF YOU WANT A LAUGH, IT BETTER RHYME. I'VE NEVER HEARD AN AUDIENCE LAUGH AT A LINE THAT DIDN'T RHYME PROPERLY." TAPEB: CUT FOUR -- "OFFICER KRUPKE" FROM WEST SIDE STORY. (SNEAK IN UNDER VOICE CUT, HOLD FOR :32, LOSE UNDER) TEXT: IN 1962, SONDHEIM DEBUTED AS LYRICIST AND COMPOSER, WITH "A FUNNY THING HAPPENED ON THE WAY TO THE FORUM," A BLEND OF VAUDEVILLE AND ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY. WITH EVERY SUBSEQUENT PLAY, SONDHEIM PUSHED THE MUSICAL INTO NEW TERRITORY. HIS RECENT WORKS HAVE BLURRED THE LINE BETWEEN MUSICAL AND OPERA -- WITH SUBJECT MATTER THAT IS OFTEN DARK OR ESOTERIC. "SWEENEY TODD," FOR EXAMPLE IS ABOUT A MURDEROUS BARBER IN 19TH-CENTURY LONDON. "SUNDAY IN THE PARK WITH GEORGE" IMAGINES THE WORLD THROUGH THE EYES OF FRENCH IMPRESSIONIST PAINTER GEORGES [ZHORZH] SEURAT [SUR-AH] AS HE PAINTS HIS MASTERPIECE. [OPT] "PACIFIC OVERTURES" IS ABOUT THE ARRIVAL OF COMMODORE PERRY IN 1850'S JAPAN. SONDHEIM HAS SAID THAT HE ALWAYS WRITES HIS SONGS FOR THE PARTICULAR CHARACTER, AT A SPECIFIC DRAMATIC MOMENT. HIS MOST FAMOUS SONG, "SEND IN THE CLOWNS," FOR EXAMPLE, IS SUNG BY AN AGING ACTRESS IN "A LITTLE NIGHT MUSIC." SHE HAS BEEN REFUSED BY THE MAN SHE LOVES AND IS FINDING HERSELF A RIDICULOUS FIGURE. SONDHEIM HAS SAID THAT HE WROTE THE SONG TO MIRROR HER IRRESOLUTE, QUESTIONING MOOD. TAPEB: CUT FOUR -- "SEND IN THE CLOWNS" (SNEAK IN, UP ON VOICE AT :05: HOLD TO, :38 THEN LOSE UNDER VOICE CUT) TAPEA: CUT FOUR -- JAMES HAMMERSTEIN :17 "HE HAS BEEN THE MOST DARING OF ANY OF THE WRITERS TO FOLLOW MY FATHER. HE'S PUSHED THE BORDERS BACK OF WHAT YOU CAN AND CAN'T DO IN A MUSICAL THEATER. AND HE'S GIVEN US SOME MARVELOUS ENTERTAINMENT AS HE'S DONE IT." [END OPT] TEXT: OVER THE YEARS, SONDHEIM'S FIFTEEN STAGE WORKS HAVE GARNERED NUMEROUS TONY AWARDS. IN 1984, HE WON THE PULITZER PRIZE FOR "SUNDAY IN THE PARK WITH GEORGE." YET UNTIL RECENTLY, SONDHEIM PLAYS WERE A MINORITY TASTE -- APPRECIATED BY MUSICAL SOPHISTICATES BUT PUZZLING TO MAINSTREAM AUDIENCES WHO LOVED THE WORK OF HIS MENTOR, OSCAR HAMMERSTEIN. TODAY, SONDHEIM'S MUSIC HAS BEGUN TO REACH A LARGER AUDIENCE THROUGH NEW RECORDINGS, MOVIES AND TELEVISION. YET IT DOESN'T SEEM LIKELY THAT HE WILL EVER BE SEEN AS SAFE OR EASY. AS SINGER PATRICK CASSIDY HAS SAID, THERE IS NO ONE ELSE LIKE STEPHEN SONDHEIM AND THERE PROBABLY NEVER WILL BE. [SO] TAPEB: CUT FIVE -- "THE SUN NEVER SETS" FROM A LITTLE NIGHT MUSIC. (SNEAK UNDER, IN FULL AT :07, THEN PLAY TO FADE AS DESIRED) (CDS USED IN THIS PIECE: CDP-7166 -- SONDHEIM: A CELEBRATION AT CARNEGIE HALL ("SEND IN THE CLOWNS" AND "SYMPHONIC SWEENEY TODD," INCLUDING "JOANNA" ) CDP-501 INTO THE WOODS ("AGONY") CDP-101 WEST SIDE STORY ("GEE, OFFICER KRUPKE") CDP-2409 A LITTLE NIGHT MUSIC ("THE SUN WON'T SET") 20-Mar-95 4:20 PM EST (2120 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-19962* TITLE=OSCAR PREVIEW: BEST ACTOR BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: // RERUNNING TO INSERT TITLE "FORREST GUMP" IN TEXT NEAR END. // INTRO: A MAD KING .. A PRAGMATIC PRISONER .. A LUCKLESS CARPENTER .. A PHILOSOPHICAL ASSASSIN .. A BIG-HEARTED SIMPLETON -- THOSE ROLES EARNED OSCAR NOMINATIONS FOR BEST ACTOR THIS YEAR. THE WINNER, CHOSEN BY FIVE THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY, WILL BE REVEALED MONDAY NIGHT [3/27] AT THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS FOR FILM ACHIEVEMENT. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN HAS THIS PREVIEW OF THE NOMINEES FOR BEST ACTOR IN A LEADING ROLE: TEXT: TWO CENTURIES AGO, HE WAS THE BRITISH MONARCH WHO LOST THE AMERICAN COLONIES ... BUT HE WAS STILL KING GEORGE-THE-THIRD: /// "THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE" ACTUALITY /// "IF YOUR MAJESTY WOULD JUST LIFT YOUR LEG." "I'M THE KING. YOU LIFT MY LEG." /// END ACTUALITY /// NIGEL HAWTHORNE STARS IN "THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE," RECREATING THE ROLE HE ORIGINATED ON STAGE AND EARNING A BEST ACTOR OSCAR NOMINATION FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF THE UNSTABLE .. PERHAPS DEMENTED .. MONARCH: /// HAWTHORNE ACTUALITY /// SOMETIMES IN A DAY WE CAN JUMP FROM EXTREME DISTRESS TO TOTAL NORMALITY TO SEMI-DISTRESS TO SOMETHING ELSE. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// "THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE" ACTUALITY /// "HUSH? YOU DARE TO STOP THE KING OF ENGLAND FROM SPEAKING HIS MIND?" (SCUFFLE SFX) /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// HIS "MADNESS OF KING GEORGE" PERFORMANCE GIVES THE 65-YEAR-OLD BRITISH ACTOR HIS FIRST CAREER OSCAR NOMINATION. NOMINEE PAUL NEWMAN, WHO JUST TURNED 70, IS AN OSCAR FINALIST FOR THE NINTH TIME IN HIS CAREER FOR "NOBODY'S FOOL:" /// "NOBODY'S FOOL" ACTUALITY /// "DOES IT EVER BOTHER YOU THAT YOU HAVE NOT DONE MORE WITH THE LIFE GOD GAVE YOU?" "NOT OFTEN ... NOW AND THEN." /// END ACTUALITY /// NEWMAN STARS AS A BROKEN-DOWN, SMALL-TOWN CARPENTER WHO LEARNS THAT HIS BUMPY (TROUBLED) LIFE HAS MADE A DIFFERENCE: /// OPT /// "NOBODY'S FOOL" ACTUALITY /// "I JUST FOUND OUT THAT I'M SOMEBODY'S GRANDFATHER .. SOMEBODY'S FATHER .. AND MAYBE SOMEBODY'S FRIEND IN THE BARGAIN." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// IT'S A "REAL PEOPLE" ROLE THAT PARTICULARLY APPEALED TO THE VETERAN ACTOR: /// NEWMAN ACTUALITY /// THERE WERE NO AUTOMOBILES BEING BLOWN UP, NO FRONTAL NUDITY .. AND THE MAIN CHARACTER DID NOT HAVE TO SHOOT 600 PEOPLE TO MAKE HIS POINT. THAT WAS A RELIEF .. AND THAT IT WAS A CHARACTER-DRIVEN PIECE WAS KIND OF NICE. /// END ACTUALITY /// "NOBODY'S FOOL" STAR PAUL NEWMAN ALREADY HAS ONE BEST ACTOR ACADEMY AWARD /// OPT /// FOR "THE COLOR OF MONEY" IN 1986 /// END OPT /// AND TWO HONORARY OSCARS INCLUDING AN AWARD LAST YEAR FOR HIS HUMANITARIAN WORK. MORGAN FREEMAN EARNS HIS THIRD CAREER OSCAR NOMINATION FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF A CRAFTY CONVICT WHO KNOWS HOW TO WORK THE SHAWSHANK PRISON SYSTEM IN "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION:" /// OPT /// "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION" ACTUALITY /// "WHY DID YOU DO IT? "I DIDN'T, SINCE YOU ASKED." "YOU'RE GOING TO FIT RIGHT IN." /// END ACTUALITY /// END OPT /// /// FREEMAN ACTUALITY /// HE'S A SCROUNGER [SCAVENGER]. PRISONERS HAVE MANY NEEDS JUST TO GET FROM DAY TO DAY -- A MAGAZINE, A BOOK, A PACKAGE OF CIGARETTES, A BOTTLE OF BOOZE -- AND THIS GUY, BEING THE OPERATOR THAT HE IS, MANAGES THAT FOR THEM. I THINK HE ALSO MANAGES TO GET THEM THE WHEREWITHAL TO PAY HIM. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION" ACTUALITY /// "LET ME TELL YOU SOMETHING, MY FRIEND. HOPE IS A DANGEROUS THING. HOPE CAN DRIVE A MAN INSANE." /// END ACTUALITY /// "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION" HAD ONLY LIMITED BOX OFFICE SUCCESS, BUT MORGAN FREEMAN'S BEST ACTOR NOMINATION IS AMONG SEVEN FOR THE CRITICALLY-ACCLAIMED DRAMA, INCLUDING BEST PICTURE. A BEST ACTOR OSCAR NOMINATION IS AMONG THE SEVEN, (INCLUDING BEST PICTURE), FOR THE SHOCKING AND FUNNY ANTHOLOGY OF LIFE IN THE L-A UNDERWORLD, "PULP FICTION:" /// "PULP FICTION" ACTUALITY /// "THIS IS A MORAL TEST OF ONE'S SELF .. WHETHER OR NOT YOU CAN MAINTAIN LOYALTY." /// END ACTUALITY /// JOHN TRAVOLTA IS PARTICULARLY PLEASED WITH THE RECOGNITION FOR HIS PERFORMANCE AS A DRUG-ADDICTED HIT-MAN [ASSASSIN]: /// TRAVOLTA ACTUALITY /// I HAVE NOTHING IN COMMON WITH THIS GUY, AND I DON'T INTEND TO HAVE ANYTHING I COMMON WITH THIS GUY, AND I'M PRETTY PROUD OF THAT, ACTUALLY. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// "PULP FICTION" ACTUALITY /// "DO YOU KNOW WHAT THEY CALL A (MACDONALD'S) QUARTER-POUNDER WITH CHEESE IN PARIS?" "THEY DON'T CALL IT A QUARTER POUNDER WITH CHEESE? "NO, THEY HAVE THE METRIC SYSTEM. THEY CALL IT A ROYALE WITH CHEESE." /// END ACTUALITY /// END OPT /// IT IS THE SECOND TIME IN HIS CAREER THAT JOHN TRAVOLTA IS UP FOR BEST ACTOR. /// OPT /// HIS FIRST NOMINATION WAS FOR "SATURDAY NIGHT FEVER," 17 YEARS AGO: /// OPT /// TRAVOLTA ACTUALITY /// THIS IS A TRUE STORY. FOR THE LAST FIVE YEARS, MY WIFE AND I SAT AND WATCHED THE OSCARS .. AND EVERY YEAR SHE SAID "COULDN'T WE PLEASE GO TO THE OSCARS?" I SAID "NEXT YEAR, MAYBE" .. BECAUSE IT ISN'T REALLY A FUN THING UNLESS YOU'RE GIVING OUT AN AWARD OR YOU'VE BEEN NOMINATED. LAST YEAR I SAID "HONEY, NO MATTER WHAT, I PROMISE YOU WE ARE GOING TO THE OSCARS." IF YOU WOULD HAVE TOLD ME THAT I'D BE NOMINATED FOR AN OSCAR THIS YEAR, I JUST WOULDN'T HAVE BELIEVED IT. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// THE NOMINATION CHAMPION THIS YEAR -- WITH 13 OSCAR FINALISTS -- ALSO HAS THE ODDSMAKER'S FAVORITE TO WIN BEST ACTOR: /// "FORREST GUMP" ACTUALITY /// "I'M NOT A SMART MAN, BUT I KNOW WHAT LOVE IS. /// END ACTUALITY /// TOM HANKS HAS HIS THIRD CAREER NOMINATION FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF THE GOOD-HEARTED, SIMPLE-MINDED TITLE CHARACTER IN THE 1994 WORLDWIDE BOX OFFICE CHAMPION, "FORREST GUMP": /// HANKS ACTUALITY /// EVEN THOUGH IT HAS BECOME A CONTRIVANCE AND A COMMON REFERENCE POINT EVER SINCE IT CAME OUT IN JULY, I THINK THE DAY BEFORE IT CAME OUT, NOBODY KNEW WHAT TO EXPECT .. AND WHEN THEY SAW IT, IT WAS A TOTAL SURPRISE. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// "FORREST GUMP" ACTUALITY /// "MY MAMA ALWAYS SAID LIFE WAS LIKE A BOX OF CHOCOLATES; YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO GET." /// END ACTUALITY /// END OPT /// WHO WILL GET THE BEST ACTOR OSCAR: TOM HANKS .. JOHN TRAVOLTA .. MORGAN FREEMAN .. PAUL NEWMAN OR NIGEL HAWTHORNE? THE ENVELOPE WITH ANSWER WILL BE UNSEALED MONDAY NIGHT [3/27] AT THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS. (SIGNED) NEB/ADS/MMK 21-Mar-95 1:43 PM EST (1843 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 7640 total bytes, 7640 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175823 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L-ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY IS SAID TO HAVE MADE SOME TERRITORIAL GAINS IN ITS TWO-DAY-OLD OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE SERBS NEAR TWO TOWNS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE SERBS HAVE AGAIN SHELLED ONE OF THE TOWNS, TUZLA, AND ITS AIRPORT. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO REPORTS MORE FIGHTING AS MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY TROOPS TRY TO SEIZE SERB POSITIONS ON TWO STRATEGIC MOUNTAINS NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWNS OF TUZLA AND TRAVNIK. THE COMMAND SAYS THE BOSNIAN ARMY APPEARS TO HAVE MADE SOME GAINS IN THE FIGHTING ON MOUNT MAJEVICA NEAR TUZLA, THE SECOND- LARGEST TOWN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT, SERB ARTILLERY GUNNERS ON THE MOUNTAINSIDE AGAIN SHELLED TUZLA, FORCING SCHOOLS TO CLOSE. THEY HIT THE TOWN'S AIRPORT, AS WELL. THERE ARE NO IMMEDIATE REPORTS OF CASUALTIES. MANY BOSNIAN ARMY SOLDIERS WERE KILLED OR WOUNDED IN A SERB ARTILLERY ATTACK ON TUZLA ON MONDAY AFTER THE ARMY BEGAN AN OFFENSIVE IN THAT AREA. ONE SHELL HIT A MILITARY BARRACKS. UNITED NATIONS ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI SAYS THE MUSLIM OFFENSIVE IS A MAJOR BLOW TO THE CURRENT OFFICIAL CEASE-FIRE IN MOST OF BOSNIA. BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER HARIS SILAJDZIC HAS SAID THE MUSLIMS HAVE TO FIGHT BECAUSE THE SERBS WILL NOT ACCEPT THE LATEST PEACE PLAN AND BECAUSE THE PEACE PROCESS IS GOING NOWHERE. IN ANOTHER POSSIBLE BLOW TO THE CEASE-FIRE, THE SERBS HAVE TAKEN A NUMBER OF WEAPONS FROM A U-N GUARDED HEAVY WEAPONS STORAGE DEPOT IN A SARAJEVO SUBURB. FRENCH SOLDIERS ARE SAID TO HAVE OFFERED NO RESISTANCE, ALTHOUGH THE SERBS' WITHDRAWAL OF THE WEAPONS VIOLATES A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION. MEANWHILE, IN CROATIA, THE GOVERNMENT IS STILL DEMANDING THE DEPLOYMENT OF U-N PEACE-KEEPERS IN SERB-HELD TERRITORY ALONG THE COUNTRY'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. THE CROATIAN SERB LEADER, MILAN MARTIC, HAS SAID THE BORDER DEPLOYMENT UNDER A NEW U-N MANDATE IN CROATIA WOULD BE UNACCEPTABLE. BUT CROATIAN OFFICIALS SAY AN AGREEMENT ON A NEW MANDATE COULD BE REACHED BY THE END OF MARCH OR IN EARLY APRIL. THE CURRENT MANDATE EXPIRES ON MARCH 31ST. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/MMK 21-Mar-95 10:17 AM EST (1517 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2378 total bytes, 2378 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-19958 TITLE=OSCAR PREVIEW: BEST ACTRESS BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: NOTE TO EDITORS: TAPE WILL BE FED BEFORE NOON EST 3-21 INTRO: THE OSCARS, PRESENTED BY THE ACADEMY OF MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND SCIENCES, ARE THE TOP AMERICAN HONORS FOR FILM ACHIEVEMENT. WINNERS OF THE COVETED GOLDEN STATUETTES ARE CHOSEN BY SOME FIVE-THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE ACADEMY AND WILL BE REVEALED MONDAY NIGHT [3/27] IN A STAR-STUDDED CEREMONY TELECAST WORLDWIDE FROM THE SHRINE AUDITORIUM IN LOS ANGELES. IN THIS OSCAR PREVIEW, VOA'S ALAN SILVERMAN HAS A LOOK AT THE FIVE WOMEN AND PERFORMANCES NOMINATED FOR BEST ACTRESS IN A LEADING ROLE: TEXT: DRAMA WAS THE KEY TO A BEST ACTRESS NOMINATION THIS YEAR; ALL FIVE FINALISTS STAR IN SERIOUS, DRAMATIC FILMS: /// "TOM AND VIV" ACTUALITY /// "THE POEMS COME OUT OF OUR LIVES, TOM." /// END ACTUALITY /// MIRANDA RICHARDSON IS NOMINATED FOR PORTRAYING A REAL-LIFE CHARACTER: THE BEAUTIFUL YOUNG ENGLISH ARISTOCRAT WHOSE STORMY RELATIONSHIP WITH AMERICAN POET TOM "T.S." ELIOT IS THE STORY OF "TOM AND VIV:" /// RICHARDSON ACTUALITY /// A TERRIFIC RANGE OF EMOTION AND GREAT HUMOR. IT'S A STORY THAT NEEDED TO BE TOLD. SHE DIDN'T HAVE A VOICE AT THE TIME, CREATIVELY, SO THIS IS THE OPPORTUNITY. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// /// "TOM AND VIV" ACTUALITY /// "I KEEP GETTING ALL THESE FORMAL LETTERS FROM YOUR LAWYERS. I TOLD THEM I WANTED TO TALK TO YOU. AFTER ALL, YOU ARE MY HUSBAND." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// MIRANDA RICHARDSON WON THE GOLDEN GLOBE FOR HER "TOM AND VIV" PERFORMANCE AND THIS IS HER SECOND CAREER OSCAR NOMINATION. /// OPT /// SHE WAS NOMINATED IN 1992 FOR HER SUPPORTING PERFORMANCE IN "DAMAGE." /// END OPT /// AT 23, WINONA RYDER IS ONE OF HOLLYWOOD'S FASTEST-RISING YOUNG STARS. SHE EARNED A SUPPORTING ACTRESS NOMINATION LAST YEAR /// OPT /// FOR "THE AGE OF INNOCENCE," /// END OPT /// AND THIS YEAR, A LITERARY CLASSIC PUT RYDER IN THE RUNNING FOR BEST ACTRESS: /// "LITTLE WOMEN" ACTUALITY /// "IF I WERE N-O-T GOING TO BE A WRITER, I'D GO TO NEW YORK AND PURSUE THE STAGE. ARE YOU SHOCKED?" /// END ACTUALITY /// RYDER STARS AS JO, THE BUDDING WRITER AMONG THE FOUR MARCH SISTERS IN "LITTLE WOMEN:" /// OPT /// /// "LITTLE WOMEN" ACTUALITY /// "I WANT TO DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT. I DON'T KNOW WHAT IT IS YET, BUT I'M ON THE WATCH FOR IT." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// THE LOUISA-MAY ALCOTT NOVEL HAS BEEN A PERENNIAL FAVORITE WITH GENERATIONS OF YOUNG GIRLS, BUT RYDER IS CONVINCED IT HAS MALE FANS TOO: /// RYDER ACTUALITY /// MEN DID SEE IT, ACTUALLY, BUT NOBODY TALKS ABOUT IT. MEN SAWS IT AND THEY COULDN'T BELIEVE THEY LIKED IT. AUDIENCES LOVE IT. PEOPLE ARE SO MOVED BY IT AND THAT'S THE BEST REWARD. /// END ACTUALITY /// DESPITE CRITICAL ACCLAIM FOR THE FAITHFUL SCREEN ADAPTATION, RYDER'S IS THE ONLY ACTING NOMINATION FOR "LITTLE WOMEN." COURTROOM DRAMAS BY JOHN GRISHAM ARE CONTEMPORARY FAVORITES WITH READERS AND MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY VOTERS LIKE WHAT SUSAN SARANDON DOES IN THE FILM VERSION OF GRISHAM'S "THE CLIENT:" /// "THE CLIENT" ACTUALITY /// "YOU GET ANYWHERE NEAR MY CLIENT AGAIN WITHOUT MY PERMISSION AND I'M GOING TO SUE YOU AND THE F-B-I FOR CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONS." /// END ACTUALITY /// SARANDON STARS AS A BRASH ATTORNEY WHO FIGHTS TO PROTECT A YOUNG BOY WHO WITNESSES A MURDER: /// OPT /// /// "THE CLIENT" ACTUALITY /// "HOW MANY CASES HAVE YOU WON?" "MORE THAN I'VE LOST." "HOW MUCH DO YOU COST?" "HOW MUCH DO YOU HAVE?" /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// /// SARANDON ACTUALITY /// IT IS PEOPLE REACHING OUT WHICH, FOR ME, IS WHEN MOVIES ARE AT THEIR BEST: TWO PEOPLE TAKING A CHANCE TO MAKE CONTACT, REACHING OUT AND MAYBE CHANGING THEIR LIVES JUST A LITTLE BIT. /// END ACTUALITY /// IT'S THE FOURTH CAREER BEST ACTRESS NOMINATION FOR SUSAN SARANDON /// OPT ///; SHE WAS UP FOR "ATLANTIC CITY" IN 1981, "THELMA AND LOUISE" TEN YEARS LATER AND, TWO YEARS AGO, "LORENZO'S OIL." /// END OPT /// JODIE FOSTER GETS THE FOURTH OSCAR NOMINATION OF HER CAREER FOR HER HIGHLY ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE IN "NELL:" /// "NELL" ACTUALITY /// "TAY IN UH WEE IN." "TREE IN THE WIND! YOU'RE A TREE IN THE WIND! (LAUGHS)" /// END ACTUALITY /// SHE PLAYS A WOMAN RAISED AWAY FROM CIVILIZATION WHO SPEAKS A LANGUAGE ALL HER OWN: /// FOSTER ACTUALITY /// IT WAS A PROCESS, BECAUSE THE ROLE WAS INTERESTING, BUT MY CO-PRODUCER AND I DEVELOPED IT FOR QUITE A LONG TIME. IT'S PROBABLY THE MOST PERSONAL SHAPING I'VE EVER DONE ON ANYTHING. IT'S SO PERSONAL THAT I CAN'T EVEN BEGIN TO SAY HOW MUCH IT MEANS TO ME. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// /// "NELL" ACTUALITY /// "ANYTHING THE MATTER? ANYTHING THE MATTER?" /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// "NELL" STAR JODIE FOSTER HAS WON BEST ACTRESS TWICE BEFORE /// OPT /// IN 1988 FOR "THE ACCUSED" AND "THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS" IN 1991. SHE SAYS SHE KEEPS HER OSCARS IN THE BATHROOM. /// END OPT /// JESSICA LANGE GETS HER SIXTH CAREER NOMINATION FOR "BLUE SKY:" /// "BLUE SKY" ACTUALITY /// "YOU DON'T KNOW HOW MUCH I NEED HIM. NOBODY UNDERSTANDS THAT." /// END ACTUALITY /// SHE PLAYS THE WIFE OF A MILITARY OFFICER IN THE 1960'S; HER MANIC-DEPRESSIVE PERSONALITY CREATING MORAL AND FAMILY CRISES: /// OPT /// /// "BLUE SKY" ACTUALITY /// "YOU WENT TOO FAR TODAY." "BRIGITTE BARDOT STRIPS FOR MILLIONS AND SHE'S A GODDESS. I SUNBATHE TOPLESS AND I'M A SCANDAL." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// /// LANGE ACTUALITY /// PARTS LIKE THESE ARE THE EASIEST FOR ME BECAUSE YOU DON'T HAVE TO THINK ABOUT YOUR PARAMETERS. (WITH) A CHARACTER LIKE THIS, YOU CAN DO ANYTHING. IT'S GREAT TO BE ABLE TO TAKE IT AS FAR OUT THERE AS YOU POSSIBLY CAN. TO ME, THAT'S REALLY THE MOST FUN. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// LANGE WON BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN 1982 FOR "TOOTSIE." /// END OPT /// "BLUE SKY," THE LAST FILM BY THE LATE BRITISH DIRECTOR TONY RICHARDSON, SAT ON THE SHELF FOR THREE YEARS; ITS RELEASE WAS DELAYED BY STUDIO FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES. /// OPT /// JESSICA LANGE, JODIE FOSTER, SUSAN SARANDON, WINONA RYDER OR MIRANDA RICHARDSON: ONE OF THOSE NAMES WILL BE IN THE ENVELOPE MARKED "BEST ACTRESS" WHEN THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS ARE PRESENTED MONDAY NIGHT. /// END OPT /// (SIGNED) NEB/ADS/LWM 20-Mar-95 10:08 PM EST (0308 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 7410 total bytes, 7410 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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Receiving Information... Receiving Fle/| DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175853 TITLE=MIR DEPARTURE (S) BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: EDITORS NOTE: BY UPDATING THE INTRO, THE TEXT IS WRIITTEN TO HOLD UP AFTER THE THREE COSMONAUTS LAND. LANDING IS SCHEDULED FOR 11:03 P.M. E.S.T. 22 KILOMETERS NORTHEAST OF ARKALYK IN KAZAKHSTAN. INTRO: THE RUSSIAN COSMONAUT WHO HAS BEEN IN SPACE LONGER THAN ANY OTHER PERSON HAS DEPARTED THE MIR SPACE STATION FOR EARTH WITH TWO COLLEAGUES. V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY REPORTS THAT THEY LEFT BEHIND A U-S / RUSSIAN TEAM THAT WILL REMAIN ABOARD FOR THE NEXT THREE MONTHS. --More--(35%)[Press space to continue, q to quit, h for help]TEXT: AFTER 14 MONTHS ON MIR, VALERY POLYAKOV FLOATED THROUGH THE HATCH WITH COSMONAUTS ALEXANDER VIKTORENKO AND ELENA KONDAKOVA LATE TUESDAY G-M-T TO BOARD A SOYUZ CAPSULE FOR THE FLIGHT BACK TO KAZAKHSTAN. DR. POLYAKOV, A PHYSICIAN, HAD ALREADY BEEN ON MIR WITH TWO PREVIOUS RUSSIAN CREWS WHEN MR. VIKTORENKO AND MS. KONDAKOVA JOINED HIM FIVE-AND-A-HALF MONTHS AGO. THEY OFFICIALLY HANDED THE CRAFT OVER TO A REPLACEMENT TEAM WITH WHOM THEY SHARED QUARTERS SINCE LAST THURSDAY -- COSMONAUTS VLADIMIR DEZHUROV AND GENNADY STREKALOV AND U-S ASTRONAUT NORM THAGARD, THE FIRST AMERICAN ON A RUSSIAN SPACECRAFT. THE THREE NEW CREW MEMBERS WILL REMAIN ABOARD MIR UNTIL THE U-S SPACE SHUTTLE "ATLANTIS" FLIES UP TO RETRIEVE THEM IN JUNE AND DEPOSIT THE TWO COSMONAUTS WHO WILL BECOME THE NEXT MIR CREW. THAT DOCKING WILL BE THE FIRST U-S / RUSSIAN LINK-UP IN SPACE IN 20 YEARS AND THE FIRST OF SEVEN WITH THE MIR AS THE TWO COUNTRIES PURSUE A JOINT PROGRAM TO LEARN HOW TO WORK TOGETHER IN ORBIT IN PREPARATION FOR BUILDING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION BEGINNING IN 1997. (SIGNED) --More--(95%)[Press space to continue, q to quit, h for help] NEB/DEM/LWM 21-Mar-95 5:50 PM EST (2250 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Press <RETURN> to continue, <m> to mail, <D> to download:
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DATE=3/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175775 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L-UPDATE) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS NOTE: WRITETHRU /// INTRO: MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT FORCES HAVE LAUNCHED MAJOR NEW ATTACKS ON SERB POSITIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. IN RETALIATION, THE SERBS HAVE SHELLED AN IMPORTANT GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN, KILLING OR WOUNDING MANY BOSNIAN ARMY SOLDIERS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE BOSNIAN ARMY BEGAN WHAT APPEARS TO BE A COORDINATED OFFENSIVE AGAINST SERB POSITIONS NEAR THE NORTHEASTERN TOWN OF TUZLA AND NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TRAVNIK IN NORTH CENTRAL BOSNIA. AS MANY AS TWO THOUSAND TROOPS ARE BELIEVED INVOLVED. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY MAY TRY TO CAPTURE STRATEGIC MOUNT MAJEVICA, AROUND TUZLA, AND SERB-HELD MOUNT VLASIC, AROUND TRAVNIK. /// OPT /// HUNDREDS OF SHELLS WERE FIRED IN THE FIGHTING ON THE NORTHEASTERN FRONT. THE YUGOSLAV NEWS AGENCY, TANJUG, REPORTS HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT BETWEEN SERB AND BOSNIAN ARMY TROOPS. /// END OPT /// IN RETALIATION FOR THE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE, SERB ARTILLERY SHELLED TUZLA. A BOSNIAN ARMY BARRACKS THERE TOOK A DIRECT HIT. THE U-N COMMAND IN SARAJEVO CONFIRMS AT LEAST 50 BOSNIAN SOLDIERS WERE KILLED OR WOUNDED. THERE ARE UNCONFIRMED REPORTS THAT THE CASUALTIES ARE MUCH HIGHER. A U-N SPOKESMAN TOLD V-O-A IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW HOW MANY OF THE CASUALTIES IN TUZLA HOSPITALS ARE DUE TO THE SHELLING ATTACK AND HOW MANY ARE DUE TO THE GROUND FIGHTING. THE MUSLIM ATTACKS ON THE SERBS THAT BEGAN BEFORE DAWN ON MONDAY COULD BE THE KIND OF MAJOR GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE THAT HAS BEEN EXPECTED ONCE COLD, WINTER WEATHER IS OVER IN BOSNIA. BUT, INSTEAD OF MILD, EARLY SPRING WEATHER, A SNOWSTORM SWEPT ACROSS NORTHERN AND CENTRAL BOSNIA, AND THE FIGHTING IS SAID TO HAVE DIED DOWN, AT LEAST TEMPORARILY. /// OPT /// IN SARAJEVO, SNIPERS HAVE KILLED OR WOUNDED MORE CIVILIANS. BUT A U-N MILITARY PLANE SAFELY FLEW INTO THE CITY DESPITE FREQUENT SERB ATTACKS ON AIRCRAFT OVER THE PAST 10 DAYS. THE SARAJEVO AIRLIFT REMAINS SUSPENDED BECAUSE THE SERBS WILL NOT GUARANTEE THE SAFETY OF RELIEF FLIGHTS. /// END OPT /// MEANWHILE, THE CROATIAN SERB LEADER, MILAN MARTIC, HAS REJECTED ANY DEPLOYMENT OF UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS IN TERRITORY HIS FORCES CONTROL ALONG CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS SAID PEACEKEEPERS MUST BE STATIONED ALONG THE BORDERS UNDER A NEW U-N MANDATE IN CROATIA. THE CURRENT MANDATE EXPIRES AT THE END OF THE MONTH. MR. MARTIC DISCUSSED THE U-N PRESENCE IN CROATIA DURING TALKS IN BELGRADE WITH UNITED NATIONS MEDIATOR THORVALD STOLTENBERG. MR. STOLTENBERG SAYS HE THINKS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SERB LEADER AND THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT OVER THE DEPLOYMENT OF PEACEKEEPERS WILL BE RESOLVED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/BG 20-Mar-95 1:59 PM EST (1859 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175828 TITLE=TUZLA FIGHTING (S-ONLY) BYLINE=DAN YOVICH DATELINE=SARAJEVO CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: HEAVY FIGHTING IS REPORTED FOR THE SECOND DAY BETWEEN BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND BOSNIAN SERB FORCES THROUGHOUT MUCH OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL BOSNIA. DAN YOVICH IN SARAJEVO REPORTS U-N OFFICIALS SAY BOSNIAN SERBS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MOST OF THE SHELLING, WITH MANY OF THE EXPLOSIONS OCCURRING IN CIVILIAN AREAS. TEXT: U-N OFFICIALS SAY MOST OF THE SHELLING IS CONCENTRATED NORTHEAST OF THE U-N DECLARED SAFE AREA OF TUZLA, 140 KILOMETERS NORTH OF SARAJEVO. U-N PROTECTION FORCE SPOKESMAN MAJOR HERVE GOURMELON SAYS BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE SHELLED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED REGIONS NEAR TUZLA WITH A RATIO OF MORE THAN 10 SHELLS TO EVERY ONE RETURNED BY BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES. MAJOR GOURMELON SAYS MORE THAN 250 SHELLS EXPLODED NEAR REGIONS CONTROLLED BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARMY. AT LEAST SIX OF THE SHELLS HIT THE CITY CENTER. FORTY-THREE OTHERS EXPLODED AROUND THE U-N CONTROLLED AIRFIELD SOUTH OF THE CITY WHERE MORE THAN 900 SWEDISH, NORWEGIAN, AND DANISH TROOPS ARE STATIONED. NO U-N CASUALTIES ARE REPORTED. BUT, MAJOR GOURMELON SAYS SOME CIVILIANS IN THE CITY ARE BEING TREATED FOR SHRAPNEL WOUNDS. ANOTHER U-N OFFICIAL, ALEXANDER IVANKO, SAYS LETTERS OF PROTEST HAVE BEEN SENT TO MILITARY COMMANDERS OF BOTH SIDES, URGING THEM TO HALT ALL MILITARY ACTIVITY. SO FAR, NEITHER SIDE HAS RESPONDED TO THE U-N DEMANDS. (SIGNED) NEB/DY/SKH/JWH 21-Mar-95 11:10 AM EST (1610 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=03/22/95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17039 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGLISH SCIENCE REPORT - THE CHANGING BRAIN BYLINE=JESSICA BERMAN TELEPHONE=619-0925 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=MARILYN CHRISTIANO CONTENT= ANNCR: SOME SCIENTISTS GATHERED RECENTLY AT THE UNITED STATES LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. THEY DISCUSSED NEW DISCOVERIES ABOUT HOW THE BRAIN KEEPS CHANGING THROUGHOUT A PERSONS'S LIFE. V-O-A SCIENCE WRITER JESSICA BERMAN ATTENDED THE CONFERENCE. THIS IS HER REPORT FOR SPECIAL ENGLISH. VOICE: SCIENTISTS ONCE BELIEVED THAT PEOPLE WERE BORN WITH ALL OF THE BRAIN CONNECTIONS THAT THEY WOULD NEED THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES. TODAY SCIENTISTS ARE DISCOVERING THAT THE HUMAN BRAIN REALLY CHANGES A LOT DURING A PERSON'S LIFETIME. THEY LEARNED THIS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOW ABLE TO SEE THE BRAIN IN ACTION. MODERN IMAGING EQUIPMENT MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO WATCH THE HUMAN BRAIN FORM NEW CONNECTIONS. ONE KIND OF EQUIPMENT THAT CAN MAKE PICTURES OF THE BRAIN IS CALLED POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY, KNOWN AS PET. AS A PERSON LEARNS A SKILL -- LIKE USING A COMPUTER -- NEW PARTS OF THE BRAIN BECOME ACTIVE. THIS IS EASILY SEEN USING PET. SCIENTISTS CAN TAKE A PICTURE OF A PERSON'S BRAIN BEFORE HE OR SHE LEARNS HOW TO USE THE COMPUTER. THEN, THEY TAKE A PICTURE OF THE SAME BRAIN AFTERWARDS. THE TWO PICTURES LOOK VERY DIFFERENT. IN THE "AFTER" PICTURE, AREAS OF THE BRAIN THAT HELP THE PERSON USE THE COMPUTER ARE ONE BRIGHT COLOR. THESE SAME AREAS, IN THE "BEFORE" PICTURE, ARE A DIFFERENT COLOR. MICHAEL MERZENICH ('MURZ-NIK) OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA GAVE ONE OF THE REPORTS AT THE RECENT CONFERENCE ABOUT THE BRAIN. HE DISCUSSED AN EXAMPLE OF A CHANGE IN THE BRAIN THAT INVOLVES COCHLEAR ('COKE-LEER) IMPLANTS. THESE ARE SMALL, ELECTRONIC DEVICES. DOCTORS OPERATE ON SOME DEAF PEOPLE TO PUT THE DEVICES INSIDE THEIR EARS. DOCTOR MERZENICH SAID THAT AT FIRST, A PERSON WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT DOES NOT HEAR VERY WELL. ALL OF THE SOUNDS ARE MIXED TOGETHER. THEY MAKE A LOUD NOISE. BUT AFTER ABOUT THREE MONTHS THE LOUD NOISE STOPS. SEPARATE WORDS CAN BE UNDERSTOOD. THE PERSON CAN HEAR WELL ENOUGH TO USE A TELEPHONE. DOCTOR MERZENICH SAID THAT THIS SHOWS THE WONDERFUL WAY THE BRAIN WORKS. HE SAID RESEARCHERS MUST DISCOVER MORE ABOUT HOW THE BRAIN FORMS NEW CONNECTIONS. THIS INFORMATION COULD HELP THEM LEARN WAYS TO HELP THE BRAIN TO MAKE CONNECTIONS. AND THEN -- EXPERTS LIKE MICHAEL MERZENICH SAY -- IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO REPAIR NOT ONLY DEAFNESS, BUT MANY OTHER HUMAN DISABILITIES. THIS IS JESSICA BERMAN WITH THE SPECIAL ENGLISH SCIENCE REPORT. 21-Mar-95 4:14 PM EST (2114 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175836 TITLE=SENATE PEACE KEEPING (L ONLY) BYLINE=JIM MALONE DATELINE=SENATE CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: REPUBLICANS IN THE U-S SENATE AND A TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIAL CLASHED TUESDAY ABOUT THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS. V-O-A SENATE CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE REPORTS THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, WARNED REPUBLICANS THAT A BILL RESTRICTING U-S PARTICIPATION IN U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS COULD BE HARMFUL TO U-S NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS. TEXT: THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE OPENED HEARINGS ON A PROPOSAL FROM SENATE MAJORITY LEADER BOB DOLE WHICH WOULD MAKE IT FAR MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE UNITED STATES TO COMMIT TROOPS FOR UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS. SENATE REPUBLICANS HAVE BEEN DEMANDING NEW RESTRICTIONS ON U-N PEACEKEEPING SINCE THE DEATHS OF 18 U-S SERVICMEN IN SOMALIA IN 1993. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HAS ALREADY APPROVED A MEASURE WHICH WOULD REDUCE U-S CONTRIBUTIONS TO U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS AS PART OF THEIR CONTRACT WITH AMERICA. THE DOLE PROPOSAL WOULD RESTRICT THE USE OF AMERICAN TROOPS TO ONLY THOSE SITUATIONS WHERE A CLEAR NATIONAL SECURITY INTEREST IS AT STAKE. SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN JESSE HELMS IS A SUPPORTER. // HELMS ACT. // PEACEKEEPING CANNOT SOLVE THE WORLD'S PROBLEMS AND SHOULD NOT BE EXPECTED TO. SOME OF US HAVE SAID THAT ALL ALONG. AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IN THE WORLD SHOULD NOT BE DEFINED BY HOW MANY U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS WE PARTICIPATE IN. // END ACT. // BUT THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, DESCRIBES BOTH REPUBLICAN PROPOSALS (FROM THE SENATE AND HOUSE) AS BAD BILLS. SHE ARGUES THAT RESTRICTIONS ON AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN U-N PEACEKEEPING COULD BE HARMFUL TO U-S NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS AND THAT ANY AMERICAN WITHDRAWAL FROM INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING OBLIGATIONS COULD SPARK SIMILAR MOVES BY OTHER U-N MEMBER COUNTRIES. // ALBRIGHT ACT. // MR. CHAIRMAN, U-N PEACEKEEPING IS NOT THE RIGHT TOOL IN ALL CIRCUMSTANCES. BUT IT IS TOO VALUABLE TO THROW AWAY AS H-R. SEVEN (THE HOUSE BILL ALREADY PASSED) AND S. FIVE (THE SENATE BILL SPONSORED BY SENATOR DOLE) WOULD REQUIRE. THE DIFFICULTY WE HAVE WITH THE LEGISLATION, THEREFORE, IS NOT WITH THE PURPORTED (INTENDED) GOALS BUT WITH THE HEAVY-HANDED APPROACH TAKEN TO ACHIEVE THEM. THEY WOULD IMPOSE RESTRICTIONS ON THE PRESIDENT'S CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITIES THAT NO ADMINISTRATION COULD ACCEPT. // END ACT. // // OPT // SENATOR DOLE'S PROPOSAL WOULD ALSO PLACE RESTRICTIONS ON AMERICAN TROOPS SERVING UNDER FOREIGN COMMANDERS. IT WOULD ALSO ALLOW THE UNITED STATES TO REDUCE ITS UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING ASSESSMENTS BY GETTING CREDIT FOR DIRECT OR INDIRECT U-S MILITARY ASSISTANCE FOR U-N MISSIONS. // END OPT // THE MEASURE IS SURE TO DRAW A SPIRITED DEBATE ONCE IT REACHES THE SENATE FLOOR WITH DEMOCRATS LIKE SENATOR JOHN KERRY (MASSACHUSETTS) POISED TO OPPOSE IT, FEARING IT WOULD MOVE THE UNITED STATES TOWARD ISOLATIONISM. // KERRY ACT. // SO, MR. CHAIRMAN, I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT FOR US NOT TO LET A FRUSTRATION OVER SOMALIA OR BOSNIA LEAD US DOWN A PATH THAT WILL ULTIMATELY UNDERMINE OUR ABILITY TO BE ABLE TO PROTECT THE MANY VARIED INTERESTS THAT ARE REFLECTED IN FOREIGN POLICY AND TO BE ABLE TO LIVE UP TO THE IMPORTANT MANTLE OF LEADERSHIP THAT HAS FALLEN ON US. // END ACT. // REPUBLICAN SENATOR OLYMPIA SNOWE (MAINE) ALSO RAISED CONCERNS ABOUT BOXES OF CLASSIFIED U-S DOCUMENTS WHICH UNITED NATIONS FORCES LEFT BEHIND AFTER THEIR RECENT PULLOUT FROM SOMALIA. REPUBLICAN CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS HAVE WRITTEN TO PRESIDENT CLINTON AND SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER ASKING TO SUSPEND ANY FUTURE TRANSFER OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS. AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT SAYS SHE WAS OUTRAGED BY THE SECURITY BREACH AND SAYS A FINAL ASSESSMENT OF WHAT WAS IN THE DOCUMENTS HAS NOT BEEN COMPLETED. (SIGNED) NEB/JM/CF 21-Mar-95 2:37 PM EST (1937 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-19962 TITLE=OSCAR PREVIEW: BEST ACTOR BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A MAD KING .. A PRAGMATIC PRISONER .. A LUCKLESS CARPENTER .. A PHILOSOPHICAL ASSASSIN .. A BIG-HEARTED SIMPLETON -- THOSE ROLES EARNED OSCAR NOMINATIONS FOR BEST ACTOR THIS YEAR. THE WINNER, CHOSEN BY FIVE THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY, WILL BE REVEALED MONDAY NIGHT [3/27] AT THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS FOR FILM ACHIEVEMENT. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN HAS THIS PREVIEW OF THE NOMINEES FOR BEST ACTOR IN A LEADING ROLE: TEXT: TWO CENTURIES AGO, HE WAS THE BRITISH MONARCH WHO LOST THE AMERICAN COLONIES ... BUT HE WAS STILL KING GEORGE-THE-THIRD: /// "THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE" ACTUALITY /// "IF YOUR MAJESTY WOULD JUST LIFT YOUR LEG." "I'M THE KING. YOU LIFT MY LEG." /// END ACTUALITY /// NIGEL HAWTHORNE STARS IN "THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE," RECREATING THE ROLE HE ORIGINATED ON STAGE AND EARNING A BEST ACTOR OSCAR NOMINATION FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF THE UNSTABLE .. PERHAPS DEMENTED .. MONARCH: /// HAWTHORNE ACTUALITY /// SOMETIMES IN A DAY WE CAN JUMP FROM EXTREME DISTRESS TO TOTAL NORMALITY TO SEMI-DISTRESS TO SOMETHING ELSE. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// "THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE" ACTUALITY /// "HUSH? YOU DARE TO STOP THE KING OF ENGLAND FROM SPEAKING HIS MIND?" (SCUFFLE SFX) /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// HIS "MADNESS OF KING GEORGE" PERFORMANCE GIVES THE 65-YEAR-OLD BRITISH ACTOR HIS FIRST CAREER OSCAR NOMINATION. NOMINEE PAUL NEWMAN, WHO JUST TURNED 70, IS AN OSCAR FINALIST FOR THE NINTH TIME IN HIS CAREER FOR "NOBODY'S FOOL:" /// "NOBODY'S FOOL" ACTUALITY /// "DOES IT EVER BOTHER YOU THAT YOU HAVE NOT DONE MORE WITH THE LIFE GOD GAVE YOU?" "NOT OFTEN ... NOW AND THEN." /// END ACTUALITY /// NEWMAN STARS AS A BROKEN-DOWN, SMALL-TOWN CARPENTER WHO LEARNS THAT HIS BUMPY (TROUBLED) LIFE HAS MADE A DIFFERENCE: /// OPT /// "NOBODY'S FOOL" ACTUALITY /// "I JUST FOUND OUT THAT I'M SOMEBODY'S GRANDFATHER .. SOMEBODY'S FATHER .. AND MAYBE SOMEBODY'S FRIEND IN THE BARGAIN." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// IT'S A "REAL PEOPLE" ROLE THAT PARTICULARLY APPEALED TO THE VETERAN ACTOR: /// NEWMAN ACTUALITY /// THERE WERE NO AUTOMOBILES BEING BLOWN UP, NO FRONTAL NUDITY .. AND THE MAIN CHARACTER DID NOT HAVE TO SHOOT 600 PEOPLE TO MAKE HIS POINT. THAT WAS A RELIEF .. AND THAT IT WAS A CHARACTER-DRIVEN PIECE WAS KIND OF NICE. /// END ACTUALITY /// "NOBODY'S FOOL" STAR PAUL NEWMAN ALREADY HAS ONE BEST ACTOR ACADEMY AWARD /// OPT /// FOR "THE COLOR OF MONEY" IN 1986 /// END OPT /// AND TWO HONORARY OSCARS INCLUDING AN AWARD LAST YEAR FOR HIS HUMANITARIAN WORK. MORGAN FREEMAN EARNS HIS THIRD CAREER OSCAR NOMINATION FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF A CRAFTY CONVICT WHO KNOWS HOW TO WORK THE SHAWSHANK PRISON SYSTEM IN "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION:" /// OPT /// "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION" ACTUALITY /// "WHY DID YOU DO IT? "I DIDN'T, SINCE YOU ASKED." "YOU'RE GOING TO FIT RIGHT IN." /// END ACTUALITY /// END OPT /// /// FREEMAN ACTUALITY /// HE'S A SCROUNGER [SCAVENGER]. PRISONERS HAVE MANY NEEDS JUST TO GET FROM DAY TO DAY -- A MAGAZINE, A BOOK, A PACKAGE OF CIGARETTES, A BOTTLE OF BOOZE -- AND THIS GUY, BEING THE OPERATOR THAT HE IS, MANAGES THAT FOR THEM. I THINK HE ALSO MANAGES TO GET THEM THE WHEREWITHAL TO PAY HIM. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION" ACTUALITY /// "LET ME TELL YOU SOMETHING, MY FRIEND. HOPE IS A DANGEROUS THING. HOPE CAN DRIVE A MAN INSANE." /// END ACTUALITY /// "THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION" HAD ONLY LIMITED BOX OFFICE SUCCESS, BUT MORGAN FREEMAN'S BEST ACTOR NOMINATION IS AMONG SEVEN FOR THE CRITICALLY-ACCLAIMED DRAMA, INCLUDING BEST PICTURE. A BEST ACTOR OSCAR NOMINATION IS AMONG THE SEVEN, (INCLUDING BEST PICTURE), FOR THE SHOCKING AND FUNNY ANTHOLOGY OF LIFE IN THE L-A UNDERWORLD, "PULP FICTION:" /// "PULP FICTION" ACTUALITY /// "THIS IS A MORAL TEST OF ONE'S SELF .. WHETHER OR NOT YOU CAN MAINTAIN LOYALTY." /// END ACTUALITY /// JOHN TRAVOLTA IS PARTICULARLY PLEASED WITH THE RECOGNITION FOR HIS PERFORMANCE AS A DRUG-ADDICTED HIT-MAN [ASSASSIN]: /// TRAVOLTA ACTUALITY /// I HAVE NOTHING IN COMMON WITH THIS GUY, AND I DON'T INTEND TO HAVE ANYTHING I COMMON WITH THIS GUY, AND I'M PRETTY PROUD OF THAT, ACTUALLY. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// "PULP FICTION" ACTUALITY /// "DO YOU KNOW WHAT THEY CALL A (MACDONALD'S) QUARTER-POUNDER WITH CHEESE IN PARIS?" "THEY DON'T CALL IT A QUARTER POUNDER WITH CHEESE? "NO, THEY HAVE THE METRIC SYSTEM. THEY CALL IT A ROYALE WITH CHEESE." /// END ACTUALITY /// END OPT /// IT IS THE SECOND TIME IN HIS CAREER THAT JOHN TRAVOLTA IS UP FOR BEST ACTOR. /// OPT /// HIS FIRST NOMINATION WAS FOR "SATURDAY NIGHT FEVER," 17 YEARS AGO: /// OPT /// TRAVOLTA ACTUALITY /// THIS IS A TRUE STORY. FOR THE LAST FIVE YEARS, MY WIFE AND I SAT AND WATCHED THE OSCARS .. AND EVERY YEAR SHE SAID "COULDN'T WE PLEASE GO TO THE OSCARS?" I SAID "NEXT YEAR, MAYBE" .. BECAUSE IT ISN'T REALLY A FUN THING UNLESS YOU'RE GIVING OUT AN AWARD OR YOU'VE BEEN NOMINATED. LAST YEAR I SAID "HONEY, NO MATTER WHAT, I PROMISE YOU WE ARE GOING TO THE OSCARS." IF YOU WOULD HAVE TOLD ME THAT I'D BE NOMINATED FOR AN OSCAR THIS YEAR, I JUST WOULDN'T HAVE BELIEVED IT. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// THE NOMINATION CHAMPION THIS YEAR -- WITH 13 OSCAR FINALISTS -- ALSO HAS THE ODDSMAKER'S FAVORITE TO WIN BEST ACTOR: /// "FORREST GUMP" ACTUALITY /// "I'M NOT A SMART MAN, BUT I KNOW WHAT LOVE IS. /// END ACTUALITY /// TOM HANKS HAS HIS THIRD CAREER NOMINATION FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF THE GOOD-HEARTED, SIMPLE-MINDED TITLE CHARACTER IN THE 1994 WORLDWIDE BOX OFFICE CHAMPION: /// HANKS ACTUALITY /// EVEN THOUGH IT HAS BECOME A CONTRIVANCE AND A COMMON REFERENCE POINT EVER SINCE IT CAME OUT IN JULY, I THINK THE DAY BEFORE IT CAME OUT, NOBODY KNEW WHAT TO EXPECT .. AND WHEN THEY SAW IT, IT WAS A TOTAL SURPRISE. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// "FORREST GUMP" ACTUALITY /// "MY MAMA ALWAYS SAID LIFE WAS LIKE A BOX OF CHOCOLATES; YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO GET." /// END ACTUALITY /// END OPT /// WHO WILL GET THE BEST ACTOR OSCAR: TOM HANKS .. JOHN TRAVOLTA .. MORGAN FREEMAN .. PAUL NEWMAN OR NIGEL HAWTHORNE? THE ENVELOPE WITH ANSWER WILL BE UNSEALED MONDAY NIGHT [3/27] AT THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS. (SIGNED) NEB/ADS/MMK 21-Mar-95 1:18 PM EST (1818 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175856 TITLE=MIR DEPARTURE (L) BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: EDITORS NOTE: BY UPDATING THE INTRO, THE TEXT IS WRIITTEN TO HOLD UP AFTER THE THREE COSMONAUTS LAND. LANDING IS SCHEDULED FOR 11:03 P.M. E.S.T. 22 KILOMETERS NORTHEAST OF ARKALYK IN KAZAKHSTAN. INTRO: THREE RUSSIAN COSMONAUTS HAVE LEFT THE MIR SPACE STATION FOR EARTH AFTER OFFICIALLY HANDING THE CRAFT OVER TO A RUSSIAN / U-S TEAM THAT ARRIVED LAST WEEK. V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY REPORTS THAT ONE OF THE RETURNING COSMONAUTS SET A WORLD SPACE ENDURANCE RECORD ON THE FLIGHT. TEXT: VALERY POLYAKOV WILL ENJOY HIS FIRST NORTHERN SPRING ON THE GROUND IN TWO YEARS. WITH COSMONAUTS ALEXANDER VIKTORENKO AND ELENA KONDAKOVA, HE FLOATED THROUGH THE HATCH LATE TUESDAY G-M-T TO BOARD A SOYUZ CAPSULE FOR THE FLIGHT BACK TO KAZAKHSTAN, ENDING 14 MONTHS IN ORBIT. DR. POLYAKOV, A PHYSICIAN, HAD ALREADY BEEN ON MIR WITH TWO PREVIOUS RUSSIAN CREWS WHEN MR. VIKTORENKO AND MS. KONDAKOVA JOINED HIM FIVE-AND-A-HALF MONTHS AGO TO FORM THE 17TH MIR TEAM SINCE THE SPACE STATION WAS LAUNCHED IN 1986. THEY LEAVE BEHIND THE 18TH MIR CREW, WITH WHOM THEY SHARED THE MIR CABIN SINCE LAST THURSDAY -- COSMONAUTS VLADIMIR DEZHUROV AND GENNADY STREKALOV, AND U-S ASTRONAUT NORM THAGARD, THE FIRST AMERICAN ON A RUSSIAN SPACECRAFT. ASTRONAUT THAGARD IS ALSO PHYSICIAN WHO -- LIKE DR. POLYAKOV -- WILL BE CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECT OF WEIGHTLESSNESS ON THE HUMAN BODY. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH A U-S TELEVISION NETWORK TUESDAY, DR. THAGARD SAID HE WOULD MISS HIS MEDICAL COLLEAGUE AFTER LESS THAN ONE WEEK WORKING TOGETHER. // THAGARD ACTUALITY // ONE OF HIS RESPONSIBILITIES WAS TO FAMILIARIZE ME WITH EQUIPMENT -- THE AMERICAN EQUIPMENT THAT WAS BROUGHT ON BOARD BECAUSE HE STORED THAT AWAY, AND HE ALSO INTRODUCED ME TO SOME OF THE NUANCES OF THE RUSSIAN EQUIPMENT WITH WHICH I WILL HAVE TO WORK. SO HE'S BEEN VERY USEFUL. IT'LL BE SAD TO SEE HIM GO -- NOT THE LEAST OF THAT IS NOW I'LL HAVE TO COPE ON MY OWN AND BEFORE I HAD HIS NOT INCONSEQUENTIAL HELP WITH THE EXPERIMENTS THAT I WAS DOING. // END ACTUALITY // IN A JOINT NEWS CONFERENCE HELD BY THE TWO CREWS MONDAY, DR. POLYAKOV SAID THE PURPOSE OF HIS 14 MONTH STAY IN ORBIT WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THE FEASIBILITY OF A FLIGHT TO MARS, AND HE TOLD REPORTERS HE BELIEVES HE SUCCEEDED. THE REPLACEMENT CREW WILL REMAIN ABOARD MIR UNTIL THE U-S SPACE SHUTTLE "ATLANTIS" FLIES UP TO RETRIEVE THEM IN JUNE AND DEPOSIT THE TWO COSMONAUTS WHO WILL BECOME THE 19TH MIR CREW IN NINE YEARS. THAT DOCKING WILL BE THE FIRST U-S / RUSSIAN LINK-UP IN SPACE IN 20 YEARS AND THE FIRST OF SEVEN WITH THE MIR AS THE TWO COUNTRIES PURSUE A JOINT PROGRAM TO LEARN HOW TO WORK TOGETHER IN ORBIT IN PREPARATION FOR BUILDING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION BEGINNING IN 1997. (SIGNED) NEB/DEM/LWM 21-Mar-95 6:11 PM EST (2311 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE= MARCH 22, 1995 TYPE= EDITORIAL NUMBER= 0-06300 TITLE= HOLBROOKE ON NATO CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF TWO EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST MARCH 22, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. VOICE: FOR FORTY-FIVE YEARS, THE COLD WAR CREATED CLEAR CHOICES OF RIGHT AND WRONG AND AN UNAMBIGUOUS DIVIDING LINE IN THE MIDDLE OF EUROPE. BUT WITH THE COLLAPSE OF SOVIET COMMUNISM, THOSE DIVISIONS HAVE CEASED TO EXIST. IN RECENT TESTIMONY BEFORE MEMBERS OF THE U.S. CONGRESS, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAID THE NATO ALLIANCE NOW HAS THE OPPORTUNITY TO HELP SECURE A FREE AND UNDIVIDED CONTINENT. THE BIRTH OF DEMOCRACY IN THE EAST BROUGHT AN EARLY EUPHORIA, WHICH HAS SINCE BEEN REPLACED BY A SOBER APPRECIATION OF NEW PROBLEMS. INTERNAL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC INSTABILITY AND THE RETURN OF HISTORIC GRIEVANCES HAVE REPLACED SOVIET EXPANSIONISM AS THE GREATEST THREAT TO PEACE IN EUROPE. THESE FORCES, MAKE CLEAR AN INESCAPABLE FACT: DESPITE THE COLD WAR'S END, EUROPE STILL NEEDS THE ACTIVE AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT THAT HAS BEEN A NECESSARY COMPONENT OF EUROPEAN PEACE FOR HALF A CENTURY. THE U.S. IS WORKING WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND CANADA TO BUILD A NEW EUROPEAN SECURITY STRUCTURE. THESE EFFORTS FOCUS ON THE U.S. MAINTAINING STRONG RELATIONS WITH WESTERN EUROPE, CONSOLIDATING DEMOCRACY IN CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE NATIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, AND ENGAGING RUSSIA AS A RESPONSIBLE PARTNER. THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE IS AN IMPORTANT TOOL FOR PROMOTING THIS COOPERATION BETWEEN NATO AND ITS NEW PARTNERS TO THE EAST. IT IS ALSO THE BEST PATH TO MEMBERSHIP FOR COUNTRIES WILLING AND ABLE TO JOIN THE ALLIANCE. NATO REMAINS THE ANCHOR OF AMERICAN ENGAGEMENT IN EUROPE AND THE LINCHPIN OF TRANSATLANTIC SECURITY. AS ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE HOLBROOKE SAID, NATO HAS ALWAYS BEEN MORE THAN A TRANSITORY RESPONSE TO A TEMPORARY THREAT -- IT HAS BEEN A GUARANTOR OF EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY AND A FORCE FOR STABILITY. ITS EXPANSION -- NOW BEING STUDIED BY THE SIXTEEN ALLIES IN BRUSSELS -- WILL WORK TO IMPROVE THE PROSPECTS FOR WIDER PEACE ON THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT. ANNCR: THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 21-Mar-95 4:57 PM EST (2157 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175855 TITLE=COPYRIGHT AWARENESS CAMPAIGN (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ANDREW BAIRD DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: IN A WORLD THAT INCREASINGLY AWARDS CREATIVE ENDEAVOR -- WHETHER IT BE IN THE ARTS OR TECHNOLOGY -- THE U-S GOVERNMENT HAS LAUNCHED A NEW COPYRIGHT AWARENESS CAMPAIGN TO PROMOTE THE PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. V-O-A'S ANDREW BAIRD HAS THIS REPORT. TEXT: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY HAS RECEIVED INCREASED ATTENTION RECENTLY, FOLLOWING THE RESOLUTION OF A MAJOR TRADE DISPUTE OVER THE ISSUE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA. THE U-S GOVERNMENT IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER AREAS OF THE WORLD AS WELL. BECAUSE THE NATION'S SCHOOLS ARE THE BIGGEST USERS OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL, THE COPYRIGHT AWARENESS CAMPAIGN IS A JOINT EFFORT BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENTS OF COMMERCE AND EDUCATION. THE ANALYTICAL GROUNDWORK FOR THE CAMPAIGN WAS THE PRODUCT OF THE PRESIDENT'S NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE TASK FORCE. MR. RON BROWN, U-S SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, KICKED OFF THE CAMPAIGN BY ADDRESSING THE ISSUE OF THE NEED FOR BETTER COPYRIGHT PROTECTION IN AN INCREASINGLY TECHNOLOGICAL WORLD. // BROWN ACT // IT IS PERHAPS TOO LITTLE UNDERSTOOD THAT MUCH OF THE INFORMATION THAT IS AVAILABLE VIA THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE IS PROTECTABLE BY COPYRIGHT LAW, AND THAT THOSE PRODUCTS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT REPRESENT SIGNFICIANT INVESTMENT, SIGNIFICANT EFFORT, AND SIGNIFICANT COST TO THEIR OWNERS. // BROWN END ACT // THE COPYRIGHT AWARENESS CAMPAIGN WILL FOCUS ON CURRENT COPYRIGHT REGULATIONS AND HOW THEY CAN BE STRENGTHENED TO BETTER PROTECT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. IT ALSO WILL LOOK AT RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS, SUCH AS MULTI-MEDIA COMPUTER- GENERATED WORKS WHERE PROPER COMPLIANCE WITH COPYRIGHT LAWS IS UNCLEAR. IT WILL ALSO LOOK AT ANTI-PIRACY ISSUES TO INCREASE THE PACE OF ENFORCEMENT IN CASES INVOLVING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY THAT CAN BE EASILY DUPLICATED, ESPECIALLY COMPUTER SOFTWARE. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 21-Mar-95 6:10 PM EST (2310 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/21/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE-TTA COMPUTER SERIES 95-359 NUMBER=3-21321 TITLE=ANTHROPOLOGIST ON THE INTERNET (L) BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: ANTHROPOLOGY IS THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN BEINGS. IT'S THE STUDY OF PEOPLE -- THEIR DISTRIBUTION, ORIGIN, CLASSIFICATION AND RACIAL COMPOSITION. AS DAN NOBLE REPORTS, THERE IS A ROLE FOR ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE HIGH-TECH COMMUNITY. TEXT: LEE BAKER IS AN ANTHROPOLOGIST ASSOCIATED WITH THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. HE ALSO OPERATES AN ELECTRONIC DICUSSION GROUP, ON THE INTERNET, CALLED "CRITICAL ISSUES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN LIFE AND CULTURE. TAPE: CUT ONE -- LEE BAKER (0:17) "A DISCUSSION LIST IS ONE OF THE WELL USED VEHICLES OF THE INTERNET. WHAT IT DOES IS IT BRINGS PEOPLE TOGETHER ALL OVER THE WORLD THAT HAVE COMMON INTERESTS, OR PARTICULAR HOBBIES, OR ISSUES THAT THEY WANT TO SHARE." TEXT: PROFESSOR BAKER SAYS THAT HIS DISCUSSION GROUP IS USED BY A DIVERSE COMMUNITY. TAPE: CUT TWO -- LEE BAKER (0:38) "IT IS A VEHICLE FOR A LOT OF COLLEGE STUDENT, OFTEN TIMES PROFESSORS. MORE AND MORE PEOPLE ON AMERICA ONLINE AND COMPUSERVE ARE CHIMING INTO THE DEBATE -- AND IT SHARES INFORMATION AND DISCUSSIONS ABOUT CRITICAL ISSUES: EVERYTHING FROM AFFIRMATIVE ACTION. IT IS A VEHICLE FOR SHARING JOBS, NETWORKING, INFORMATION, TIDBITS OF INFORMATION WITH REGARD TO SPECIFIC JOBS AROUND THE COUNTRY. PEOPLE USE MY LIST TO DO THAT. IT IS ALSO A VEHICLE FOR COMMENTARY. IF YOU CAN'T GET IT PUBLISHED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES, WELL 500-PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD WILL BE READING THAT IF YOU WANT TO POST IT TO THE LIST." TEXT: ACCORDING TO LEE BAKER OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, THE INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY MAKES IT EASIER FOR HIM -- AND OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS -- TO CONDUCT RESEARCH. TAPE: CUT THREE -- LEE BAKER (0:48) "ONE OF THE BEST VEHICLES FOR ACCESSING SOCIAL SCIENCE IS PEOPLE THEMSELVES. AND, THERE'S A WHOLE HOST OF DISCIPLINE-SPECIFIC USE LISTS OR THESE DISCUSSION LISTS; EVEN MORE FOR SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, IN PARTICULAR. I'M DOING RESEARCH (FOR EXAMPLE) ON 'X," "Y" AND "Z," AND PEOPLE ARE VERY GENEROUS WITH THEIR INFORMATION. IT IS ALMOST AMAZING HOW GENEROUS. SEARCHING THE COLLECTIVITY OF PEOPLE'S BRAINS OPPOSED TO A DATABASE, I FIND FAR MORE EFFECTIVE THAN TRYING TO DO A SEARCH. YOU DO FIND EXPERTS IN THESE FIELDS AND THEY DO HAVE THEIR OWN BIBLIOGRAPHY IN THEIR HEADS. THAT BECOMES A REAL VEHICLE FOR SHARING SPECIFIC INFORMATION." TEXT: AND, THE ANTHROPOLOGIST SAYS THAT WHILE COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY HELPS HIM IN HIS WORK, THERE IS -- IN HIS WORDS -- "A FALLACY THAT COMPUTERS MAKE THE INTERNET AND THE INFORMATION MAKES YOUR WORK EASIER." TAPE: CUT FOUR -- LEE BAKER (0:28) "ONE HAS TO PUT THIS INTO A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. MANY PEOPLE THOUGHT THE ASSEMBLY LINE WOULD MAKE PEOPLE'S WORK EASIER. MANY THOUGHT THAT MORE EFFICIENT ASSEMBLY LINES WOULD MAKE PEOPLE'S WORK EASIER, AND ON AND ON AND ON. WHAT HAPPENS IS THAT PEOPLE STILL WORK AS HARD AND THE SAME REGULATIONS ARE STILL NEVER IMPOSED. AS PEOPLE'S PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY INCREASES, IT STILL DOESN'T MEAN THAT YOU ARE WORKING LESS, OR WORKING LESS." TEXT: AS AN ANTHROPOLOGIST, LEE BAKER AT JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY CONTINUES HIS STUDY OF PEOPLE. AND, HE'S ADDED TO HIS EFFORTS ONE OF HUMANKIND'S NEWEST TOOLS: HIGH-TECH COMPUTERS. (FROM TALK TO AMERICA, MARCH 17) 21-Mar-95 4:07 PM EST (2107 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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the internet th.zip
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DATE=3/22/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175885 TITLE=E-U FILM (L-ONLY) BYLINE=JOHN FRASER DATELINE=BRUSSELS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IN BRUSSELS HAS CALLED ON EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENTS TO TIGHTEN THE RULES ON USE OF FOREIGN TELEVISION PROGRAMS. THE PROPOSALS WOULD RESTRICT THE AMOUNT OF AMERICAN AND OTHER NON-EUROPEAN UNION MATERIAL WHICH CAN BE SHOWN ON T-V STATIONS INSIDE THE 15-NATION BLOC. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS. TEXT: THE 20-STRONG EUROPEAN COMMISSION HAS RECONFIRMED THAT ORDINARY TELEVISION CHANNELS WILL HAVE TO BROADCAST E-U -MADE DRAMA, FILMS AND DOCUMENTARIES FOR AT LEAST HALF OF THEIR OUTPUT. IN OTHER WORDS, IMPORTS FROM AMERICA, AUSTRALIA AND ELSEWHERE WILL BE RESTRICTED TO LESS THAN HALF OF TOTAL BROADCASTING TIME. THE 50 PERCENT T-V QUOTAS WILL BE TIGHTLY APPLIED FOR 10 YEARS AFTER WHICH THEY WILL BE DROPPED. HOWEVER, THEMATIC CHANNELS, SUCH AS CARTOON NETWORKS OR THOSE THAT SHOW OLD MOVIES OR DOCUMENTARIES, WILL BE TREATED DIFFERENTLY. THEY CAN EITHER OBSERVE THE 50 PERCENT QUOTA FOR EUROPEAN OUTPUT OR INVEST A QUARTER OF THEIR PROGRAM BUDGETS IN EUROPEAN PROGRAM PRODUCTION. MEANWHILE, E-U COMMISSIONERS HAVE ALSO DECIDED THAT VIDEO ON DEMAND SERVICES, UNDER WHICH FILMS ARE BEAMED DOWN TELEPHONE LINES, WILL BE EXCLUDED FORM THE 50 PERCENT QUOTA RULES. HOWEVER, THEY WARN THAT REGULATIONS TO PROTECT YOUNG PEOPLE FROM PORNOGRAPHY AND VIOLENCE WILL APPLY TO DIAL-A-VIDEO SERVICES. THE NEW T-V PLANS WILL BE PUT TO EUROPEAN UNION CULTURE MINISTERS, WHO WILL MEET IN LUXEMBOURG EARLY NEXT MONTH. BRUSSELS COMMISSIONER MARCELINO OREJA HAS PROMISED THAT HE WILL ALSO BE COMING UP WITH NEW PROPOSALS TO HELP BOOST THE EUROPEAN AUDIO-VISUAL INDUSTRY. HE SAYS HIS AIM IS TO ENCOURAGE EUROPEAN PROGRAM MAKING AND TO ENSURE THAT IT IS COMPETITIVE. HE ARGUES THAT EUROPEAN CULTURE AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY MUST BE EXPRESSED. AS WELL AS USING REGULATION, HE WANTS TO GIVE ENCOURAGEMENT AND FINANCIAL INCENTIVES TO THE E-U AUDIO VISUAL INDUSTRY. THE NEW IDEAS ON PROTECTING EUROPEAN T-V PROGRAM MAKERS ARE LIKELY TO BE WELCOMED IN EUROPE, BUT HAVE ALREADY ANGERED THE MOVIE MOGULS OF HOLLYWOOD. (SIGNED) NEB/JF/SKH/GPT 22-Mar-95 9:30 AM EST (1430 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/22/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175910 TITLE=MICROSOFT/MOVIES (L-ONLY) BYLINE=BRECK ARDERY DATELINE=NEW YORK CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY, ANNOUNCED WEDNESDAY THAT IT WILL PARTICIPATE IN A JOINT VENTURE TO PRODUCE ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK. TEXT: MICROSOFT WILL JOIN FORCES WITH "DREAMWORKS," A NEW MOTION PICTURE STUDIO WHICH WAS FORMED LAST YEAR. DREAMWORKS WAS FOUNDED BY THREE VERY SUCCESSFUL ENTERTAINMENT EXECUTIVES, MOVIE DIRECTOR STEVEN SPIELBERG, FORMER WALT DISNEY EXECUTIVE JEFFREY KATZENBERG AND MUSIC PRODUCER DAVID GEFFEN. EQUALLY SUCCESSFUL IN HIS OWN FIELD IS BILL GATES, FOUNDER OF MICROSOFT. HE HAS A REPUTATION FOR KEEPING HIS COMPANY ON THE LEADING EDGE OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT. THE JOINT VENTURE, TO BE FUNDED BY BOTH MICROSOFT AND DREAMWORKS, WILL PRODUCE INTERACTIVE AND MULTIMEDIA ENTERTAINMENT. AMONG THE FIRST PRODUCTS, EXPECTED TO BE AVAILABLE BY LATE 1996, WILL BE ADVENTURE GAMES AND STORIES FOR USE IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS. AT A BRIEFING FOR REPORTERS AT MICROSOFT HEADQUARTERS IN REDMOND, WASHINGTON, BILL GATES SAID HE AND HIS PARTNERS HAVE BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE JOINT VENTURE FOR SOME TIME. /// GATES ACT /// IT HAS BEEN A LOT OF FUN TO START A DIALOGUE WITH THE GUYS FROM DREAMWORKS. WE HAVE SHARED OUR VISION OF WHAT IS POSSIBLE AND SAT UP LATE AT NIGHT AND TALKED ABOUT HOW THE WORLD IS GOING TO BE DIFFERENT AND THOUGHT ABOUT HOW WE COULD BRING WHAT MICROSOFT HAS BEEN GOOD AT AND WHAT THEY ARE GOOD AT AND BRING THAT TOGETHER. /// END ACT /// THE JOINT VENTURE WILL GIVE DREAMWORKS ACCESS TO THE LATEST IN COMPUTERIZED ANIMATION TECHNOLOGY. THE USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN MOTION PICTURES IS NOT NEW. STEVEN SPIELBERG NOTED THAT HE HAS USED IT IN SUCH FILMS AS "CLOSE ENCOUNTERS" AND "JURASSIC PARK." HOWEVER THE JOINT VENTURE IS EXPECTED TO ACCELERATE THE INTEGRATION OF THE LATEST COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INTO BOTH PUBLICLY EXHIBITED FILMS AND HOME ENTERTAINMENT. (SIGNED) NY/BA/LSF/LWM 22-Mar-95 5:32 PM EST (2232 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/22/95 TYPE=TO YOUR HEALTH #227 NUMBER=3-21340 TITLE=NEW NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT TOOL TO BOOST ELDER HEALTH (L) BYLINE=VALERIE GARTSEFF TELEPHONE=619-0928 DATELINE=WASHINGTON,D.C. EDITOR=VOHS CONTENT=(INSERTS IN SOD) INTRO: WITH THE AGING POPULATION INCREASING THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, PROPER NUTRITION OF THE ELDERLY IS MORE CRITICAL THAN EVER FOR BETTER QUALITY OF LIFE. NOW RESEARCHERS HAVE DEVELOPED A QUICK, SIMPLE SCREENING TEST TO HELP HEALTH PRACTITIONERS ASSESS THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THEIR GERIATRIC PATIENTS AND IMPROVE THEIR HEALTH. VALERIE GARTSEFF HAS A REPORT: TEXT: WITH MORE PEOPLE LIVING LONGER THAN EVER BEFORE, QUALITY-OF-LIFE AMONG THE ELDERLY POPULATION HAS BECOME A PRIMARY CONCERN. ///OPT/// PEOPLE OVER AGE 85, IN FACT, ARE THE FASTEST GROWING SEGMENT OF THE U.S. POPULATION, AND THEIR NUTRITIONAL NEEDS WILL BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN EVER. ///END OPT/// DR. IRWIN ROSENBERG, DIRECTOR OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE'S HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY RECENTLY SPOKE AT A WASHINGTON, D.C. CONFERENCE ON "NUTRITION RESEARCH AND THE ELDERLY." HE SAYS THAT LOSS OF FUNCTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IS NOT ITSELF A PHENOMENON OF AGING. INSTEAD, IT'S OFTEN CLOSELY RELATED TO IMPROPER BEHAVIOR, ESPECIALLY POOR DIET AND LACK OF PROPER PHYSICAL EXERCISE: TAPE: CUT ONE: ROSENBERG :13 "WE HAVE TO THEN TAKE THE MUCH MORE OPTIMISTIC VIEW THAT WE CAN INTERVENE, WE CAN INFLUENCE THOSE CHANGES BY INTERVENTIONS THAT WE KNOW TO BE EFFECTIVE." TEXT: RESEARCHERS HAVE NOW DEVELOPED A SIMPLE NUTRITIONAL TOOL TO ASSESS ELDERLY AT RISK FOR MALNUTRITION. IT IS THE FIRST EVER TO BE VALIDATED THROUGH TESTS ON OVER 600 ELDERLY IN EUROPE AND AMERICA. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY THE NESTLE RESEARCH CENTER IN LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND AND THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN TOULOUSE, FRANCE. HUGH TUCKER, OF THE CLINTEC NUTRITION COMPANY, SAYS THIS "MINI" NUTRITIONAL SCREENING TEST IS A MAJOR ADVANCE. THE TEST CONSISTS OF SIMPLE MEASUREMENTS AND A BRIEF QUESTIONNAIRE, AND CAN BE PERFORMED IN 15 MINUTES. TAPE: CUT TWO: TUCKER :38 "WE FEEL THIS KIND OF ASSESSMENT, WHICH IS REALLY VERY SIMPLE TO DO, WILL ALLOW THE IDENTIFICATION OF THESE INDIVIDUALS. ///OPT//// IN FRANCE, WE ARE BEGINNING NOW AN INTERVENTION STUDY WHICH WILL LOOK AT THE INDIVIDUALS WHO SCORE LOW ON THIS MINI-NUTRITION ASSESSESSMENT SCORING TOOL THAT PROVIDES INFORMATION IF THEY'RE AT RISK FOR MALNUTRITION OR FRANKLY MALNOURISHED. AND WITH INTERVENTION, THEN, WE CAN LOOK AT OUTCOMES AND QUANTIFY THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FEEDING OR NOT FEEDING SUPPLEMENTS TO THESE INDIVIDUALS." ///END OPT/// TEXT: POOR EATING HABITS, ILL-FITTING DENTURES, OR MEDICATIONS THAT INFLUENCE APPETITE ARE ALL REASONS WHY SOME OLDER PEOPLE MAY BECOME MALNOURISHED. ALSO ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION, LIMITED RETIREMENT INCOME, LIVING ALONE, AND HAVING NO CHILDREN OR NONE NEARBY ARE ALSO FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO IMPROPER NUTRITION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE. ///OPT/// HUGH TUCKER SAYS THE NEW "MINI" NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT CAN HELP HEALTH PRACTITIONERS MORE QUICKLY EVALUATE THE STATUS OF THEIR GERIATRIC PATIENTS IN ANY SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING: TAPE: CUT THREE: TUCKER :11 "SO IT MAKES IT APPROPRIATE FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD AS WELL AS SOME OF OUR MORE LIMITED-RESOURCED INSTITUTIONS BOTH IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES." ///END OPT/// TEXT: ALSO SPEAKING AT THE CONFERENCE WAS GERIATRICIAN DR. ANNE EGBERT, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. SHE APPLAUDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE "MINI" NUTRITIONAL SCREENING TEST. HAVING TREATED OVER 550 ELDERLY PATIENTS OVER THE LAST TWELVE YEARS, SHE SAYS SOME OF THEM ARE AT RISK FOR A SERIOUS HEALTH CONDITION CALLED "GERIATRIC FAILURE-TO-THRIVE" THAT CAN LEAD TO EARLY DEATH. THIS STATE OF MALNUTRITION AMONG THE ELDERLY OFTEN ACCOMPANIES OTHER HEALTH PROBLEMS, SUCH AS SERIOUS PHYSICAL DISEASE, CHRONIC PAIN, OR EMOTIONAL LOSS OR SOCIAL ISOLATION. THEN COMES THE GRADUAL LOSS OF ABILITY TO CARE FOR ONE'S SELF. DR. EGBERT SAYS IMPROPER NUTRITION IS A KEY FACTOR INVOLVED IN THIS CONDITION: TAPE: CUT FOUR: EGBERT :21 "FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN ONE DOES NOT EAT PROPERLY, ONE CAN BECOME DEPRESSED ON A PHYSICAL BASIS. IN THE SAME WAY, ONE CAN BECOME DEMENTED OR INTELLECTUALLY CONFUSED FROM FAILURE TO EAT PROPER NUTRIENTS. ON THE OTHER HAND, IT'S KNOWN THAT DEMENTED ELDERS OFTEN FAIL TO EAT PROPERLY BECAUSE THEY DON'T FEEL LIKE EATING OR THEY DON'T WANT TO EAT." TEXT: BUT WITH PROPER INTERVENTION, SUCH AS THE "MINI" NUTRITIONAL SCREENING TEST, GERIATRIC SPECIALIST ANNE EGBERT INSISTS THIS DOWNWARD SPIRAL TO DEATH CAN BE INTERRUPTED. SHE ADVISES ANYONE WITH AN ELDERLY FRIEND OR RELATIVE TO HAVE THAT PERSON CHECKED BY A PHYSICIAN SPECIALIZING IN GERIATRICS, AS WELL AS A NUTRITIONIST AND A SOCIAL WORKER TO ASSESS THE SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THEIR HEALTH PROBLEM. HOPEFULLY, WHATEVER IS CAUSING AN ELDERLY RELATIVE TO DWINDLE OR FADE AWAY CAN BE TREATED BEFORE THEY FADE AWAY TO DEATH. 22-Mar-95 4:49 PM EST (2149 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3-23-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17043 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGLISH SCIENCE REPORT - WESTINGHOUSE SCIENCE WINNERS BYLINE=NANCY STEINBACH TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=MARILYN CHRISTIANO CONTENT= THIS IS ________________ WITH THE SPECIAL ENGLISH SCIENCE REPORT. A STUDY OF A CANCER CELL WON FIRST PRIZE IN THE YEARLY WESTINGHOUSE SCIENCE TALENT SEARCH. A SEVENTEEN-YEAR-OLD AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT, IRENE ANNE CHEN OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, WON THE TOP AWARD OF FORTY-THOUSAND DOLLARS. SHE EXAMINED TWO GENES FROM A LYMPHOMA CANCER CELL. SHE STUDIED HOW THEY ARE INVOLVED IN THE SPREAD OF CANCER. THE WESTINGHOUSE SCIENCE COMPETITION IS THE OLDEST EFFORT IN THE UNITED STATES TO HONOR WORK IN SCIENCE. THE WINNERS RECEIVE MONEY FOR A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. THIS YEAR, MORE THAN ONE-THOUSAND-SIX-HUNDRED STUDENTS ENTERED THE COMPETITION. FORTY WERE INVITED TO WASHINGTON, D.C. FOR THE FINAL JUDGING. THE TEN JUDGES WERE WELL-KNOWN SCIENTISTS. THEY LOOKED FOR CREATIVITY IN THE PROJECTS. THEY ALSO QUESTIONED THE STUDENTS ABOUT ALL KINDS OF SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS BEFORE DECIDING ON THE TEN WINNERS. THE SECOND PLACE WINNER IS SEVENTEEN YEAR OLD TRACY CAROLINE PHILLIPS FROM LONG BEACH, NEW YORK. SHE WON THIRTY-THOUSAND DOLLARS FOR DEVELOPING AN ELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR PEOPLE WHO CANNOT SEE. THE DEVICE HELPS BLIND PEOPLE TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PAPER MONEY OF DIFFERENT AMOUNTS. THE THIRD PLACE WINNER WON TWENTY-THOUSAND DOLLARS. HE IS MARTIN TIBOR STIASZNY OF OVERLAND PARK, KANSAS. HIS CHEMISTRY PROJECT COMPARED TWO KINDS OF MOLECULES TO SEE IF THEY CAN BE USED MORE EFFECTIVELY IN DESIGNING DRUGS. THIS YEAR, FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE WESTINGHOUSE COMPETITION PRESENTED AN AWARD FOR THE PROJECT OF A STUDENT WHO HAD DIED. SOO YEUN KIM OF BROOKVILLE, NEW YORK WAS KILLED IN A CAR ACCIDENT IN NOVEMBER. HER FRIENDS COMPLETED HER PROJECT AND ENTERED IT IN THE COMPETITION. THE WESTINGHOUSE JUDGES CHOSE IT AS A FINALIST WITHOUT KNOWING SHE HAD DIED. AT THE AWARD CEREMONY, THEY PRESENTED FIVE-THOUSAND DOLLARS TO THE HIGH SCHOOL SHE ATTENDED. THE WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY BEGAN ITS SCIENCE COMPETITION FIFTY-FOUR YEARS AGO. IT WANTED TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS INTERESTED IN SCIENCE. MORE THAN NINETY-FIVE PERCENT OF ITS WINNERS HAVE COMPLETED UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS OR ENGINEERING. FIVE WINNERS OF THE WESTINGHOUSE SCIENCE COMPETITION LATER RECEIVED THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. THIS SCIENCE REPORT WAS WRITTEN BY NANCY STEINBACH. THIS IS _____________. 22-Mar-95 4:33 PM EST (2133 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175942 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY HAS MADE TERRITORIAL GAINS AND MAY HAVE CAPTURED AN IMPORTANT SERB COMMUNICATIONS FACILITY DURING AN OFFENSIVE IN NORTHERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS MILITARY COMMAND IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE MUSLIMS APPEAR TO HAVE ADVANCED TWO OR THREE KILOMETERS INTO SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN FIGHTING NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA. THE COMMAND SAYS THE MUSLIMS MAY HAVE CAPTURED AN IMPORTANT SERB COMMUNICATIONS TOWER ON MOUNT STOLICE. THE TOWER IS USED TO RELAY TELEVISION BROADCASTS AND TELEPHONE COMMUNICATIONS AND IS BELIEVED VITAL TO SERB MILITARY COMMAND AND CONTROL OPERATIONS. BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC HAS WARNED THAT THE SERBS WILL LAUNCH A MAJOR COUNTER-OFFENSIVE IF THE BOSNIAN ARMY DOES NOT STOP ITS OFFENSIVE IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. A U-N MILITARY SPOKESMAN SAYS THE MUSLIM OFFENSIVE IS MORE THAN A VIOLATION OF THE OFFICIAL CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS IT IS ALL-OUT COMBAT. MORE FIERCE FIGHTING IS ALSO REPORTED IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. SARAJEVO RADIO REPORTS THAT THE LATEST SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL ATTACKS ON GOVERNMENT FORCES IN THAT AREA HAVE BEEN BEATEN BACK. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/MMK 23-Mar-95 8:57 AM EST (1357 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1501 total bytes, 1501 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175945 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY HAS MADE SOME TERRITORIAL GAINS AND MAY HAVE CAPTURED A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE IN ITS NEW OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: A UNITED NATIONS MILITARY SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE BOSNIAN ARMY HAS PUSHED TWO OR THREE KILOMETERS INTO SERB-HELD TERRITORY DURING INTENSE FIGHTING IN MOUNTAINS NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA. THE SPOKESMAN SAYS GOVERNMENT FORCES MAY HAVE CAPTURED A SERB COMMUNICATIONS TOWER. THE FACILITY RELAYS TELEVISION BROADCASTS AND TELEPHONE COMMUNICATIONS AND IS CONSIDERED VITAL TO THE SERBS' MILITARY COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM. BESIDES TRYING TO CAPTURE THE COMMUNICATIONS FACILITY, THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS BELIEVING TRYING TO PUSH SERB ARTILLERY OUT OF SHELLING RANGE OF TUZLA AND THE TOWN'S AIRPORT. THE MUSLIM OFFENSIVE HAS CONTINUED DESPITE A HEAVY, EARLY SPRING SNOWFALL THAT WOULD HAVE AFFECTED THE ADVANCE OF GOVERNMENT TROOPS. THE SERBS DENY GIVING UP ANY GROUND IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. BUT, THEY HAVE WARNED THAT THEY WILL LAUNCH A MASSIVE COUNTER-OFFENSIVE IF GOVERNMENT TROOPS DO NOT STOP THEIR ATTACKS AROUND TUZLA. LAST YEAR, GOVERNMENT TROOPS SEIZED A LARGE AMOUNT OF TERRITORY WHEN THEY LAUNCHED AN UNPRECEDENTED OFFENSIVE FROM WITHIN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC. BUT, THE SERBS REGROUPED, RESUPPLIED AND REINFORCED THEIR TROOPS AND LAUNCHED A COUNTER-OFFENSIVE. GOVERNMENT GAINS WERE WIPED OUT, AND SERB-BACKED MUSLIM REBELS RETOOK THEIR STRONGHOLD IN ONE PART OF THE BIHAC ENCLAVE. DESPITE THE CURRENT FIGHTING IN NORTHERN BOSNIA, THE UNITED NATIONS PLANS TO RESUME THE SARAJEVO AIRLIFT ON FRIDAY AFTER A NEARLY TWO-WEEK-LONG SUSPENSION. THE SERBS HAVE GIVEN VERBAL ASSURANCES THAT THEY WILL NOT SHOOT AT ANY MORE RELIEF FLIGHTS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/MMK 23-Mar-95 10:49 AM EST (1549 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2059 total bytes, 2059 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3-24-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17048 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGLISH AMERICAN MOSAIC #501-OSCAR NOMINATED SONGS BYLINE=NANCY STEINBACH TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=MARILYN CHRISTIANO CONTENT= HOST: MANY MOTION PICTURE ARTISTS WILL BE HONORED MONDAY, MARCH TWENTY-SEVENTH. THAT IS WHEN THE AMERICAN FILM INDUSTRY PRESENTS ITS YEARLY AWARDS, THE "OSCARS." THE INDUSTRY WILL HONOR THE BEST ACTORS, DIRECTORS, TECHNICAL EXPERTS AND SONGWRITERS WHO HELPED MAKE MOVIES IN NINETEEN-NINETY-FOUR. __________ TELLS US ABOUT THE NOMINATIONS FOR BEST SONG. ANNCR: FIVE SONGS ARE NOMINATED AS BEST SONG WRITTEN FOR A MOVIE. THREE ARE FROM THE CARTOON FILM, "THE LION KING." ONE IS CALLED "HAKUNA MATATA." ANOTHER IS "CAN YOU FEEL THE LOVE TONIGHT?" THE THIRD IS THIS ONE, "CIRCLE OF LIFE": ((CUT 1: CIRCLE OF LIFE)) ANOTHER SONG NOMINATED FOR AN OSCAR THIS YEAR IS FROM THE MOVIE "JUNIOR." IT IS CALLED "LOOK WHAT LOVE HAS DONE": ((CUT 2: LOOK WHAT LOVE HAS DONE)) ALSO NOMINATED FOR AN OSCAR THIS YEAR IS A SONG FROM THE MOVIE "THE PAPER." WE LEAVE YOU NOW WITH THAT SONG, "MAKE UP YOUR MIND": ((CUT 3: MAKE UP YOUR MIND)) 23-Mar-95 3:50 PM EST (2050 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1265 total bytes, 1265 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175931 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER-KOZYREV OPENER (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAVE OPENED THE SECOND DAY OF THEIR GENEVA TALKS DESIGNED TO PREPARE THE MOSCOW SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN THEIR PRESIDENTS NEXT MAY. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA, THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IS PLAYING DOWN THEIR DIFFERENCES. TEXT: AS THEY OPENED THURSDAY'S MEETING AT THE RUSSIAN MISSION HERE, FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV TOLD REPORTERS THAT THE BATTLE IN CHECHNYA IS NOT A PROBLEM ON THE ROAD TO HALIFAX. THAT IS A REFERENCE TO SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER'S REJECTION OF AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR RUSSIA AT NEXT JUNE'S GROUP-OF-SEVEN ECONOMIC SUMMIT MEETING IN HALIFAX, CANADA. ACCORDING TO AMERICAN OFFICIALS, MR. KOZYREV ASKED FOR A LARGER ROLE FOR PRESIDENT YELTSIN IN HALIFAX AT LAST NIGHT'S DINNER AND MR. CHRISTOPHER REPLIED THAT IS NOT POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE RUSSIAN MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN CHECHNYA. FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV ALSO SAYS THE RUSSIAN SALE OF NUCLEAR REACTORS TO IRAN IS NOT A PROBLEM BECAUSE IRAN IS A SIGNATORY TO THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY AND ALLOWS INSPECTIONS BY THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER CONTENDS IRAN IS AN OUTLAW STATE THAT CANNOT BE TRUSTED WITH NUCLEAR MATERIAL. U-S OFFICIALS SAY RUSSIA IS IN IRAN'S NEIGHBORHOOD AND WILL BE THE FIRST TO REGRET GIVING IRAN A NUCLEAR POTENTIAL. AT THE SAME TIME, THE OFFICIALS SAY A DISPUTE OVER RUSSIA'S CONVENTIONAL ARMS SALES TO IRAN SHOULD BE RESOLVED BY THE TIME PRESIDENT CLINTON ARRIVES IN MOSCOW NEXT MAY. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / SKH 23-Mar-95 5:07 AM EST (1007 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175952 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER/KOZYREV (L) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER AND RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAVE CONCLUDED TWO DAYS OF TALKS IN GENEVA, AS PART OF PREPARATIONS FOR NEXT MAY'S RUSSIAN-AMERICAN SUMMIT MEETING IN MOSCOW. THERE WERE NO MAJOR ANNOUNCEMENTS AFTER THE TALKS. BUT AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN GENEVA, IT WAS CLEAR THAT THE TWO SIDES CONTINUE TO DIFFER ON SOME KEY ISSUES. TEXT: SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER SAID THE MAIN TASK OF THE MEETING HERE WAS TO SET THE AGENDA FOR THE UPCOMING MOSCOW SUMMIT. HE REPORTED A GOOD AND THOROUGH EXCHANGE ON A WIDE RANGE OF ISSUES, BUT SAID MUCH WORK REMAINS TO BE DONE TO ENSURE THE SUCCESS OF THE MOSCOW MEETING. BOTH MR. CHRISTOPHER AND FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV ACKNOWLEDGED THEIR CONTINUING DIFFERENCES ON ISSUES LIKE THE EXPANSION OF THE NATO ALLIANCE, THE WAR IN CHECHNYA AND MOSCOW'S PLAN TO SELL NUCLEAR REACTORS TO IRAN. THERE WAS NO PUBLIC HINT OF PROGRESS ON ANY OF THOSE ISSUES, BUT BOTH MEN STRESSED THEIR DETERMINATION TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEMS IN A COOPERATIVE RATHER THAN CONFRONTATIONAL MANNER. IN RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS, MR. KOZYREV ACKNOWLEDGED THAT THE HONEYMOON IN U-S RUSSIAN RELATIONS THAT FOLLOWED THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION IS OVER. IT DID NOT END IN DIVORCE, HE SAID, BUT RATHER IN A GROWING ABILITY TO JOINTLY RESOLVE PROBLEMS. SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER MADE A SIMILAR COMMENT. ///CHRISTOPHER ACT/// BOTH OF US UNDERSTAND THE STAKE THAT OUR COUNTRIES AND THE WHOLE WORLD HAVE IN SEEING THAT THE U-S / RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIP REMAINS A CONSTRUCTIVE ONE. AS I HAVE SAID REPEATEDLY, THIS IS A COMPLEX, MULTI-FACETED RELATIONSHIP. IT INCLUDES IMPORTANT AREAS OF COOPERATION AS WELL AS AREAS IN WHICH THERE ARE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN US. WHERE THERE ARE DIFFERENCES, WE ARE DETERMINED TO ADDRESS THEM DIRECTLY AND CANDIDLY. ///END ACT/// MR. CHRISTOPHER SAID THE SUMMIT AGENDA WILL INCLUDE EUROPEAN SECURITY, ARMS CONTROL, THE CHECHEN CONFLICT, THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS AND IRAN'S NUCLEAR AMBITIONS. HE SAID PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND YELTSIN WILL ALSO DISCUSS THE ONGOING CRISIS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV SAID HE PRESENTED SOME NEW IDEAS ON THE BALKAN CONFLICT DURING THURSDAY'S TALKS HERE, ADDING THAT HE WAS ENCOURAGED BY SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER'S RESPONSE. HE DID NOT ELABORATE. BUT A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL, BRIEFING REPORTERS AFTER THE MEETING, SAID THERE WAS NOTHING NEW IN THE RUSSIAN PROPOSALS. A U-S NEWSPAPER REPORT (WASHINGTON TIMES) SAYS MOSCOW HAS PERSUADED THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT TO ENDORSE A PEACE PLAN THAT INCLUDES SERBIAN RECOGNITION OF BOTH BOSNIA AND CROATIA IN EXCHANGE FOR AN END TO THE CRIPPLING U-N ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST BELGRADE. AT THURSDAY'S NEWS CONFERENCE HERE, MR. KOZYREV DID NOT CONFIRM THAT REPORT, BUT SAID NEW RUSSIAN IDEAS FOR A SETTLEMENT WILL BE DISCUSSED AT AN UPCOMING MEETING OF THE FIVE POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 23-Mar-95 12:33 PM EST (1733 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3295 total bytes, 3295 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/22/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175920 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER/ KOZYREV O'NITER (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAVE OPENED TWO DAYS OF TALKS DESIGNED TO PREPARE THE MAY 9TH MOSCOW SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON AND BORIS YELTSIN. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA, MR. CHRISTOPHER IS WARNING MR. KOZYREV RUSSIA'S INTERNATIONAL STANDING IS IN DANGER. TEXT: AT A DINNER MEETING WITH FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV, SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER TOLD HIM AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR RUSSIA IN THE GROUP OF SEVEN SUMMIT MEETING IS NOT POSSIBLE IF THE CONFLICT IN CHECHNYA CONTINUES. THE SECRETARY OF STATE TOLD REPORTERS BEFORE THE DINNER, WORLD OPINION WILL NOT PERMIT A WIDER INTERNATIONAL ROLE FOR RUSSIA. /// CHRISTOPHER ACT /// I THINK THE EVOLVEMENT OF THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE G-7 WILL BE AFFECTED BY WORLD OPINION AND WORLD JUDGMENT AND WORLD AS A WHOLE MAKES ABOUT THEIR CONDUCT. /// END ACT /// A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL SAYS RUSSIA WILL NOT BE DOWNGRADED AT THE NEXT SUMMIT MEETING OF THE WORLD'S SEVEN ECONOMIC POWERS IN JUNE IN CANADA. AT THE SAME TIME, THE OFFICIAL SAYS A REVERSAL OF ECONOMIC REFORM EFFORTS OR A CONTINUATION OF THE WAR IN CHECHNYA WILL PUT RUSSIA'S INTERNATIONAL STANDING INTO QUESTION. THE SECRETARY OF STATE CALLS RUSSIA'S MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN CHECHNYA A SERIOUS ERROR AND QUITE FOOLHARDY. MR. CHRISTOPHER SAYS IT IS IN RUSSIA'S INTEREST TO END THE WAR AS WELL AS TO STOP THE SALE OF NUCLEAR REACTORS TO IRAN. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/BD/LWM 22-Mar-95 8:09 PM EST (0109 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1771 total bytes, 1771 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175944 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER-KOZYREV UPDATE (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAVE ENDED TWO DAYS OF TALKS IN GENEVA DESIGNED TO PREPARE NEXT MAY'S U-S / RUSSIAN SUMMIT MEETING IN MOSCOW. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA THEY MANAGED TO PUT THEIR DIFFERENCES IN THE BACKGROUND. TEXT: RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV AGREES THE HONEYMOON IS OVER BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA BUT THAT DOES NOT MEAN THE MARRIAGE IS FINISHED. SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, HE TELLS REPORTERS THE RELATIONSHIP IS MATURE. // KOZYREV W/ INTERPRETER ACT // A SOBERING PERIOD IN THE WAKE OF THE HONEYMOON ENDED NOT IN DIVORCE BUT RATHER IN A GROWING ABILITY TO RESOLVE JOINTLY PROBLEMS THAT WE FACE. SOMETHING THAT WE WON'T ALLOW TO HAPPEN IS UNFAITHFULNESS. // END ACT // THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE AGREED TO SET UP A WORKING GROUP TO TRY TO RESOLVE A DISAGREEMENT ABOUT THE PROPOSED SALE OF RUSSIAN LIGHT WATER REACTORS TO IRAN. MR. KOZYREV SAYS RUSSIA BELIEVES IRAN IS IN CONFORMITY WITH THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY BUT HE SAYS THE ISSUE WILL BE DISCUSSED COOPERATIVELY WITH THE UNITED STATES. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER SAYS HE GAVE MR. KOZYREV AMERICAN INFORMATION ABOUT IRAN'S NUCLEAR WEAPONS AMBITIONS. FEW OF THE U-S / RUSSIAN DISGAGREEMENTS ABOUT IRAN, CHECHNYA AND NATO ARE EXPECTED TO BE RESOLVED BEFORE PRESIDENT CLINTON VISITS MOSCOW NEXT MAY. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/CF 23-Mar-95 10:40 AM EST (1540 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1760 total bytes, 1760 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/22/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175921 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER / KOZYREV OVERNIGHTER (L) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER HAS OPENED TWO DAYS OF TALKS WITH RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV IN GENEVA DESIGNED TO PREPARE THE AGENDA FOR THE MAY 9TH SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND YELTSIN. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA, THE UNITED STATES IS TRYING TO SHOW RUSSIA THE COSTS OF THE CONTINUING CONFLICT IN CHECHNYA. TEXT: THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA CONTINUE THEIR REVIEW OF ISSUES TODAY BUT SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER HAS ALREADY TOLD ANDREI KOZYREV AT A DINNER MEETING AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR RUSSIA IN THE GROUP OF SEVEN IS NOT POSSIBLE SO LONG AS RUSSIAN TROOPS ARE FIGHTING IN CHECHNYA. MR. KOZYREV HAD ASKED FOR THE EXPANDED ROLE FOR PRESIDENT YELTSIN AT THE MEETING NEXT JUNE IN HALIFAX, CANADA. A U-S OFFICIAL BRIEFING REPORTERS SAYS MR. CHRISTOPHER INDICATED AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR RUSSIA IS TOO MUCH FOR THE MARKET TO BEAR. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER TOLD REPORTERS, RUSSIA WILL PAY A PRICE IN ITS WORLD STANDING BECAUSE OF ITS FOUR-MONTH OLD OFFENSIVE IN CHECHNYA. /// CHRISTOPHER ACT /// THE CONTINUATION OF THE SITUATION THERE AND THE ESCALATION IN THE LAST COUPLE OF DAYS IS A SERIOUS ERROR AND IS QUITE FOOLHARDY AND I'M URGING THEM, URGING KOZYREV TO FOLLOW THROUGH ON THEIR COMMITMENT TO ACCEPT A PERMANENT O-S-C-E MISSION AND TO DO EVERYTHING THEY CAN TO END THE CARNAGE AND TO FACILITATE A POLITICAL SOLUTION. AS I HAVE SAID SEVERAL TIMES, THE RUSSIANS ARE PAYING A VERY HIGH PRICE INTERNATIONALLY, THEY ARE CERTAINLY PAYING A HIGH PRICE IN THEIR REPUTATION IN THE UNITED STATES. /// END ACT /// THE SECRETARY OF STATE, MEETING WITH REPORTERS HERE, SAYS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE TO BE MANAGED AND THE OVERALL RELATIONSHIP SHOULD NOT BE HELD HOSTAGE TO ONE ISSUE. AT THE SAME TIME, HE MADE CLEAR TO MR. KOZYREV IT IS IN RUSSIA'S INTEREST TO COOPERATE WITH NATO AND TO STOP THE SALE OF NUCLEAR REACTORS TO IRAN. FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV HAS COMPLAINED ABOUT WHAT HE CALLS, "ARTIFICIAL LINKAGES" BETWEEN CHECHNYA OR THE REACTOR SALE AND RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES. MR. CHRISTOPHER BELIEVES THE NUCLEAR THREAT OF IRAN SHOULD BE OF MORE CONCERN TO RUSSIA THAN THE UNITED STATES BECAUSE OF GEOGRAPHY. ANOTHER U-S OFFICIAL SAYS RUSSIA MAY RUE THE DAY IT EVER SOLD NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY TO IRAN. IN THREE-HOUR DINNER MEETING, THE TWO MINISTERS SPENT THE MAJORITY OF TIME DISCUSSING RUSSIA'S RELATIONS WITH NATO. RUSSIA HAS SLOWED THE PROCESS BECAUSE OF ANGER ABOUT THE ALLIANCE'S PLAN TO STUDY EARLY MEMBERSHIP FOR FORMER SOVIET ALLIES, BUT NOT RUSSIA. THE UNITED STATES FEELS A PARALLEL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO WILL HELP BOTH SIDES. THIS MEETING IS THE FIRST TO ARRANGE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MAY 9TH VISIT TO MOSCOW. ANOTHER MINISTERIAL MEETING IS LIKELY TO TAKE PLACE NEXT MONTH IN NEW YORK AT THE CONFERENCE TO EXTEND THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY. THE PRESIDENT'S VISIT IS TO MARK THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE VICTORY IN EUROPE. THE MINISTERIAL MEETINGS ARE DESIGNED TO MANAGE SOME TOUGH DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA IN ADVANCE OF THE SUMMIT. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/BD/LWM 22-Mar-95 8:09 PM EST (0109 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-19990 TITLE=OSCAR PREVIEW:BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: HOLLYWOOD'S BIGGEST EVENT OF THE YEAR ARRIVES MONDAY [3/27] WHEN THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY HONORS FILM ACHIEVEMENT WITH THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS. EACH YEAR, FILM COMMITTEES IN COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT ENTRIES FOR BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM. THIS YEAR, THE NOMINEES INCLUDE TWO FIRST-EVER ENTRIES (MACEDONIA AND CUBA), A PAIR OF COUNTRIES WITH THEIR SECOND OSCAR-CONTENDERS (RUSSIA AND TAIWAN) AND THE FOURTH NOMINATION FROM BELGIUM. VOA'S ALAN SILVERMAN HAS THE LOOK AT THE CONTENDERS FOR THE BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM ACADEMY AWARD: TEXT: TAIWAN FILM-MAKER ANG LEE IS IN THE OSCAR RACE FOR THE SECOND YEAR IN A ROW. IN 1994, IT WAS "THE WEDDING BANQUET." THIS YEAR, IT'S HIS LATEST HUMOROUS LOOK AT LOVE AND FAMILY LIFE: "EAT, DRINK, MAN, WOMAN:" /// OPT /// /// "EAT, DRINK, MAN, WOMAN" ACTUALITY /// (CHINESE/NO TRANSLATION) "THE MENU?..." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// DIRECTOR AND CO-WRITER LEE EXPLAINS THE TITLE AS THE BASIC NEEDS OF ALL PEOPLE -- FOOD AND SEX -- INTERTWINED IN THE STORY OF A REVERED MASTER CHEF WHO COOKS UP THE MOST LAVISH BANQUETS WITH EASE: /// OPT /// /// "EAT, DRINK, MAN, WOMAN" ACTUALITY /// (CHINESE/NO TRANSLATION) "IT'S OKAY. THE LAST FOUR COURSES ARE STEWS .. NOW WE'LL MAKE THE WHOLE SHARK FIN." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// BUT WHO FINDS IT FAR TRICKIER [MORE DIFFICULT] TO COOK UP ROMANCE FOR HIS THREE DAUGHTERS. FILMED ON LOCATION IN TAIWAN, "EAT, DRINK, MAN, WOMAN" WAS NAMED BEST PICTURE AT THE ASIA-PACIFIC FILM FESTIVAL AND IS THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PICK OF CRITICS IN THE AMERICAN NATIONAL BOARD OF REVIEW. MUSIC AND LOVE MIX, DRAMATICALLY, IN THE BELGIAN OSCAR ENTRY: /// "FARINELLI" ACTUALITY /// "FARINELLI!! FARINELLI!!.." /// END ACTUALITY /// "FARINELLI: IL CASTRATO" IS BASED ON THE TRUE STORY OF 18TH-CENTURY COMPOSER RICCARDO BROSCHI [BROH'-SKI] AND HIS BROTHER CARLO, A GIFTED SINGER; THEY SHARE LOVE OF MUSIC AND THEIR LOVERS: /// OPT /// /// "FARINELLI" ACTUALITY /// (FRENCH) "THEY SAY THE BROSCHI BROTHERS SHARE EVERYTHING, INCLUDING THEIR CONQUESTS." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// CASTRATED AT AGE TEN, CARLO IS BLESSED WITH A PHENOMENAL OPERATIC VOICE ... AND IT IS HIS SACRIFICE FOR THE SAKE OF ART THAT INTRIGUED DIRECTOR AND CO-WRITER GERARD CORBIAU: /// CORBIAU ACTUALITY (IN TRANSLATION) /// (FRENCH) WHAT WAS PARTICULARLY INTERESTING IN THE CASTRATO IS THAT HE WAS TOTALLY SACRIFICED TO MUSIC. IN FACT, HE IS NO LONGER A MAN, HE IS ONLY A MUSICIAN ... ONLY MUSIC. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// "FARINELLI" MUSIC /// USING COMPUTER EDITING, THE FILM-MAKER COMBINED TWO SINGING VOICES /// OPT /// -- DEREK LEE RAGIN AND EVA GOLDLEWSKA -- /// END OPT /// TO RE-CREATE THE CASTRATO'S REMARKABLE THREE-AND-ONE-HALF OCTAVE RANGE. "FARINELLI: IL CASTRATO" WON A GOLDEN GLOBE FROM THE HOLLYWOOD FOREIGN PRESS ASSOCIATION; IT IS BELGIUM'S FOURTH FOREIGN LANGUAGE OSCAR NOMINATION AND THE SECOND TIME FOR DIRECTOR CORBIAU, NOMINATED IN 1988 FOR "THE MUSIC TEACHER." AN UNSENTIMENTAL LOOK AT THE STALINIST ERA GIVES RUSSIA ITS SECOND OSCAR NOMINATION SINCE THE END OF THE SOVIET UNION, "BURNT BY THE SUN:" /// OPT /// /// "BURNT BY THE SUN" MUSIC /// DIRECTOR NIKITA MIKHALKOV CO-WROTE AND STARS IN THE STORY OF SERGUEI PETROVITCH KOTOV ON A LONG SUMMER DAY IN 1936 WHEN THIS AGING MILITARY HERO ENDS UP BURNT BY -- A VICTIM OF -- STALIN, THE ARTIFICIAL "SUN" THAT HE AND HIS FELLOW BOLSHEVIKS HELPED CREATE: /// OPT /// /// "BURNT BY THE SUN" ACTUALITY /// (RUSSIAN/NO TRANSLATION) "WE ARE BUILDING UP SOVIET POWER SO THAT ALL THEIR LIVES PEOPLE WILL HAVE FEET LIKE YOURS TO RUN WITHOUT HAVING TO FLEE." /// END ACTUALITY /// PUTTING THE TRAGEDY OF THAT ERA IN HUMAN TERMS IS IMPORTANT, SAYS THE FILM-MAKER, BECAUSE "HISTORY TEACHES US THAT NOBODY LEARNED ANYTHING:" /// OPT /// /// MIKHALKOV ACTUALITY (RUSSIAN) /// WITH, AS HE MODESTLY PUTS IT, "MY WEAK VOICE," NIKITA MIKHALKOV SAYS HE'S TRYING TO REMIND A NEW GENERATION "IT'S IMPORTANT TO LOOK BACK." "BURNT BY THE SUN" WAS THE GRAND JURY PRIZE WINNER AT LAST YEAR'S CANNES FILM FESTIVAL AND IT'S THE THIRD FOREIGN LANGUAGE OSCAR NOMINATION FOR THE DIRECTOR/WRITER/STAR. THE MODERN-DAY BALKAN CONFLICT PROVIDES THE SETTING .. AND THE DRAMA .. IN THE FIRST-EVER OSCAR NOMINEE FROM MACEDONIA: "BEFORE THE RAIN:" /// OPT /// /// "BEFORE THE RAIN" ACTUALITY /// (MACEDONIAN/NO TRANSLATION) "I'LL SHOOT" "YOU'LL HURT YOURSELF" /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// AMERICAN-EDUCATED WRITER/DIRECTOR MILCHO MANCHEVSKI RETURNED TO HIS NATIVE MACEDONIA FOR THIS FICTITIOUS TALE OF THE ALL-TOO REAL HORRORS OF WAR AS SEEN THROUGH THE EYES OF A YOUNG NOVICE MONK WHO TRIES TO HELP A MOSLEM GIRL ... A PHOTOJOURNALIST WHOSE IMAGES OF ATROCITIES EARN PRIZES, BUT WHO YEARNS FOR PEACE ... AND THE LONDON PHOTO-EDITOR WHO TRIES TO UNDERSTAND WHAT SHE SEES IN HIM AND HIS PICTURES. "BEFORE THE RAIN," EXPLAINS THE FILM-MAKER, ANYTHING CAN HAPPEN: /// MANCHEVSKI ACTUALITY /// THE RAIN CAN MEAN TWO THINGS; IN EITHER CASE, IT MEANS THE BEGINNING OF SOMETHING NEW .. BUT THAT COULD BE TRAGIC AND DEADLY OR IT COULD BE CLEANSING AND SOMETHING THAT BRINGS RE-BIRTH. THE RAIN IN THE TITLE AND THE FEELING OF WAITING FOR THE RAIN THAT PERVADES THE FILM COULD MEAN EITHER ONE OR BOTH. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// /// "BEFORE THE RAIN" ACTUALITY /// (MACEDONIAN/NO TRANSLATION) "THEY WON'T START SHOOTING HERE. PEOPLE ARE PEACEFUL." "THEY USED TO SAY THAT ABOUT BOSNIA AND NOW THE WORLD IS WATCHING A CIRCUS." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// "BEFORE THE RAIN," THE FIRST FEATURE FILM BY MILCHO MANCHEVSKI, WON THE CANNES FILM FESTIVAL GOLDEN LION AWARD. A SOMETIMES-HILARIOUS, SOMETIMES GRIM, SOMETIMES SHOCKING COMEDY GIVES CUBA ITS FIRST-EVER OSCAR NOMINATION: "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE:" /// OPT /// /// "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE" ACTUALITY /// (SPANISH/NO TRANSLATION) "IT'S MY LUCKY DAY. I'M FINDING WONDERFUL THINGS." /// END ACTUALITY /// THE FILM DIRECTED BY TOMAS GUTIERREZ ALEA AND JUAN CARLOS TABIO IS BASED ON A SENEL PAZ SHORT STORY -- "THE WOLF, THE FOREST AND THE NEW MAN" -- AND TELLS THE STORY OF THE UNLIKELY FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN A NAIVE COLLEGE STUDENT RAISED BY THE HAVANA GOVERNMENT'S IDEOLOGICAL LINE AND A GAY [HOMOSEXUAL] ART CURATOR WHO GETS HIM TO QUESTION THOSE BELIEFS: /// OPT /// /// "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE" ACTUALITY /// (SPANISH/NO TRANSLATION) "WHAT DO YOU BELIEVE IN?" "CUBA." "SO DO I .. SO THAT PEOPLE KNOW WHAT'S GOOD ABOUT IT. I DON'T WANT AMERICANS OR ANYBODY COMING HERE TELLING US WHAT TO DO." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// WITH ITS BITING COMMENTARY ON LIFE IN SOCIALIST CUBA, "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE" HAS BECOME THE SUBJECT OF CONTROVERSY: IS IT A SIGN OF NEW FREEDOM? OR IS IT CAREFULLY-CRAFTED PROPAGANDA, APPROVED BY THE CASTRO GOVERNMENT: /// OPT /// /// "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE" ACTUALITY /// (SPANISH/NO TRANSLATION) "ART MAKES YOU FEEL AND THINK. ART DOES N-O-T TRANSMIT. THE GOVERNMENT RADIO DOES THAT." /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE," A CUBAN-SPANISH-MEXICAN CO-PRODUCTION, HAS WON TOP PRIZE AT THE HAVANA FILM FESTIVAL AND THE SILVER BEAR AWARD AT THE BERLIN FESTIVAL. "STRAWBERRY AND CHOCOLATE" FROM CUBA .. MACEDONIA'S "BEFORE THE RAIN" ... "BURNT BY THE SUN" FROM RUSSIA ... THE BELGIAN "FARINELLI: IL CASTRATO" ... "EAT, DRINK, MAN, WOMAN" FROM TAIWAN: ONE OF THOSE NAMES WILL BE UNSEALED FROM THE ENVELOPE MARKED "BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM" WHEN HOLLYWOOD'S TOP ANNUAL HONORS, THE ACADEMY AWARDS, ARE PRESENTED MONDAY NIGHT [3/27]. (SIGNED) NEB/ADS/KK/LWM 23-Mar-95 9:39 PM EST (0239 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America
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DATE=3/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-175931 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER-KOZYREV OPENER (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAVE OPENED THE SECOND DAY OF THEIR GENEVA TALKS DESIGNED TO PREPARE THE MOSCOW SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN THEIR PRESIDENTS NEXT MAY. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA, THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IS PLAYING DOWN THEIR DIFFERENCES. TEXT: AS THEY OPENED THURSDAY'S MEETING AT THE RUSSIAN MISSION HERE, FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV TOLD REPORTERS THAT THE BATTLE IN CHECHNYA IS NOT A PROBLEM ON THE ROAD TO HALIFAX. THAT IS A REFERENCE TO SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER'S REJECTION OF AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR RUSSIA AT NEXT JUNE'S GROUP-OF-SEVEN ECONOMIC SUMMIT MEETING IN HALIFAX, CANADA. ACCORDING TO AMERICAN OFFICIALS, MR. KOZYREV ASKED FOR A LARGER ROLE FOR PRESIDENT YELTSIN IN HALIFAX AT LAST NIGHT'S DINNER AND MR. CHRISTOPHER REPLIED THAT IS NOT POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE RUSSIAN MILITARY OFFENSIVE IN CHECHNYA. FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV ALSO SAYS THE RUSSIAN SALE OF NUCLEAR REACTORS TO IRAN IS NOT A PROBLEM BECAUSE IRAN IS A SIGNATORY TO THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY AND ALLOWS INSPECTIONS BY THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER CONTENDS IRAN IS AN OUTLAW STATE THAT CANNOT BE TRUSTED WITH NUCLEAR MATERIAL. U-S OFFICIALS SAY RUSSIA IS IN IRAN'S NEIGHBORHOOD AND WILL BE THE FIRST TO REGRET GIVING IRAN A NUCLEAR POTENTIAL. AT THE SAME TIME, THE OFFICIALS SAY A DISPUTE OVER RUSSIA'S CONVENTIONAL ARMS SALES TO IRAN SHOULD BE RESOLVED BY THE TIME PRESIDENT CLINTON ARRIVES IN MOSCOW NEXT MAY. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / SKH 23-Mar-95 5:16 AM EST (1016 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1788 total bytes, 1788 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/26/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176084 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE BOSNIAN SERBS STILL CONTROL A COMMUNICATIONS TOWER EARLIER BELIEVED CAPTURED BY THE BOSNIAN ARMY. BUT THE TOWER NEAR THE TOWN OF TUZLA WAS, APPARENTLY, DAMAGED DURING FIGHTING BETWEEN SERB AND MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT FORCES IN THE AREA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE SERBS SAY THEIR TROOPS STILL CONTROL THE VITAL COMMUNICATIONS TOWER AND THE IMMEDIATE AREA AROUND IT. THE SERBS SAY, THOUGH, THAT REPAIRS ARE BEING CARRIED OUT, INDICATING THE FACILITY HAS BEEN DAMAGED. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO EARLIER SAID THEY BELIEVED MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT TROOPS HAD CAPTURED THE TOWER AFTER SEIZING A SIMILAR ONE NEAR THE TOWN OF TRAVNIK. FIGHTING IS REPORTED CONTINUING ON THE NORTHEASTERN FRONT AROUND TUZLA, ALTHOUGH AT A LOWER LEVEL THAN OVER THE PAST FEW DAYS. GOVERNMENT FORCES INVOLVED IN A NEARLY WEEK-LONG OFFENSIVE ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE PAUSED TO REGROUP. MEANWHILE, THE UNITED NATIONS COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, HAS PROTESTED THE SERB SHELLING OF THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF GORAZDE IN EASTERN BOSNIA. GORAZDE IS A U-N/DECLARED SAFE AREA. WHEN IT WAS SHELLED ON SATURDAY, NATO WARPLANES FLEW LOW OVER THE REGION, BUT THEY WERE NOT ORDERED TO ATTACK ANY SERB POSITIONS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/DW/BG 26-Mar-95 12:15 PM EST (1715 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1525 total bytes, 1525 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/26/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176093 TITLE=YUGO SITREP UPDATE (S-O) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// NEW LEAD /// INTRO: THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, HAS ORDERED A GENERAL MOBILIZATION OF THE PEOPLE IN SERB-CONTROLLED TERRITORY BECAUSE OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: MR. KARADZIC ORDERED ALL BOSNIAN SERBS TO BE MOBILIZED TO CRUSH THE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE AND TO DEFEND THE SELF-DECLARED SERB STATE. THE MOBILIZATION ORDER INDICATES THE COORDINATED GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE IN NORTHEASTERN AND NORTH CENTRAL BOSNIA HAS MADE IMPORTANT TERRITORIAL AND, POSSIBLY, STRATEGIC GAINS. THE BOSNIAN ARMY HAS NOT YET CAPTURED AN IMPORTANT SERB COMMUNICATIONS TOWER NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA AS UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS BELIEVED. BUT, BOSNIAN TROOPS, INVOLVED IN THE FIGHTING, ARE SAID TO BE CONFIDENT THAT THE TOWER CAN BE TAKEN WITHIN A FEW DAYS. IF IT IS CAPTURED, THE SERBS WILL LOSE A VITAL MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS FACILITY. THE ARMY BEGAN ITS OFFENSIVE A WEEK AGO. ONE OBJECTIVE IS TO DISRUPT SERB COMMUNICATIONS. ANOTHER OBJECTIVE IS TO PUSH SERB ARTILLERY OUT OF SHELLING RANGE OF TUZLA AND THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TRAVNIK. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/BD/LWM 26-Mar-95 5:04 PM EST (2204 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1446 total bytes, 1446 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176161 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: BOSNIA'S MUSLIM PRESIDENT, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, HAS OUTLINED HIS GOVERNMENT'S MINIMAL CONDITIONS FOR RESUMING PEACE TALKS WITH THE SERBS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: IN A SPEECH IN SARAJEVO, PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THE BOSNIAN SERBS MUST ACCEPT THE CURRENT PEACE PLAN, ALREADY ACCEPTED BY THE MUSLIMS AND THE ETHNIC CROATS. MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THE SECOND GOVERNMENT CONDITION FOR THE RESUMPTION OF NEGOTIATIONS ON A FINAL BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT IS YUGOSLAV RECOGNITION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. IF THESE TWO CONDITIONS ARE NOT MET, THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT SAYS HE WILL DEMAND THE END OF THE ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA WHICH HE CALLS LEGALLY AND POLITICALLY INDEFENSIBLE. MR. IZETBEGOVIC IS CLEARLY IN NO MOOD TO STOP THE NEW GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE TO RECAPTURE LOST TERRITORY, NOW UNDERWAY IN BOSNIA. IF THE WEST WANTS PEACE IN THE BALKANS, HE SAYS, WE WISH IT LUCK, BUT IT CANNOT ACHIEVE PEACE AT OUR EXPENSE. A UNITED NATIONS OFFICIAL IN SARAJEVO EARLIER SAID THE MILITARY SITUATION IN BOSNIA IS GETTING OUT OF CONTROL. THE OFFICIAL WARNED THAT NATO WARPLANES COULD STRIKE AT SERB FORCES IF THE SERBS ATTACK U-N / DECLARED SAFE AREAS AND DELIBERATELY TARGET CIVILIANS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH 28-Mar-95 4:52 AM EST (0952 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1481 total bytes, 1481 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176156 TITLE=OSCAR / FOREIGN-LANGUAGE FILM (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY HAS GIVEN RUSSIA ITS FIRST-EVER OSCAR. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN REPORTS ON THE ACADEMY AWARD-WINNING BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM: TEXT: "BURNT BY THE SUN," AN UNSENTIMENTAL LOOK AT THE TRAGEDY OF STALINISM AS EXPERIENCED BY ONE FAMILY ON A SUMMER WEEKEND IN 1936, IS THE OSCAR-WINNER. THE DRAMA THAT PREVIOUSLY WON THE CANNES FILM FESTIVAL GRAND JURY PRIZE IS CO-WRITTEN AND DIRECTED BY ITS STAR, NIKITA MIKHALKOV -- FINALLY WINNING AN OSCAR AFTER BEING NOMINATED TWICE BEFORE: /// MIKHALKOV ACTUALITY /// (RUSSIAN/IN TRANSLATION) THE PICTURES FOR ME ARE LIKE COOKING RAVIOLI OR FISHING. YOU THROW 10 HOOKS IN THE WATER AND YOU WAIT UNTIL THE FIRST ONE FINALLY CATCHES. /// END ACTUALITY /// ACCOMPANYING THE FILMMAKER TO ACCEPT THE AWARD, HIS SIX-YEAR-OLD DAUGHTER NADIA -- WHO CO-STARS WITH HER FATHER IN "BURNT BY THE SUN." ACADEMY VOTERS PICKED THE RUSSIAN FILM OVER ENTRIES FROM MACEDONIA, TAIWAN, BELGIUM AND CUBA. THE MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY ALSO PRESENTED A LIFE ACHIEVEMENT OSCAR TO ITALIAN FILMMAKER MICHAELANGELO ANTONIONI. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / WOD 28-Mar-95 12:27 AM EST (0527 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1424 total bytes, 1424 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176160 TITLE=OSCAR NIGHT / ONE VIEW / L-O BYLINE=VAN SEROPIAN DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE ANNUAL HOLLYWOOD ACADEMY AWARDS SHOW IS OVER. THE RESULTS WERE LARGELY ANTI-CLIMACTIC. VAN SEROPIAN HAS THIS REPORT: TEXT: THERE WERE NO SURPRISES AT THE OSCAR AWARDS CEREMONY IN LOS ANGELES, WHERE HOLLYWOOD'S GLITTERATI GATHERED FOR THEIR ANNUAL ORGY OF SELF-CONGRATULATION. IT LASTED FOUR HOURS. PREDICTABLY, THE GOOD GUYS WON AND THE BAD GUYS LOST. FORREST GUMP, AN UNABASHEDLY SENTIMENTAL TALE -- A SIMPLETON WHOSE RELENTLESS OPTIMISM PROPELS HIM TO FAME AND FORTUNE, BUT DOES NOT SPOIL HIM IN THE PROCESS -- TOOK THE BIG HONORS: BEST ACTOR FOR TOM HANKS; BEST DIRECTOR, ROBERT ZEMECKIS; AND BEST PICTURE. HOLLYWOOD HAS A LONG HISTORY OF FAVORING PICTURES ABOUT CHARACTERS WHO HAVE SOME MENTAL OR PHYSICAL AFFLICTION. HANKS WON AN OSCAR LAST YEAR FOR HIS PERFORMANCE AS A LAWYER STRICKEN WITH AIDS. ANYONE WHO HAD HOPED THE DARKLY-COMIC TALE, "PULP FICTION," WOULD SOMEHOW MAKE IT TO THE TOP AS THE BEST FILM, WAS DISAPPOINTED. THE PICTURE -- IN WHICH JOHN TRAVOLTA GOT A BEST ACTOR NOMINATION -- WON ONLY ONE AWARD: BEST SCREENPLAY. JESSICA LANGE WON THE BEST ACTRESS AWARD FOR HER PERFORMANCE IN "BLUE SKY," PLAYING AN UNSTABLE, FRUSTRATED ARMY WIFE. THE PICTURE DIED AT THE BOX OFFICE. DIANNE WIEST TOOK THE BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS AWARD FOR HER ROLE AS AN EGOCENTRIC 1920'S DIVA IN "BULLETS OVER BROADWAY." MARTIN LANDAU WON AS BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR FOR HIS PORTRAYAL OF AGING SCREEN STAR BELA LUGOSI IN "ED WOOD." BUT GETTING BACK TO GUMP, HE RECALLS WHAT HIS MOTHER SAID AT ONE POINT : "LIFE'S LIKE A BOX OF CHOCOLATES, YOU NEVER KNOW WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO GET." WITH SYRUPY PLATITUDES LIKE THAT, NO WONDER THE PICTURE MADE 600 MILLION DOLLARS WORLDWIDE. (SIGNED). NEB / WOD 28-Mar-95 4:47 AM EST (0947 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1957 total bytes, 1957 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176165 TITLE=OSCAR WINNERS (S) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: "FORREST GUMP" WAS THE BIG WINNER MONDAY NIGHT, WHEN THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND SCIENCES PRESENTED THE 67TH ANNUAL OSCARS. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN WAS ON HAND AT CEREMONY HONORING THE BEST ON FILM IN THE PAST YEAR: TEXT: SIX ACADEMY AWARDS WENT TO "FORREST GUMP:" AMONG THEM, BEST PICTURE, BEST DIRECTOR, BEST ADAPTED SCREENPLAY AND THE TITLE ROLE OF A SIMPLE MAN LIVING THROUGH THE PAST 40 YEARS OF AMERICAN HISTORY WON BEST ACTOR FOR TOM HANKS: /// HANKS ACTUALITY /// I AM EMPOWERED TO STAND HERE THANKS TO THE ENSEMBLE OF ACTORS, MEN AND WOMEN, WHO I SHARED THE SCREEN WITH, WHO, IN WAYS THAT THEY WILL NEVER UNDERSTAND, MADE ME A BETTER ACTOR. /// END ACTUALITY /// JESSICA LANGE TOOK HOME BEST ACTRESS FOR HER PERFORMANCE AS A MANIC-DEPRESSIVE MILITARY WIFE IN THE ACCLAIMED BUT LITTLE-SEEN DRAMA "BLUE SKY:" /// LANGE ACTUALITY /// I WANT TO THANK THE ACADEMY SO MUCH. THIS IS SUCH A WONDERFUL HONOR, ESPECIALLY FOR A LITTLE FILM THAT SEEMED TO HAVE NO FUTURE. /// END ACTUALITY /// COMMENTS BY THE WINNERS COURTESY OF THE MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY. WRITER-DIRECTOR NIKITA MIKHALKOV'S DRAMA OF THE STALIN ERA, "BURNT BY THE SUN," EARNED RUSSIA ITS FIRST-EVER OSCAR IN THE BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM CATEGORY. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / WOD 28-Mar-95 5:20 AM EST (1020 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1655 total bytes, 1655 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176164 TITLE=OSCAR WRAPUP (L) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE STARS CAME OUT TO CELEBRATE THE MOVIES MONDAY NIGHT AT THE 67TH ANNUAL OSCAR CEREMONY. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN WAS ON HAND FOR THE GALA LOS ANGELES EVENT AS THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF MOTION PICTURE ARTS AND SCIENCES HONORED THE BEST ON SCREEN IN THE PAST YEAR: TEXT: /// PACINO ACTUALITY /// AND THE OSCAR GOES TO "FORREST GUMP ... /// END ACTUALITY /// AL PACINO ANNOUNCED THE EVENING'S TOP PRIZE -- BEST PICTURE OF THE YEAR -- CONFIRMING THAT IT WAS A GOOD NIGHT TO BE "GUMP:" /// OPTIONAL "FORREST GUMP" ACTUALITY /// "I'M N-O-T A SMART MAN, BUT I KNOW WHAT LOVE IS." /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// THE BITTERSWEET SAGA OF A SIMPLE MAN LIVING THROUGH COMPLEX TIMES HAD THE MOST NOMINATIONS -- 13 -- AND "FORREST GUMP" ENDED UP WINNING THE MOST OSCARS: SIX, INCLUDING BEST DIRECTOR FOR ROBERT ZEMECKIS: /// ZEMECKIS ACTUALITY /// I WOULD LIKE TO THANK MOTION PICTURE AUDIENCES ALL AROUND THE WORLD. IN HISTORIC NUMBERS YOU HAVE EMBRACED A FILM THAT AT ITS HEART OFFERS A HUMAN, LIFE-AFFIRMING, HOPEFUL STORY. THANK YOU VERY MUCH." (APPLAUSE) /// END ACTUALITY /// AND "GUMP" STAR TOM HANKS BECAME ONLY THE SECOND ACTOR IN OSCAR HISTORY TO WIN BEST ACTOR IN BACK-TO-BACK YEARS. HE WON LAST YEAR FOR "PHILADELPHIA" /// OPT /// AND BACKSTAGE MONDAY NIGHT, HANKS ADMITTED TO STRONG EMOTIONS ABOUT THE HONOR: /// OPTIONAL HANKS ACTUALITY /// BY THE VERY TESTAMENT THAT I CAN NEVER GET THROUGH ONE OF THESE MOMENTS WITHOUT MY LOWER LIP QUIVERING SHOULD SIGNAL THE FACT THAT THIS IS AN EXTREMELY EMOTIONAL AND PERSONAL MOMENT PLAYED OUT IN FRONT OF THREE BILLION PEOPLE. /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// THE OSCAR FOR BEST ACTRESS WENT TO JESSICA LANGE FOR HER PORTRAYAL OF A MANIC-DEPRESSIVE MILITARY WIFE IN "BLUE SKY:" /// OPTIONAL "BLUE SKY" ACTUALITY /// "BRIGITTE BARDOT STRIPS FOR MILLIONS AND SHE'S A GODDESS; I SUNBATHE TOPLESS AND I'M A SCANDAL." /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// LANGE SALUTED BRITISH DIRECTOR TONY RICHARDSON, WHO DIED JUST AFTER "BLUE SKY" WAS COMPLETED: ///OPTIONAL LANGE ACTUALITY /// HE HAD SUCH A WONDERFUL WAY OF ENCOURAGING YOU TO JUST LEAP OFF THE EDGE AND TO TAKE A CHANCE. HE WAS REALLY THE PERFECT DIRECTOR FOR ME IN THIS PARTICULAR PIECE. /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// THE FILM "SAT ON THE SHELF" -- IT'S RELEASE DELAYED FOR THREE YEARS BY THE STUDIO'S FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES. /// "THE LION KING" MUSIC /// THE DISNEY ANIMATED FEATURE "THE LION KING" SWEPT THE MUSICAL AWARDS: BEST SCORE (FOR HANS ZIMMER) AND BEST ORIGINAL SONG -- "CAN YOU FEEL THE LOVE TONIGHT" -- FOR LYRICIST TIM RICE AND COMPOSER ELTON JOHN: /// OPTIONAL JOHN ACTUALITY /// I GET ACCOSTED AT AIRPORTS BY SIX-YEAR-OLDS NOW. TIM (RICE) AND I WROTE THE SONGS FOR KIDS AND THEY SEEM TO LOVE IT. THAT'S WHY YOU WROTE SONGS FOR ANIMATED FILMS. THEY LOVE IT AND THAT ACHIEVED EVERYTHING WE SET OUT TO DO. /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// RUSSIA GOT ITS FIRST-EVER FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM OSCAR FOR "BURNT BY THE SUN" -- AN UNSENTIMENTAL DRAMA OF STALINIST TIMES CO-WRITTEN, DIRECTED BY AND STARRING NIKITA MIKHALKOV /// OPT /// WHO SAYS HE IS DISAPPOINTED BY THE QUALITY OF FILMS BEING MADE TODAY IN HIS COUNTRY AND IN THE UNITED STATES: /// OPTIONAL MIKHALKOV ACTUALITY /// (RUSSIAN / IN TRANSLATION) BUT I MUST BE THANKFUL FOR THAT BECAUSE AFTER WATCHING SO MANY POOR MOVIES -- AMERICAN AS WELL AS RUSSIAN -- YOU, APPARENTLY, LIKED MY MOVIE, WHICH I CONSIDER GOOD. /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// ITALIAN DIRECTOR MICHELANGELO ANTONIONI RECEIVED AN HONORARY ACADEMY AWARD, PRESENTED BY JACK NICHOLSON: /// NICHOLSON ACTUALITY /// MOST MOVIES CELEBRATE THE WAYS WE CONNECT WITH ONE ANOTHER. THE FILMS OF THIS MASTER MOURN THE FAILURES TO CONNECT. IN THE EMPTY, SILENT SPACES OF THE WORLD, HE HAS FOUND METAPHORS THAT ILLUMINATE THE SILENT PLACES OF OUR HEARTS AND FOUND IN THEM, TOO, A STRANGE AND TERRIBLE BEAUTY. /// END ACTUALITY /// CLINT EASTWOOD'S BODY OF WORK WAS HONORED WITH THE IRVING THALBERG SPECIAL ACHIEVEMENT AWARD: /// OPTIONAL EASTWOOD ACTUALITY /// IF ANYBODY ASKED ME ABOUT MAKING FILMS I WOULD SAY THAT IT'S PROBABLY A LITTLE EXPERTISE AND A LOTTA LUCK. NOW, HOW I FIT INTO THAT EQUATION? WELL, IF I WAS IN DIRTY HARRY'S SIGHTS AND HE SAID "DO YOU FEEL LUCKY?" I'D SAY YOU'RE DAMN RIGHT I DO. /// END OPTIONAL ACTUALITY /// COMPOSER-ARRANGER QUINCY JONES RECEIVED THE JEAN HERSHOLT AWARD FOR HIS HUMANITARIAN WORK. COMMENTS FROM THE OSCAR WINNERS ARE COURTESY OF THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY, WHOSE FIVE THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS PICK THE OSCAR WINNERS. // REST OPTIONAL // THIS YEAR'S ACADEMY AWARD CEREMONY TELECAST WAS SEEN BY A GLOBAL AUDIENCE IN MORE THAN 100 COUNTRIES. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / WOD 28-Mar-95 5:16 AM EST (1016 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5648 total bytes, 5648 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176157 TITLE=OSCAR/"FORREST GUMP" (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: "FORREST GUMP" HAS SWEPT SIX PRIZES -- INCLUDING THE BIGGEST HONORS AT THE 67TH ANNUAL OSCARS PRESENTED MONDAY NIGHT IN LOS ANGELES BY THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN REPORTS ON THE YEAR'S TOP OSCAR WINNER: TEXT: NAMED BEST ACTOR FOR HIS PERFORMANCE IN THE TITLE ROLE OF A SIMPLE MAN LIVING THROUGH COMPLEX TIMES -- THE PAST 40 YEARS OF AMERICAN HISTORY -- AN EMOTIONAL TOM HANKS: // HANKS ACTUALITY /// THE POWER, THE PLEASURE AND THE EMOTION OF THIS MOMENT IS A CONSTANT (LIKE) THE SPEED OF LIGHT. IT WILL NEVER BE DIMINISHED ... AND THE MEANING BETWEEN TWO SIMPLE WORDS THAT I CAN ONLY OFFER YOU HERE: THANK YOU, GOD BLESS YOU IN THIS ROOM AND GOD BLESS YOU ALL AROUND THE WORLD. (APPLAUSE) /// END ACTUALITY /// HANKS IS ONLY THE SECOND IN OSCAR HISTORY TO WIN BEST ACTOR IN BACK-TO-BACK YEARS; HE WON LAST YEAR FOR "PHILADELPHIA." THE SIX ACADEMY AWARDS FOR "FORREST GUMP" INCLUDE BEST ADAPTED SCREENPLAY (TO ERIC ROTH), BEST DIRECTOR (FOR ROBERT ZEMECKIS) AND THE EVENING'S TOP AWARD, BEST PICTURE OF THE YEAR. THE FILM WORLD'S HIGHEST HONORS, THE OSCARS ARE CHOSEN BY FIVE THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY -- THE ACTORS, WRITERS, DIRECTORS, PRODUCERS, AND TECHNICAL EXPERTS WHO MAKE THE MOVIES. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / WOD 28-Mar-95 1:10 AM EST (0610 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1632 total bytes, 1632 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/27/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176153 TITLE=OSCAR/BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS ARE BEING PRESENTED IN A STAR-STUDDED CEREMONY IN LOS ANGELES. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN REPORTS ON THE OSCAR-WINNERS FOR SUPPORTING ROLES: TEXT: MARTIN LANDAU TAKES HOME THE OSCAR FOR HIS PERFORMANCE IN THE QUIRKY COMEDY "ED WOOD" AS THE LATE SCREEN HORROR IDOL, HUNGARIAN-BORN BELA LUGOSI: /// "ED WOOD ACTUALITY /// THIS IS THE MOST UNCOMFORTABLE COFFIN I'VE EVER BEEN IN. YOUR SELECTION IS VERY SHODDY. YOU'RE WASTING MY TIME. /// END ACTUALITY /// ACCEPTING HIS FIRST-EVER OSCAR FOR WHAT HE CALLED "THE PART OF A LIFETIME," LANDAU SAID "WHAT A NIGHT, WHAT A LIFE, WHAT A MOMENT." EARLIER IN THE EVENING, THE MOMENT CAME FOR DIANNE WIEST -- NAMED BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS FOR HER PORTRAYAL OF A FADING BROADWAY STAGE QUEEN IN THE WOODY ALLEN FARCE "BULLETS OVER BROADWAY."OSCAR-WINNERS ARE PICKED BY FIVE THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY. THE STAR-STUDDED TELECAST IS BEING SEEN IN MORE THAN 100 COUNTRIES. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / WOD 27-Mar-95 10:52 PM EST (0352 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1302 total bytes, 1302 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/27/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176151 TITLE=OSCAR/FIRST AWARD (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A COMEDY PERFORMANCE HAS WON THE FIRST STATUETTE GIVEN OUT MONDAY NIGHT AT THE 67TH ANNUAL ACADEMY AWARDS. VOA'S ALAN SILVERMAN REPORTS FROM BACKSTAGE AT THE OSCARS: TEXT: AFTER A LAUGH-FILLED MONOLOGUE BY PROGRAM HOST DAVID LETTERMAN, CONFIRMING THE OSCAR SHOW THEME OF "COMEDY AT THE MOVIES," THE NIGHT'S FIRST OSCAR GOES TO DIANNE WIEST FOR HER SUPPORTING ROLE IN THE WOODY ALLEN FARCE "BULLETS OVER BROADWAY:" /// "BULLETS OVER BROADWAY" ACTUALITY /// "DON'T SPEAK. SILENCE." /// END ACTUALITY /// IT'S A SECOND CAREER OSCAR FOR WIEST; SHE WON HER FIRST ACADEMY AWARD IN 1986 FOR "HANNAH AND HER SISTERS," ANOTHER WOODY ALLEN COMEDY. OSCAR WINNERS ARE CHOSEN BY FIVE-THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY: THE ACTORS, DIRECTORS, WRITERS, PRODUCERS, COMPOSERS AND TECHNICAL EXPERTS WHO MAKE THE MOVIES. A BILLION PEOPLE IN ONE-HUNDRED COUNTRIES ARE GETTING THE 1995 OSCAR TELECAST. (SIGNED) NEB/ADS/LWM 27-Mar-95 9:51 PM EST (0251 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1225 total bytes, 1225 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/27/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176154 TITLE=OSCAR/TECHNICAL AWARDS (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE AMERICAN MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY IS PRESENTING / PRESENTED ITS 67TH ANNUAL OSCARS FOR MONDAY NIGHT IN LOS ANGELES. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN REPORTS THE AWARDS FOR TECHNICAL ACHIEVEMENTS HONORED A RANGE OF FILMS: TEXT: THE OSCAR FOR ART DIRECTION GOES TO "LEGENDS OF THE FALL," AN EPIC OF THE AMERICAN FRONTIER SET IN THE BIG SKY COUNTRY OF MONTANA OVER THE FIRST THREE DECADES OF THE 20TH CENTURY. THE MODERN THRILLER "SPEED," ABOUT A FRANTIC RACE TO DISARM A BOMB ON A SPEEDING BUS, TAKES BEST SOUND EFFECTS EDITING AND BEST SOUND. THE ACADEMY AWARD FOR COSTUME DESIGN GOES TO "THE ADVENTURES OF PRISCILLA, QUEEN OF THE DESERT," THE BAWDY AUSTRALIAN TALE OF TRANSVESTITES ON A CROSS-COUNTRY ODYSSEY. NOMINATION CHAMP "FORREST GUMP" HAS A PAIR OF OSCARS (SO FAR): BEST EDITING AND, TO NOBODY'S SURPRISE, BEST VISUAL EFFECTS FOR THE BITTERSWEET COMEDY THAT PUT ITS HERO OF LIMITED INTELLECT INTO THE COMPANY OF PRESIDENTS AND, THROUGH AMAZING DIGITAL EFFECTS, REMOVED THE LEGS OF A MAIN CHARACTER TO MAKE HIM APPEAR A DOUBLE-AMPUTEE. SPECIAL TECHNICAL OSCARS GO TO EASTMAN KODAK FOR A REVOLUTIONARY FILM STOCK AND TO THE DEVELOPERS OF A "BLUE SCREEN" PROCESS TO SUPERIMPOSE ACTORS INTO ANY SETTING. ACCLAIMED AS THE FILM WORLD'S TOP HONORS, THE OSCARS ARE PICKED BY FIVE THOUSAND VOTING MEMBERS OF THE MOTION PICTURE ACADEMY. THE STAR-STUDDED TELECAST IS BEING SEEN BY A BILLION PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD. (SIGNED) NEB / DM / WOD 27-Mar-95 11:35 PM EST (0435 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1688 total bytes, 1688 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176185 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S-UPDATE) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS: UPDATES CR 2-176161, WRITETHRU /// INTRO: THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS CONTINUING ITS OFFENSIVE IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA, BUT BAD WEATHER IS LIMITING THE FIGHTING. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS AGAIN SAID SERBS MUST ACCEPT THE PROPOSED PEACE PLAN BEFORE NEGOTIATIONS CAN RESUME ON A FINAL PEACE AGREEMENT. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND BOSNIAN SERB FORCES HAVE SHELLED EACH OTHER'S POSITIONS AROUND AN IMPORTANT SERB COMMUNICATIONS TOWER IN THE MOUNTAINS NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA. BUT, A UNITED NATIONS SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB SAYS THERE APPEARS TO BE VERY LITTLE INFANTRY ACTIVITY, PROBABLY BECAUSE OF A HEAVY SNOWFALL IN THE TUZLA AREA. DESPITE INTERNATIONAL CALLS FOR A RETURN TO THE OFFICIAL CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA, THE COUNTRY'S MUSLIM PRESIDENT, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, IS IN NO MOOD TO STOP HIS GOVERNMENT'S OFFENSIVE. IF THE WEST WANTS PEACE IN THE BALKANS, HE SAYS, WE WISH IT LUCK, BUT IT CANNOT ACHIEVE PEACE AT BOSNIA'S EXPENSE. MR. IZETBEGOVIC SET TWO CONDITIONS FOR HIS GOVERNMENT TO RETURN TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE. HE SAYS BOSNIAN SERBS MUST ACCEPT THE BIG POWERS' PEACE PLAN, AND YUGOSLAVIA MUST RECOGNIZE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS IF THESE TWO CONDITIONS ARE NOT MET, HE WILL DEMAND THE END OF THE ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/JWH 28-Mar-95 10:49 AM EST (1549 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1593 total bytes, 1593 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176198 TITLE=U-N / CROATIA (S-ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS APPEARS LIKELY TO TEMPORARILY EXTEND ITS CURRENT PEACEKEEPING MANDATE IN CROATIA. THERE ARE SERIOUS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS OVER A NEW MANDATE. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: U-N OFFICIALS IN ZAGREB SAY THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MANDATE IN CROATIA, WHICH EXPIRES ON FRIDAY, WILL PROBABLY HAVE TO BE EXTENDED FOR BETWEEN ONE AND THREE MONTHS. THE OFFICIALS SAY THE TEMPORARY EXTENSION IS LIKELY BECAUSE OF WHAT THEY CALL THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT'S UNREALISTIC DEMAND THAT PEACEKEEPERS CONTROL CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. THE CROATIAN SERBS HAVE SAID THEY WOULD NOT AGREE TO INTERNATIONAL CONTROL OF THE FRONTIERS. THE SERBS ALSO SAY THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE MUST RETAIN ITS CURRENT NAME. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT WANTS THE NAME CHANGED BECAUSE IT IMPLIES THAT U-N FORCES ARE IN CROATIA TO PROTECT THE SERBS. IN A RELATED DEVELOPMENT, THE GOVERNMENT HAS CHARGED THAT NINE HUNDRED YUGOSLAV TROOPS WITH TANKS HAVE ENTERED CROATIAN SERB-OCCUPIED TERRITORY FROM NEIGHBORING SERBIA. THE UNITED NATIONS IS INVESTIGATING EVEN THOUGH U-N OFFICIALS DO NOT THINK THE COMPLAINT IS VALID. BUT U-N OBSERVERS HAVE NOTICED MILITARY FERRIES CROSSING THE RIVER FRONTIER BETWEEN SERBIA AND CROATIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/BG 28-Mar-95 1:31 PM EST (1831 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1577 total bytes, 1577 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=NEWS FEATURE NUMBER=5-20032 TITLE=IBM LAUNCHES DIGITAL LIBRARY BYLINE=LEOS ROUSEK DATELINE=NEW YORK CONTENT= VOICED AT: (VOICED BY EDIE SMITH) INTRO: THE I-B-M COMPUTER COMPANY HAS UNVEILED ITS SOLUTION FOR MAKING INFORMATION IN ALL ITS FORMS, INCLUDING BOOKS, HISTORIC DOCUMENTS AND PAINTINGS, AVAILABLE ON COMPUTER NETWORKS AROUND THE WORLD. VOA'S LEOS ROUSEK REPORTS FROM NEW YORK. TEXT: I-B-M CALLS ITS NEW PROJECT A "DIGITAL LIBRARY." THE COMPUTER COMPANY HOPES TO COMBINE ITS CURRENT COMPUTER EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES TO CONVERT EVERYTHING FROM FILM TO RARE MANUSCRIPTS TO THE DIGITAL LANGUAGE OF COMPUTERS. STEVE MILLS, GENERAL MANAGER OF THE I-B-M SOFTWARE SOLUTION DIVISION, CALLS THE TRANSFER TO DIGITAL LANGUAGE "CREATE AND CAPTURE." /// MILLS ACTUALITY /// CREATE AND CAPTURE IS ALL ABOUT HOW YOU GET THIS INFORMATION DIGITIZED FROM THE FORM THAT IT'S IN TODAY. IT'S SITTING ON FILM, IT'S SITTING ON PAPER, IT MAY BE SITTING IN VERY FRAGILE MEDIUM. FILM AND PAPER DON'T LAST FOREVER. THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO DECAY, FIDELITY IS LOST AND THERE'S CRITICAL NEED FOR RESTORATION IN A LOT OF INSTANCES IN ORDER TO BRING BACK THE FULL VALUE OF SOMETHING. /// END ACTUALITY /// I-B-M OFFICIAL STEVE MILLS SAYS HIS COMPANY IS A LEADING PROVIDER OF SCANNING TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH WHICH PICTURES OR PAGES OF TEXT ARE CHANGED INTO A DIGITAL FORMAT THAT CAN THEN BE PROCESSED BY A COMPUTER. THE VATICAN LIBRARY HAS USED THE I-B-M TECHNOLOGY TO DIGITIZE SOME OF ITS 150 THOUSAND MANUSCRIPTS. FATHER LEONARD BOYLE, PREFECT OF THE VATICAN LIBRARY, SAYS THE NEARLY ONE AND ONE HALF MILLION BOOKS IN THE COLLECTION ARE OF NO USE UNTIL THEY'RE READ, SO THE VATICAN LIBRARY HAS BEGUN TO MOVE MORE INTO THE AUTOMATED AREA AND PROVIDE THE INFORMATION THROUGH THE DIGITAL TRANSMISSION OF TEXTS. AT A NEWS CONFERENCE ANNOUNCING THE I-B-M DIGITAL LIBRARY, BERNICE CASEY OF MARIST COLLEGE IN POUGHKEEPSIE (PUH-KIP-SEE), NEW YORK, DEMONSTRATED HOW THE SCHOOL USES DIGITIZED DOCUMENTS FROM THE FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT LIBRARY IN A COURSE ON THE HISTORY OF WORLD WAR TWO. /// CASEY ACTUALITY /// WHAT WE'RE USING IS ARCHIVAL MATERIALS FROM THE F-D-R LIBRARY MUSEUM IN HYDE PARK. SO FOR INSTANCE, IN THIS CASE YOU'RE A STUDENT OF THIS COURSE AND YOU CAN SEE THE STUDY MATERIALS THAT THE PROFESSOR HAS SET ASIDE FOR YOU AND NOW YOU CAN SEE WEEK BY WEEK WHAT ALL OF YOUR ASSIGNMENTS ARE. YOU SEE THERE'S A LINK HERE. IF I CLICK ON 'POLAND,' WHAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN NOW IS WE'LL BRING UP FOOTAGE (FILM) FROM THE F-D-R LIBRARY, A NEWSREEL THAT WAS DONE AT THE TIME OF THE ATTACK ON POLAND. THERE'S THE VIDEO WINDOW .. AND IF I CLICK HERE: (NEWSREEL ACTUALITY): 'ON SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1939, THE NAZI ARMY SMASHED INTO POLAND ...'" /// END ACTUALITY /// MRS. CASEY SAYS MARIST COLLEGE HOPES TO HAVE ALL OF ITS FACILITIES AND DORMITORIES WIRED TO PROVIDE CONNECTIONS TO THE FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT LIBRARY, ALLOWING STUDENTS TO RETRIEVE FILMS OR TEXT DOCUMENTS USING THEIR OWN COMPUTERS. I-B-M OFFICIALS SAY ITS DIGITAL LIBRARY TECHNOLOGY IS ALSO BEING USED BY THE ARCHIVO GENERAL DE INDIAS IN SPAIN AND THE LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, PUBLIC LIBRARY. THEY DESCRIBE THE DIGITAL LIBRARY AS A MULTI-BILLION DOLLAR OPPORTUNITY FOR THE COMPANY IN THE 1990'S. NY/LR/LSF/LWM 28-Mar-95 5:11 PM EST (2211 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3655 total bytes, 3655 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/28/95 TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES #95-362 NUMBER=3-21409 TITLE="SURFING THE INTERNET (L) BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: THE VAST COMPUTER NETWORK, KNOWN AS THE INTERNET, ONCE JUST LINKED TOGETHER SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS AND MEMBERS OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY. TODAY, IT IS AVAILABLE TO JUST ABOUT ANYONE WHO HAS A PERSONAL COMPUTER AND A MODEM CONNECTION TO A TELEPHONE LINE. AS DAN NOBLE REPORTS, THE ELECTRONIC SUPERHIGHWAY HAS SPAWNED A WHOLE NEW LANGUAGE AND CULTURE. TEXT: OVER THE YEARS, THE INTERNET HAS BECOME A MEETING PLACE FOR MILLIONS OF PEOPLE. THERE ARE ELECTRONIC MAGAZINES, DISCUSSION GROUPS, AND ELECTRONIC -- OR E-MAIL -- THAT CAN BE SENT TO ANY NUMBER OF OTHER COMPUTER USERS. J.C. HERZ HAS SPENT THREE YEARS STUDYING SOME OF THE MORE INTENSE USERS OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGY. THE SELF-DESCRIBED POP ANTHROPOLOGIST SAYS THAT THERE ARE A GROWING NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE BECOME -- WHAT SHE CALLS -- "NETHEADS." TAPE: CUT ONE -- J.C. HERZ (0:12) "I THINK JUST SOMEONE WHO SPENDS EITHER A LOT OF TIME ONLINE, OR CAN'T SEEM TO GET THEMSELVES OF THE COMPUTER, SORT OF THE COMPULSIVE CHECKING OF E-MAIL BOXES, THAT KIND OF THING." TEXT: J.C HERZ IS AUTHOR OF "SURFING THE INTERNET: A NETHEAD'S ADVENTURES." SHE NOTES THAT IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO GENERALIZE ABOUT INTERNET USERS. THEY DON'T REALLY FIT A PARTICULAR CATAGORY. TAPE: CUT TWO -- J.C. HERZ (0:27) "THAT'S THE THING. WE HAVE THE STEREOTYPE OF THE COMPUTER GEEK BEHIND THE SCREEN, LOOKING AND BURYING HIMSELF IN IT. BUT IT HAS REALLY GONE SO MAINSTREAM NOW, WITH EVERYONE GETTING ONLINE SERVICES. IT'S WEIRD, BUT MORE WOMEN ARE GETTING ONLINE. THERE ARE STILL THE TEENAGE HACKERS THERE, BUT IT IS GETTING SO MUCH MORE MAINSTREAM. SO, YOU DON'T KNOW WHO YOU ARE TALKING TO. IT COULD BE SOME TEENAGE CHEERLEADER BEHIND THE SCREEN AT THE OTHER END." TEXT: ACCORDING TO J.C HERZ, THE EVOLVING INTERNET PARALLELS SOMETHING ELSE IN RECENT AMERICAN HISTORY. TAPE: CUT THREE -- J.C. HERZ (0:08) "IN A WAY, ITS LIKE AMERICA. YOU HAVE THESE CONSTANT WAVES OF IMMIGRANTS AND INITIALLY THEY ARE NOT TOO WELL ACCEPTED. BUT THEN, GRADUALLY, THEY MELT IN." TEXT: AND, THERE'S BEEN A DISTINCT CULTURE. ELECTRONIC MAIL USERS HAVE COME TO USE CERTAIN SHORTCUTS AS THEY COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER. AUTHOR J.C. HERZ EXPLAINS ABBREVIATIONS LIKE B-R-B. TAPE: CUT FOUR -- J.C. HERZ (0:05) "BE RIGHT BACK. THAT'S LIKE IF YOU HAVE TO GO GET COFFEE OR CEREAL OR SOMETHING." TEXT: ...AND L-O-L: TAPE: CUT FIVE -- J.C. HERZ (0:06) "LAUGHING OUT LOUD. THAT'S WHEN YOU SEE SOMETHING REALLY FUNNY AND YOU SIGNAL TO SOMEONE THAT ITS FUNNY AND YOU'RE LAUGHING." TEXT: DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE INTERNET IS NOW BEING USED BY THE MAINSTREAM, J.C. HERZ SAYS THAT THERE IS STILL ROOM FOR SUBCULTURES, THE SO-CALLED UNDERGROUND. TAPE: CUT SIX -- J.C. HERZ (0:11) "WELL, THAT'S THE GREAT THING ABOUT THE NET. EVEN IF PEOPLE INVADE IT, THERE IS ALWAYS SOMEPLACE ELSE TO GO BECAUSE IT IS NOT LIKE THE PHYSICAL SPACE YOU'RE KICKED OUT OF. THERE IS ALWAYS SOME CORNER OF THE NET THAT WILL BE UNDERGROUND." TEXT: J.C. HERZ, AUTHOR OF "SURFING THE INTERNET: A NETHEAD'S ADVENTURES." (ACTUALITIES FROM NBC) 28-Mar-95 4:57 PM EST (2157 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3888 total bytes, 3888 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/29/95 TYPE=REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK NUMBER=4-08217 TITLE=VIEWS FROM SARAJEVO, KOSICE & TIRANA BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS/BARRY WOOD/WAYNE COREY TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=GENEVA/PRAGUE/VIENNA EDITOR=PAMELA TAYLOR/PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM TAPE LIBRARY /// CART: THEME ESTABLISH THEN UNDER HOST: WELCOME TO REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK, A WEEKLY MAGAZINE SHOW FEATURING REPORTS BY, OR CONVERSATIONS WITH, VOA CORRESPONDENTS AROUND THE GLOBE ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD. CART: THEME UP FULL AND UNDER HOST: I'M YOUR HOST, PAMELA TAYLOR. THIS WEEK WE GO TO CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPE. DOUGLAS ROBERTS HAS JUST RETURNED FROM A VISIT TO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL OF SARAJEVO -- A CITY LONGING FOR PEACE BUT STILL PREPARED FOR WAR. BARRY WOOD THEN TAKES US INSIDE AN OLD SOVIET-BUILT STEEL WORKS IN EASTERN SLOVAKIA FOR A LOOK AT HOW WORKERS THERE ARE ADJUSTING TO THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION FROM STATE CONTROL TO PRIVATIZATION. AND FINALLY, WE WILL HAVE A REPORT FROM CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY ABOUT HIS RECENT EXPERIENCES IN TIRANA, THE CAPITAL OF ALBANIA, A PLACE RARELY VISITED BY OUTSIDERS BEFORE THE FALL OF COMMUNISM. HOST: FIRST WE GO TO DOUG ROBERTS IN GENEVA, WHO SAYS WERE IT NOT FOR AN ON-AGAIN, OFF-AGAIN U-N AIRLIFT, SARAJEVO WOULD BE EFFECTIVELY CUT OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD. INSTEAD, HE FOUND THAT THE BOSNIAN TRUCE NEGOTIATED BY FORMER U-S PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER EARLIER THIS YEAR HAS BROUGHT A SEMBLANCE OF NORMALCY: TEXT: THEY CALL IT "MAYBE AIRLINES", THE ERRATICALLY SCHEDULED U-N FLIGHTS TO SARAJEVO AND OTHER BALKAN CAPITALS. THE NAME SEEMS APPROPRIATE--MAYBE YOU'LL LEAVE ON TIME, BUT MAYBE YOU WON'T. MAYBE, YOU WON'T LEAVE AT ALL. AND YOU MAY WELL BE GLAD YOU DIDN'T, ESPECIALLY IF SOME ANONYMOUS GUNMAN IN SARAJEVO HAS AGAIN DECIDED TO TAKE POT SHOTS AT U-N PLANES. IT HAS HAPPENED MANY TIMES BEFORE AND DOUBTLESS WILL AGAIN. BUT THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE SEEM TO TAKE IT ALL IN STRIDE. T-SHIRTS AND BASEBALL CAPS WITH THE SLOGAN "MAYBE AIRLINES" ARE ON SALE IN WHAT PASSES FOR THE DEPARTURE LOUNGE AT THE U-N AIRBASE JUST OUTSIDE THE CROATIAN CAPITAL, ZAGREB . THE LOUNGE IS A LARGE TENT, WITH A FEW WOODEN BENCHES AND A SMALL SNACK BAR. THERE IS NO ONE TO TAKE YOUR TICKETS. THERE ARE NO TICKETS. THE ONLY REQUIREMENT FOR SARAJEVO-BOUND PASSENGERS IS A HELMET AND A FLAK JACKET. IT WAS MID-AFTERNOON BY THE TIME WE REACHED SARAJEVO. THE AIRPORT PERIMETER IS PROTECTED BY HUGE MOUNDS OF EARTH, AND THE CONTROL TOWER AND OTHER BUILDINGS SEEMED RELATIVELY IN TACT. BUT THE WRECK OF A CARGO PLANE SITS AT ONE END OF THE TARMAC. OH, THAT WAS THE WHISKEY FLIGHT, EXPLAINED ONE OF MY CO-PASSENGERS; BRINGING IN SUPPLIES, INCLUDING SCOTCH, FOR THE PEACEKEEPERS WHEN IT SKIDDED OFF THE RUNWAY IN A SNOWSTORM. YOU SHOULD HAVE SEEN ALL THE BRAVE VOLUNTEERS - HE QUIPPED - RACING OUT TO HELP OFF-LOAD THE PRECIOUS CARGO. THE U-N RUNS A SHUTTLE SERVICE FROM THE AIRPORT INTO THE CITY. AN ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER RATHER THAN A BUS SNAKED THROUGH A SUBURBAN BATTLEGROUND KNOWN AS DOBRINJA, AND INTO THE HEART OF SARAJEVO. FROM U-N HEADQUARTERS AT THE MAIN POST OFFICE, IT WAS ONLY A FEW MINUTES RIDE ALONG A BROAD AVENUE TO MY HOTEL. LIKE ALMOST EVERYWHERE IN SARAJEVO, THERE ARE VIRTUALLY NO WINDOWPANES IN THE HOTEL ROOMS. STRIPS OF PLASTIC SHEETING EMBLAZONED WITH THE LOGO OF THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY HAVE REPLACED THE GLASS PANES, LONG SINCE SHATTERED. TAPE: CUT # 1 SARAJEVO MARKETPLACE (UP FOR :05 & UNDER AND OPEN UP AT *) RUNS [:27] TEXT: THE OPEN-AIR MARKET IN THE HEART OF SARAJEVO'S OLD QUARTER. [PAUSE*] IT WAS A SCENE OF CARNAGE AND HORROR JUST A YEAR AGO WHEN A SUDDEN SERB SHELLING ATTACK LEFT DOZENS DEAD AND WOUNDED. THE BLOODSTAINS HAVE LONG SINCE WASHED AWAY, LIKE SO MANY OTHERS IN THIS BELEAGUERED CITY. THE WOODEN STALLS HAVE BEEN REPAIRED OR REPLACED; AND THE MARKET IS OPEN AND FUNCTIONING AGAIN. THERE WAS HARDLY A CORNUCOPIA OF GOODS ON DISPLAY. FRESH VEGETABLES WERE CONSPICUOUSLY ABSENT. THE VICTORY GARDENS THAT SEEMED TO DOT VIRTUALLY EVERY SPARE PATCH OF GROUND IN THE CITY WILL PROVIDE LETTUCE AND CABBAGE, CARROTS, TOMATOES AND EVEN SOME PEPPERS IN THE SPRING AND SUMMER. BUT IN THE WINTER MONTHS, POTATOS, ONIONS AND A FEW MUSHROOMS SEEMED THE ONLY VEGETABLES AVAILABLE. THERE WAS PLENTY OF MEAT, AS WELL AS EGGS, CANNED GOODS, EVEN NUTS. AND HAWKERS OFFERED BOTTLES OF WINE AND BRANDY. PRICES WERE HIGH, AND THE GERMAN DEUTSCHE-MARK WAS THE ONLY CURRENCY CHANGING HANDS. THE BOSNIAN DINAR IS VIRTUALLY VALUELESS, ACCEPTED ONLY TO PURCHASE BREAD AND NEWSPAPERS. SARAJEVANS SOMEHOW MANAGE TO GET BY, BUT IT WAS DIFFICULT TO SEE HOW. EQUALLY MYSTERIOUS IN A CITY UNDER SEIGE WAS WHERE THE GOODS IN THE MARKETPLACE COME FROM? MY DRIVER, HUSSEIN HADZOVIC, PROVIDEED AN ANECDOTAL EXPLANATION, POINTING TO THE DRINKS ON A TABLE IN ONE OF SARAJEVO'S MANY CAFES. THAT GLASS OF MILK, HE SAID --- THAT'S HUMANITARIAN AID. THE CAN OF ORANGE SODA HAD FRENCH MARKINGS, MEANING IT WAS SMUGGLED OUT OF A U-N WAREHOUSE TO BE SOLD ON THE BLACK MARKET. AND THE COLA? BOTTLED IN CROATIA SAID HUSSEIN, SO IT MUST HAVE COME IN ON THE BLUE ROUTE OR MAYBE THROUGH THE TUNNEL. THE BLUE ROUTE IS THE U-N CONTROLLED ROAD WHICH RUNS ACROSS THE TARMAC OF SARAJEVO AIRPORT, LINKING THE CAPITAL WITH GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY A FEW KILOMETERS TO THE SOUTHEAST. SERB COMMANDERS AGREED TO LET SARAJEVANS USE THE BLUE ROUTE AS PART OF THE NEW YEAR'S TRUCE ACCORD. AND MORE THAN 100-THOUSAND TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE OPPORTUNITY IN FEBRUARY ALONE. IT IS NOT BIG ENOUGH FOR VEHICLES, BUT A SYSTEM OF RAILS AND PUSH CARTS ALLOWS EACH PERSON WHO PASSES THROUGH TO BRING IN A SMALL AMOUNT OF SUPPLIES. THE BOSNIAN ARMY HAS A MONOPOLY ON TRAFFIC THROUGH THE TUNNEL. IT IS SAID TO BE A MAJOR MONEY EARNER. OFF-DUTY SOLDIERS ARE ALLOWED TO PASS THROUGH IT, AND BRING BACK GOODS TO BE SOLD IN THE MARKET. SARAJEVO'S MAYOR, TARIQ KUPUSOVIC, DIDN'T WANT TO TALK ABOUT THE TUNNEL'S OTHER FUNCTIONS -- THE FACT THAT AN ELECTRICITY CABLE AND A DIESAL FUEL LINE NOW PASS THROUGH IT, EASING THE GOVERNMENT'S RELIANCE ON RESOURCES THAT REMAIN IN SERB HANDS. THE MAYOR'S RELUCTANCE STEMMED FROM THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S STRONG COMMITMENT TO AN ETERNALLY UNITED SARAJEVO. ANYTHING THAT HINTS AT A PERMANENT DIVISION OF THE CITY, SAY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, ONLY PLAYS INTO SERB HANDS. BUT THE FACT REMAINS THAT FOR THE FIRST TIME IN YEARS, EVERY SARAJEVO HOUSEHOLD HAS ELECTRIC POWER. THE SUPPLY IS STRICTLY LIMITED, JUST ENOUGH FOR A FEW LIGHT BULBS AND A TELEVISION SET. ANYONE WHO EXCEEDS THE QUOTA FACES AN INSTANT CUT-OFF. BUT FOR SARAJEVANS ACCUSTOMED TO MONTHS OF NOTHING BUT CANDLE LIGHT, IT IS A MAJOR STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. TAPE: CUT # 3 SOUND OF SCHOOL (UP FOR :05 AND UNDER TO *) RUNS [:11] TEXT: SCHOOLS WERE OPEN AGAIN -- AFTER AN EXTENDED WINTER BREAK WHEN POWER SUPPLIES WERE NOT SUFFICIENT TO KEEP THE BUILDINGS HEATED. WE HAD TO SEND THE CHILDREN HOME SAID PRINCIPAL VJEKOSLAV BREZAR, BECAUSE THEIR FINGERS WERE STIFF WITH COLD. BUT THIS SARAJEVO WINTER WAS COMPARATIVELY MILD AND BRIEF, AND NINE YEAR OLD AVDIA, FOR ONE, WAS HAPPY TO BE BACK IN CLASS. HE EXCELS AT MATH AND ART BUT LIKE BOYS AROUND THE WORLD, HIS MAIN AMBITION IS TO BE A FOOTBALL (SOCCER) STAR. AVDIA ISN'T THE ONLY ORPHAN AT THE MALTA SCHOOL. AND MANY OF THE PUPILS ARE CHILDREN OF REFUGEES WHO HAVE FLED TO THE CAPITAL FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THERE ARE MUSLIM, CROAT AND SERB CHILDREN AT THE MALTA SCHOOL. TAPE: CUT # 6 -MUSIC FROM INDEPENDENCE CEREMONY (UP IN FULL AND UNDER) RUNS :41 TEXT: BOSNIA'S UNOFFICIAL NATIONAL ANTHEM (AT) AN INDEPENDENCE DAY CEREMONY AT A DOWNTOWN CONCERT HALL. IT WAS THE FIRST TIME THE EVENT WAS COMMEMORATED HERE. BOSNIA'S MUSLIM CHIEF OF STATE, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, WAS THE MAIN SPEAKER. BUT SERB AND CROAT MEMBERS OF THE COUNTRY'S COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY WERE ALSO IN ATTENDANCE. RUSMIRA HADZIMULIC, A MUSLIM WOMAN IN HER 50'S SPENT THE HOLIDAY IN HER SMALL BUT COMFORTABLE APARTMENT IN THE HEART OF SARAJEVO'S OLD QUARTER. SHE, TOO, BELIEVES BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS MUST LEARN TO LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN. OUT NEIGHBORS ARE SERBS, SHE SAID AND WE HELPED EACH OTHER THROUGH THESE TERRIBLE TIMES. BUT IF SARAJEVO'S MUSLIMS DISPLAY WARMTH AND AFFECTION FOR THE SERBS AND CROATS WHO HAVE SHARED THEIR ORDEALS DURING THE THREE YEARS OF WAR, THEY HAVE NOTHING BUT SCORN FOR WHAT THEY CALL THE "CHETNIKS IN THE MOUNTAINS", THE SERB GUNNERS WHO HAVE POUNDED SARAJEVO RELENTLESSLY FROM THE HILLS THAT RING THE CITY. WHEN THE WAR IS OVER, SAID RUSMIRA WE WILL WELCOME THE SERBS BACK, EXCEPT FOR THOSE WHO HAVE BLOODIED THEIR HANDS IN THE CONFLICT. BUT AS I LEFT SARAJEVO, THERE WAS NO SIGN THAT THE WAR WILL END ANYTIME SOON. SNIPERS WERE BACK IN ACTION ON BOTH SIDES OF THE FRONT. CART: BRIDGE THEME UP AND UNDER HOST: THAT WAS VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS ON HIS RECENT VISIT TO SARAJEVO. NEXT WE GO TO CORRESPONDENT BARRY WOOD, WHO SAYS A HUGE FACTORY IN KOSICE IN THE GREEN HILLS OF EAST SLOVAKIA IS A VIVID REMINDER OF WHAT SOVIET CENTRAL PLANNING ON A GRAND SCALE LOOKS LIKE. BUT HE SAYS CLOSER EXAMINATION REVEALS A REMARKABLY SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLE OF THE TRANSITION TO A FREE MARKET ENTERPRISE: TAPE: CUT # 1 SOUND OF A BLAST FURNACE (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:32] TEXT: WHEN I ARRIVED AT THE EAST SLOVAK IRON COMPLEX IN KOSICE, THE SKY HAD TAKEN ON A RED GLOW FROM THE FIRE OF THE BLAST FURNACES. SMOKE FROM THE BLAST FURNACES BELCHED FORTH FROM COAL, IRON AND ROCK COMING TOGETHER TO MAKE STEEL: TAPE: CUT # 2 SOUND OF A BLAST FURNACE (UP FULL & UNDER) RUNS [:22] TEXT: IT'S CALLED V-S-Z, OR -- VEH SHEH ZEH -- IN SLOVAK -- FOR EAST SLOVAK IRON WORKS. WITH 25 THOUSAND EMPLOYEES IS THE BIGGEST EMPLOYER IN THIS PART OF CENTRAL EUROPE. BUT THE SURPRISE IS THE NEWLY PRIVATIZED PLANT IS MODERN AND PROFITABLE AND ACCOUNTS FOR ABOUT 25 PERCENT OF SLOVAKIA'S TOTAL EXPORT EARNINGS. I TALKED WITH STEFAN LINK, A PHYSICIST BY TRAINING WHO HAS WORKED FOR V-S-Z FOR 33 OF HIS 57 YEARS. IN HIS CRAMPED OFFICE IN THE CENTER OF THE COMPLEX, HE EXPLAINED THE DECISION WAS MADE TO PLACE A HUGE METALLURGICAL COMPLEX IN KOSICE IN 1959 BECAUSE OF THE TOWN'S UNIQUE LOCATION: TAPE: CUT # 3 LINK ACK RUNS [:50] "IT IS ABOUT 20 KILOMETERS TO THE HUNGARIAN BORDER, ABOUT 80 TO UKRAINE AND ABOUT THE SAME DISTANCE TO POLAND. AND AS YOU KNOW, THE THE TRACK GUAGE IN RUSSIA IS DIFFERENT (WIDER) THAN IT IS IN EUROPE. SO ANOTHER DECISION WAS MADE, AND THAT WAS, TO BUILD A WIDE TRACK GUAGE LEADING DIRECTLY TO THE YARD AT OUR COMPANY. ONE OF THE REASONS THE PLANT WAS BUILT HERE IN THE EASTERN PART OF FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA WAS THAT AT A DISTANCE OF ABOUT 1100 KILOMETERS ARE HUGE DEPOSITS OF IRON ORE. SO, COMPARATIVELY EASILY, THOSE DEPOSITS OF IRON ORE IS TRANSPORTED DIRECTLY HERE." TEXT: HE THEN TOOK ME TO THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, A GOOD TEN MINUTES AWAY WHERE A SINGLE WIDE-GUAGE SOVIET TRACK STRETCHED OFF THROUGH THE ROLLING FARMLAND TOWARDS THE UKRAINE BORDER. ON THAT LATE WINTER MORNING THERE WERE NO TRAINS. WE PARKED AND WALKED TOWARDS THE RAIL TERMINAL WHERE A LONE HOPPER CAR IS FILLED WITH UKRAINIAN ORE. TAPE: CUT # 4 LINK/WOOD RUNS [:46] "(LINK) SO LET'S GO AND HAVE A LOOK. (WOOD) SO THIS WOULD BE BRINGING THE ORE FROM? (LINK) FROM KRIVOG ROG IN UKRAINE. THE WAGON IS PULLED HERE INTO THIS ROTARY SKIPPER. THERE IS A SPECIAL FIXTURE. YOU CAN SEE THE WHEELS ARE LOCKED. AND THIS WHOLE EQUIPMENT IS TURNING AROUND SO THE IRON ORE PELLETS FALL DOWN INTO THE BELT CONVEYERS. SO IT IS TRANSPORTED IN THIS WAY FOR FURTHER PROCESSING." TEXT: EVEN THOUGH THIS PLANT IS RELATIVELY MODERN, THE WORK IS STILL HARD AND HOT. THE ROLLING MILL IS OVER A KILOMETER LONG AND MR. LINK AND I WALK FROM ONE END TO THE OTHER. TAPE: CUT # 6 BLAST FURNACE SOUND RUNS [:40] TEXT: AS I LEFT THE V-S-Z PLANT I COULDN'T HELP REFLECTING ON REVERSAL OF FORTUNES FOR THE STEEL WORKERS IN WESTERN EUROPE AND AMERICA WHO ARE THREATENED BY THIS NEW COMPETITION FROM THE EAST. PLANTS LIKE V-S-Z WHICH ARE MAKING A SUCCESSFUL TRANSITION, OFFERING STIFF COMPETITION TO STEEL WORKERS AND THE COMPANIES WHICH EMPLOY THEM IN WESTERN EUROPE AND ELSEWHERE. I LEARNED THAT THE STEEL WORKERS AT THIS PLANT ARE THE MOST HIGHLY PAID IN SLOVAKIA, EARNING 350 DOLLARS PER MONTH. THOSE WAGES--HIGH FOR THE EAST--ARE A TENTH OF THE CHEAPEST COMPETITIVE WAGE IN WESTERN EUROPE. THIS MEANS THAT SLOVAK STEEL, ALL OF WHICH IS MADE IN MODERN CONTINUOUS CASTERS, IS OF HIGH QUALITY AND FETCHES A HUGELY ADVANTAGEOUS PRICE ON WESTERN MARKETS. CART: BRIDGE THEME UP IN FULL AND UNDER HOST: THAT WAS CORRESPONDENT BARRY WOOD TELLING US ABOUT A RECENT VISIT HE MADE TO A STEEL PLANT IN EAST SLOVAKIA WHICH IS MAKING A SUCCESSFUL TRANSITION FROM CENTRAL STATE CONTROL TO PRIVATIZATION. FINALLY, WE GO TO WAYNE COREY IN VIENNA WHO HAS JUST RETURNED FROM A TRIP TO TIRANA, THE CAPITAL OF ALBANIA, ONCE EUROPE'S MOST RIGID ORTHODOX COMMUNIST STATE. IT IS A COUNTRY FEW WESTERN VISITORS HAVE SEEN: TEXT: IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE TRUE THAT IN ALBANIA THE MORE THINGS CHANGE, THE MORE THEY REMAIN THE SAME. BUT, SOME OF THE MOST VISIBLE SYMBOLS OF DECADES OF COMMUNIST RULE ARE STILL EVIDENT. ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS NEAR THE AIRPORT AND CONCRETE MILITARY BUNKERS AROUND THE AIRPORT AND IN THE FIELDS ALONG THE ROAD LEADING INTO TIRANA ARE EERIE REMINDERS OF THE BIZARRE PARANOIA THAT GRIPPED THIS COUNTRY'S COMMUNIST LEADERS. BUT, THE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS ARE NOT MANNED NOW, AND THE CONCRETE BUNKERS ARE EMPTY. THE ONLY MILITARY PRESENCE TO BE SEEN IS A FEW ALBANIAN SOLDIERS IN UNIFORM WALKING ALONG THE STREETS OF TIRANA AND AN OCCASIONAL, AGING CHINESE OR SOVIET-MADE MILITARY TRUCK. WHILE THE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS AND THE CONCRETE BUNKERS STILL GREET VISITORS, SO DOES THE SIGHT OF AN AMERICAN CAR RENTAL COMPANY, A COCA COLA SIGN AND A SIGN ADVERTISING AN AMERICAN EXPRESS TRAVEL OFFICE. TAPE: CUT # 1 TIRANA STREET NOISE RUNS [:12] TEXT: THERE HAS BEEN A BIG INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CARS IN TIRANA. IT'S TYPICAL OF THE AMBIGUOUS REALITY OF LIFE HERE, THOUGH, THAT HORSE-DRAWN CARTS LINE UP WITH CARS, TRUCKS AND MASSIVELY OVERCROWDED BUSES AT RED LIGHTS IN THIS DUSTY, SHABBY CITY. A MODERN NEW HOTEL IS EXPECTED TO OPEN FOR BUSINESS SOON ON SKANDERBERG SQUARE. THE HOTEL IS A GLEAMING, GLASS-FRONTED CONTRAST TO THE ARCHITECTUALLY-TASTELESS COMMUNIST-STYLE PALACE OF CULTURE WHERE AN ALBANIAN CAST PERFORMS ONE OF VERDI'S OPERAS, RIGOLETTO. AS A FORMER COLONIAL POWER, ITALY RETAINS A STRONG CULTURAL INFLUENCE HERE. SATELLITE TELEVISION DISHES, STICKING UP FROM SQUALID APARTMENT BUILDINGS, ENABLE THEIR OWNERS TO WATCH ITALIAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER). ITALIAN-STYLE COFFEE BARS ARE POPULAR, AND THERE ARE FRENCH, GERMAN AND CHINESE RESTAURANTS. AN ALBANIAN-AMERICAN COUPLE OWNS WHAT MANY PEOPLE CONSIDER TIRANA'S BEST RESTAURANT. TAPE: CUT # 2 LIVE RESTAURANT MUSIC RUNS [:18] TEXT: THE PIAZZA RESTAURANT OFFERS ITS WELL-DRESSED CLIENTS GOOD ITALIAN FOOD AND EXCELLENT ITALIAN WINE IN A CLEAN, MODERN AND COMFORTABLE ATMOSPHERE. IT'S THE ONLY RESTAURANT FOR WHICH RESERVATIONS ARE RECOMMENDED. THE OWNERS LIVE IN THE UNITED STATES. THEIR DAUGHTER MANAGES THE RESTAURANT. SHE TOLD ME IT TOOK A LOT OF PATIENCE IN DEALING WITH ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES TO GET THE RESTAURANT GOING A YEAR AGO. SHE SAID HER PARENTS' BUSINESS IS NOW DOING VERY WELL. FOR THE SAKE OF COMPARISON, I HAD DINNER THE FOLLOWING NIGHT IN THE RESTAURANT OF TIRANA'S MAIN HOTEL. THE HOTEL IS A BATTERED, OLD, COMMUNIST RELIC THAT IS GOING TO BE RENOVATED. IT OUGHT TO BE PRESERVED AS A KIND OF MONUMENT TO HUMAN FOLLY. AFTER COMPLETING THE UNAPPETIZING MAIN COURSE, I ORDERED AN ICE CREAM DISH FOR DESSERT. IT WAS LISTED ON THE MENU, BUT THE WAITRESS SAID "NO, WE DON'T HAVE IT." [ OPT ] I TRIED AGAIN. "WELL, HOW ABOUT THE ICE CREAM CAKE THEN?" NO, IT SEEMED THE RESTAURANT DID NOT HAVE THAT, EITHER. AFTER LOOKING AT THE MENU ONCE MORE, I POINTED TO A TORTE THAT WAS LISTED AND TOLD THE WAITRESS I WOULD LIKE THAT. THE WAITRESS WAS, AT LEAST, SYMPATHETIC, WHEN SHE REPLIED THAT THERE WERE NO MORE TORTES. [ END OPT ] IN FACT, SHE SAID, THERE WAS REALLY NOTHING FOR DESSERT AT ALL. SO, THE HOTEL LOST AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE SOME MONEY. I DOUBTED WHETHER THE COMMUNIST-ERA MANAGEMENT OF THE HOTEL HAS BEEN REPLACED. BUT, MANY ALBANIANS ARE CLEARLY IMPATIENT TO MAKE MONEY FAST, NOT JUST THE YOUNG CHILDREN WHO BEG ON THE STREETS. I REALIZED THIS AS SOON AS I WALKED INTO THE AIRPORT'S ARRIVAL SECTION. A YOUNG MAN, WITH WHAT APPEARED TO BE A SPECIAL PASS, WALKED UP TO ME AND ASKED IF I NEEDED A TAXI RIDE INTO TIRANA. I SAID YES. AFTER WE AGREED ON THE FARE, THE ALBANIAN OFFERED TO SPEED ME PAST ALL THE OTHER PEOPLE WAITING IN A LONG LINE FOR CUSTOMS AND IMMIGRATION CHECKS. I PROTESTED THAT IT WOULD NOT BE RIGHT TO CUT IN FRONT OF ALL THOSE PEOPLE. THIS DID NOT GO DOWN WELL WITH MY NEW ALBANIAN FRIEND. HE MUTTERED ONE WORD -- AMERICANS -- AS HE SHOOK HIS HEAD IN OBVIOUS, THOUGH GOOD-NATURED, DISAPPROVAL OF MY DESIRE TO BE POLITE. CART: THEME MUSIC UP TO FILL HOST: YOU HAVE BEEN LISTENING TO REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK, A WEEKLY PROGRAM FEATURING ONE OR MORE FIRST-HAND ACCOUNTS BY VOA REPORTERS WHO TAKE US BEHIND THE SCENES OF COVERING THE NEWS IN THEIR PART OF THE WORLD. I'M YOUR HOST, PAMELA TAYLOR. TODAY'S PROGRAM WAS PRODUCED BY BOB DOUGHTY AND DIRECTED BY FELICIA BUTLER. PROMO: NEXT WEEK ON REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK, WE WILL HEAR FROM DOUG BAKSHIAN ON HIS RECENT TRAVELS THROUGH FOUR CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS. NEB/PAM/PCH 29-Mar-95 4:03 PM EST (2103 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 20873 total bytes, 20873 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/29/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176266 TITLE=ALBANIAN DEMONSTRATION (L-ONLY) BYLINE=JIM MALONE DATELINE=SENATE CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SEVERAL HUNDRED ETHNIC ALBANIANS MARCHED FROM THE WHITE HOUSE TO CAPITOL HILL HERE IN WASHINGTON WEDNESDAY, DEMANDING INDEPENDENCE FOR THE FORMERLY AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF KOSOVO IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE HAS A REPORT. TEXT: /// OPENS WITH ACT OF CHANTING DEMONSTRATORS /// HUNDREDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS MADE THEIR WAY UP PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE FROM THE WHITE HOUSE TO THE U-S CAPITOL, HOPING TO PERSUADE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND THE CONGRESS TO SUPPORT THEIR DEMAND FOR KOSOVO'S INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA. SERBIAN LEADERS HAVE VOWED TO KEEP KOSOVO AS PART OF SERBIA NO MATTER WHAT THE COST. BUT ETHNIC ALBANIANS LIKE ALEXANDER DRAGAY ARGUE THAT THE POPULATION OF KOSOVO, WHICH IS 90 PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN, IS BEING PUSHED TO THE LIMIT BY THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT. /// DRAGAY ACT. /// AND WE ARE HERE TO VOICE OUR CONCERN AND OUR SUPPORT FOR THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO, THE ALBANIAN PEOPLE IN MONTENEGRO AND MACEDONIA. BECAUSE WE HAVE BEEN OPPRESSED BY THE SERBIAN NATIONALISM FOR DECADES. AND WE ARE A PEACE-LOVING PEOPLE AND WE JUST WANT TO END THIS IN A PEACEFUL SOLUTION, WE DO NOT WANT ANY CONFRONTATION. BUT THE SERBIANS HAVE BEEN PUSHING US TO THE EDGE. /// END ACT. /// WEDNESDAY'S RALLY OUTSIDE THE U-S SENATE DREW ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM ALL OVER THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, EVEN FROM AS FAR AWAY AS ALASKA. ANTON DJOKAJ IS AN ETHNIC ALBANIAN, ORIGINALLY FROM MONTENEGRO, WHO NOW LIVES IN NEW YORK. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES CAN PLAY A KEY ROLE IN APPLYING GREATER PRESSURE ON SERBIA. /// DJOKAJ ACT. /// WE WANT FROM THE UNITED STATES TO PUT PRESSURE ON THE SERBS TO LEAVE US ALONE. THAT IS THE MAIN POINT. PUT PRESSURE TO LEAVE SANCTIONS ON THE SERBS AND AS MUCH AS THEY CAN ON BELGRADE, BECAUSE EVERYTHING COMES FROM BELGRADE. MILOSEVIC, THE PRESIDENT OF SERBIA, HE CREATED ALL THESE POLITICAL PROBLEMS AGAINST OTHER REPUBLICS. AND WE WANT FROM THE UNITED STATES TO PUT PRESSURE ON HIM, ON THE SERBS, TO LEAVE US ALONE AND TO LET US HAVE INDEPENDENCE. /// END ACT. /// IN ADDITION TO CALLS FOR KOSOVO'S INDEPENDENCE, THE DEMONSTRATORS ALSO WANT SERBIAN TROOPS REMOVED FROM KOSOVO AND SAY THEY EXPECT THE SUPPORT OF SEVERAL MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE AND SENATE FOR THEIR APPEAL. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS SAID THAT KOSOVO SHOULD REMAIN PART OF SERBIA, BUT THAT THE GOVERNMENT NEEDS TO SHOW GREATER RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. (SIGNED) NEB / JM / BD/BG 29-Mar-95 4:24 PM EST (2124 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2910 total bytes, 2910 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/29/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE - TTA NUMBER=3-21419 TITLE="THE HUBBLE SCOPE: LOOKING FOR PLANETS (SHORT) BYLINE=BRIAN CISLAK TELEPHONE=619-3529 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=VOHS CONTENT= /// EDITORS: THIS SCRIPT IS A BREAKOUT OF THE "TALK TO AMERICA" PROGRAM AIRED MONDAY, 3/27. // INTRO: THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE -- ORBITING SOME 600 KILOMETERS ABOVE THE EARTH-- WILL SOON GET NEW CAMERAS THAT WILL ENABLE IT TO LOOK FOR PLANETS AROUND STARS OTHER THAN OUR SUN. BRIAN CISLAK REPORTS: TEXT: ABOUT 20 LIGHT YEARS FROM EARTH -- RIGHT IN OUR COSMIC BACKYARD -- THERE ARE TWO STARS ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE SUN. STEVE MARAN (PRON: MAA-RUN), A SENIOR SCIENTIST WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, THINKS THOSE STARS MAY HAVE SOMETHING ELSE IN COMMON WITH OUR SUN -- PLANETS. HE WANTS TO USE THE EARTH-ORBITING OBSERVATORY CHECK OUT THIS POSSIBILITY: (:20) TAPE: CUT ONE -- MARAN: (:10) "WE CALCULATE WE'D HAVE A FIGHTING CHANCE OF SEEING A PLANET THE SIZE OF JUPITER AT ABOUT JUPITER'S DISTANCE FROM THE SUN IN TERMS OF DISTANCE FROM EITHER OF THOSE STARS." TEXT: ON VOA'S "TALK TO AMERICA" PROGRAM, STEVE MARAN SAID THE PLANET SEARCH WILL BEGIN WHEN SPACEWALKING ASTRONAUTS INSTALL A NEW SPECTROGRAPH AND CAMERA INTO THE SPACE TELESCOPE. IN THE FUTURE, ASTRONOMERS HOPE TO SCAN THE COSMOS FOR TOUGHER-TO-FIND, EARTH-SIZED PLANETS USING MORE COMPLICATED TELESCOPE SETUPS IN SPACE: (:20) TAPE: CUT TWO -- MARAN: (:24) "SUCH ARE UNDER CONSIDERATION NOW BY NASA THAT WOULD USE INTERFEROMETRY. THAT MEANS YOU FLY TWO OR MORE TELESCOPES AT ONCE, STATIONKEEPING SO THAT THEY KEEP THE SAME DISTANCE FROM EACH OTHER, AND THEY CAN SIMULATE THE RESOLVING POWER OR THE ABILITY TO SEE FINE DETAIL OF AN ENORMOUS TELESCOPE WHOSE MIRROR WOULD BE EQUAL TO THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO SATELLITES." TEXT: IF ASTRONOMERS FIND AN EARTH-SIZED PLANET WITH AN ATMOSPHERE, ANALYSIS OF ITS REFLECTED LIGHT SPECTRA MIGHT DISCLOSE THE PRESENCE OF WATER. WATER WOULD ALMOST INVARIABLY INDICATE THE PRESENCE OF LIFE ON A WORLD FAR FROM OUR OWN -- A FINDING OF TRULY COSMIC SIGNIFICANCE. (:16) (SIGNED) 29-Mar-95 4:01 PM EST (2101 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2520 total bytes, 2520 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/30/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176355 TITLE= BALKANS NAME GAME (L ONLY) BYLINE=ELAINE JOHANSON DATELINE=UNITED NATIONS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: EFFORTS TO RENEW THE UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN THE BALKANS STUMBLED THURSDAY OVER WHAT TO NAME THE FORCE IN CROATIA. THE SECURITY COUNCIL IS RACING AGAINST A FRIDAY DEADLINE WHEN THE PEACEKEEPING MANDATE EXPIRES. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS: TEXT: YOU MIGHT ASK, "WHAT'S IN A NAME"? THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT WOULD SAY -- JUST ABOUT ALL THE PRINCIPLES IT STANDS FOR IN ITS CONFLICT WITH THE REBEL SERBS. THE UNITED NATIONS HAS SUGGESTED NAMING THE NEW FORCE FOR CROATIA -- THE U-N CONFIDENCE RESTORATION OPERATION, WHICH WOULD BE KNOWN BY ITS ACRONYM UNCRO. ZAGREB IS INSISTING THAT THE WORD "CROATIA" BE INCLUDED IN THE OFFICIAL NAME AS A WAY OF ASSERTING ITS TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY AGAINST SEPARATIST AIMS IN SERB-OCCUPIED KRAJINA. CROATIA'S BORDERS ARE NOT IN DISPUTE IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL. BUT MEMBERS HAD HOPED TO AVOID INFLAMING SERB SENSITIVITIES UNNECESSARILY WHILE PEACE EFFORTS ARE UNDERWAY. DIPLOMATS LATE THURSDAY WENT BACK TO THE DRAWING BOARD TO FIND A COMPROMISE, AMID LAST-MINUTE HOPES THAT CROATIA WOULD WITHDRAW ITS OBJECTION. MEANWHILE, THE COUNCIL IS POISED TO ADOPT THREE RESOLUTIONS THAT WOULD SIGNIFY THE END OF THE U-N OPERATION IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AS IT HAS EXISTED SINCE 1992. UNPROFOR WOULD BE BROKEN UP INTO THREE SEPARATE FORCES, EACH WITH ITS OWN COMMAND BUT UNDER THE GENERAL DIRECTION OF A U-N CIVILIAN. THE CROATIAN FORCE WOULD BE REDUCED FROM ITS PRESENT STRENGTH OF 12-THOUSAND, WITH BORDER DEPLOYMENT TO DISCOURAGE SMUGGLING OF MILITARY SUPPLIES TO THE REBEL SERBS. THE OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND MACEDONIA WOULD REMAIN UNCHANGED. THE RESOLUTIONS, HOWEVER, ARE ONLY THE FIRST STEP. U-N OFFICIALS WILL STILL HAVE TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE CROATIANS ON THE SIZE OF THE NEW FORCE. WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAY A MINIMUM OF EIGHT THOUSAND TROOPS ARE REQUIRED TO PATROL CEASEFIRE LINES AND MONITOR CROATIA'S INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES. CROATIA IN JANUARY ORDERED THE PEACEKEEPERS OUT BY THE END OF MARCH. PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN RELUCTANTLY CHANGED HIS MIND UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY, PROVIDED THE SECURITY COUNCIL MAKES THE NECESSARY ADJUSTMENTS. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 30-Mar-95 7:15 PM EST (0015 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2432 total bytes, 2432 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/30/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176358 TITLE=SARAJEVO CARDINAL (L-O) BYLINE=PHIL KURATA DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE ARCHBISHOP OF SARAJEVO, VINKO CARDINAL PULJIC, IS IN THE UNITED STATES TO APPEAL FOR HELP IN ENDING THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PHIL KURATA REPORTS CARDINAL PULJIC SAYS A LASTING PEACE CAN NOT BE FOUND BY REWARDING AGGRESSION. TEXT: CARDINAL PULJIC SAYS THE BOSNIAN WAR HAS HAD A DISASTROUS EFFECT ON THE CATHOLIC COMMUNITY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS THREE-FOURTHS OF THE CATHOLICS IN THE SARAJEVO ARCHDIOCESE HAVE LEFT, AND MORE THAN 80-PERCENT OF THE CATHOLICS IN BANJA LUKA DIOCESE HAVE BEEN FORCED OUT BY ETHNIC CLEANSING. HE SAYS THE MAIN CAUSE OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT IS AN ATTEMPT BY SERB NATIONALISTS TO CREATE A GREATER SERBIA. BUT, HE SAYS CROATIANS AND MUSLIMS ALSO HAVE COMMITTED ABUSES DURING THE THREE-YEARS OF WAR. VINKO PULJIC WAS NAMED THE WORLD'S YOUNGEST CARDINAL AT THE AGE OF 49 LAST NOVEMBER. POPE JOHN PAUL MADE THE NOMINATION TO INDICATE HIS SOLIDARITY WITH THE SUFFERING PEOPLE OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC. SPEAKING AT THE CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES IN WASHINGTON, CARDINAL PULJIC SAID THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS SHOWN LITTLE RESOLVE IN CONFRONTING -- WHAT HE CALLED -- SERB AGGRESSION. /// PULJIC ACT (FADE UNDER) /// HE SAYS HE BELIEVES FOREIGN OFFICIALS OBSERVING THE BOSNIAN WAR HAVE SHOWN APPRECIATION ONLY FOR THE SIDE WHICH HAS POWER AND THE SIDE WHICH IS WEAK IS IGNORED. FRANJO TOPIC, A BOSNIAN PRIEST TRAVELING WITH THE CARDINAL, EMPHASIZES THE CARDINAL'S POSITION THE FIRST STEP TOWARD PEACE MUST BE DISARMING THE BOSNIAN SERBS. /// TOPIC ACT /// IN MY OPINION, THE FIRST THING IS TO TAKE AWAY THE WEAPONS FROM THE AGGRESSOR AND POSSIBLY FROM ALL THE PARTIES, BECAUSE WITH WEAPONS IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO FIND A GOOD AND REALISTIC SOLUTION FATHER TOPIC SAYS THE NATO ALLIES PLAYED A USEFUL ROLE BY THREATENING AIRSTRIKES TO FORCE BOSNIAN SERBS TO WITHDRAW THEIR HEAVY ARTILLERY FROM AROUND SARAJEVO AND OTHER GOVERNMENT STRONGHOLDS. MEMBERS OF THREE RELIGIONS ARE INVOLVED IN THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH IS THE RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION CONNECTED WITH THE SERB COMMUNITY. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS DOMINATED BY MUSLIMS, AND THE BOSNIAN CROATS ARE MOSTLY ROMAN CATHOLICS. CARDINAL PULJIC SAYS THE KEY TO ENDING THE FIGHTING IS TO BUILD BRIDGES OF TRUST BETWEEN THE THREE GROUPS. HE SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN HELP BY PROTECTING THREATENED POPULATIONS AND ENCOURAGING DEMILITARIZATION. (SIGNED) NEB/PK/RAE 30-Mar-95 10:40 PM EST (0340 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2777 total bytes, 2777 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=APRIL 1, 1995 TYPE=ON THE LINE NUMBER=1-00309 TITLE=THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEW EUROPE EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037 CONTENT= THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS WEEK, "THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEW EUROPE." HERE IS YOUR HOST, U-S-I-A DEPUTY DIRECTOR PENN KEMBLE. HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE. SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION, THE UNITED STATES HAS TRIED TO HELP FORMER SOVIET-BLOC NATIONS JOIN THE COMMUNITY OF FREE-MARKET DEMOCRACIES. THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE HAS ENABLED COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TO COOPERATE POLITICALLY AND MILITARILY WITH NATO. THE U.S. HOPES TO EXPAND NATO, ALTHOUGH RUSSIA HAS EXPRESSED OPPOSITION. AT THE SAME TIME, THE WAR IN BOSNIA GOES ON AND BOTH THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO SEEM UNABLE TO STOP IT. THIS FAILURE RAISES THE QUESTION OF WHETHER PEACE OR STABILITY CAN BE ACHIEVED IN A POST-COLD WAR EUROPE. JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS UNITED STATES POLICY AND THE NEW EUROPE ARE TWO EXPERTS. JOHN KORNBLUM IS DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR EUROPEAN AND CANADIAN AFFAIRS. JEANE KIRKPATRICK IS A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE AND A FORMER U.S. AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS. WELCOME TO THE SHOW. AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM, IF I MAY, LET'S START WITH YOU. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE U.S. INTERESTS IN EUROPE AT THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND HOW HAVE THEY CHANGED? KORNBLUM: AMERICAN INTERESTS IN EUROPE HAVE CHANGED BUT THEY'VE ALSO STAYED THE SAME. REALLY, YOU CAN ARGUE, SINCE THE BEGINNING OF OUR REPUBLIC, WE HAVE DRAWN BOTH PHILOSOPHICAL AND CULTURAL SUPPORT, MATERIAL EARNINGS, AND ALSO A SENSE OF SECURITY FROM EUROPE. FOR A GOOD DEAL OF OUR HISTORY, THAT SENSE OF SECURITY CAME FROM EUROPE TOWARDS THE UNITED STATES. SINCE WORLD WAR TWO, THE TRACK HAS BEEN EXACTLY IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION: WE HAVE PROVIDED A GOOD SENSE OF SECURITY. BUT IN THE END, OUR HEALTH AS A SOCIETY AND OUR SECURITY DEPEND ON A VERY CLOSE AND ACTIVELY POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH EUROPE. HOST: AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK, YOU'RE A SCHOLAR AND A JOURNALIST. HOW DO YOU SEE OUR INTERESTS EVOLVING AND HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SITUATION WE FACE TODAY? KIRKPATRICK: I THINK THAT THE AMERICAN RELATIONSHIP WITH EUROPE IS, IF ANYTHING, EVEN DEEPER THAN AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM SUGGESTED. I BELIEVE THAT OUR IDENTITY IS FUNDAMENTALLY EUROPEAN. I SUPPOSE YOU PROBABLY DON'T DISAGREE WITH THAT. OUR ROOTS ARE EUROPEAN. OUR CIVILIZATION IS EUROPEAN. THE CIVILIZATION OF WHICH WE ARE A PART AND A REPRESENTATIVE IS WESTERN CIVILIZATION, WHICH IS [FROM] EUROPE. NOW, THAT BEING THE CASE, I THINK WE HAVE A STAKE IN EUROPE AS WE HAVE A STAKE IN OUR OWN COUNTRY THAT REALLY TRANSCENDS SPECIFIC INTERESTS. EUROPE'S WELL-BEING IS VERY MUCH RELEVANT TO OUR OWN WELL-BEING. I BELIEVE THAT PEACE IN EUROPE AND SECURITY THERE IS JUST COLOSSALLY IMPORTANT TO OUR OWN. IT'S PART OF OUR OWN. HOST: AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM, YOU SPOKE ABOUT HOW THE U.S. SEES ITS LEADERSHIP ROLE IN EUROPE. HOW DO THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SEE THE U.S. TODAY AND HOW WOULD THEY TREAT OUR EXERCISE OF LEADERSHIP? KORNBLUM: THERE'S, IF ANYTHING, A GROWING INTEREST IN AMERICAN LEADERSHIP. AGAIN, THESE ARE CLICHES SOMETIMES THAT PEOPLE THINK APPLY BECAUSE THINGS HAVE CHANGED. THE COLD WAR IS OVER. THAT MEANS AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IS NOT AS IMPORTANT. IT'S EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE. THERE IS A GREAT SENSE OF CHANGE AND ALSO, OF COURSE, OF UNCERTAINTY AND A NEED FOR DIRECTION IN EUROPE, BOTH EAST AND WEST. AND THERE IS A VERY STRONG UNDERSTANDING THAT THE UNITED STATES IS THE COUNTRY WITH BOTH THE STRENGTH AND THE CONTINUITY OF VISION WHICH CAN HELP GIVE THIS LEADERSHIP. SO, FOR THOSE OF US IN OFFICIAL POSITIONS WHO TRAVEL AND WORK IN EUROPE, WE FIND THAT THE DESIRE FOR A STRONG AMERICAN ROLE AND AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IS, IF ANYTHING, MUCH STRONGER THAN IT WAS TEN YEARS AGO. HOST: AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK, DO WE SEE, IN YOUR VIEW, OTHER CONTENDERS FOR LEADERSHIP IN EUROPE? THERE WAS A TIME WHEN CERTAINLY THE SOVIET UNION SOUGHT THE ROLE OF "LEADER OF EUROPE" AND WE WERE RIVALS. BUT WHERE TODAY WOULD SUCH A COMPETITION COME FROM? KIRKPATRICK: FRANCE. FRANCE, WHICH SEES ITSELF ALSO AS A CIVILIZATION, AND AS A CIVILIZATION WHICH IS THE HEART OF EUROPE AND THE IDENTITY OF EUROPE. AS A MATTER OF FACT, I DON'T REALLY THINK THAT THE EUROPEANS DESIRE AMERICAN LEADERSHIP, AND I'M NOT SURE WE CAN ESTABLISH IT, BUT I THINK THEY DESIRE AMERICAN PARTICIPATION. AND I THINK WE CAN PARTICIPATE. I THINK THE EUROPEANS ARE MAINLY INTERESTED TODAY IN EUROPEAN UNION AND IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A EUROPE THAT WILL BE, THOUGH NOT A FEDERAL STATE, MEANINGFULLY UNITED. AND, YOU KNOW, I THINK WE'RE GOING TO HAVE TO GET IN AND MIX IT UP [WITH THEM] IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH OUR ROLE AND OUR INFLUENCE IN THIS NEW EUROPE, IN THIS NEW WESTERN CIVILIZATION. HOST: I THINK WHEN AMERICANS HEAR THE TERM "EUROPEAN UNION," THEY THINK OF A KIND OF ECONOMIC GIANT. AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM, WHAT'S THE INTERPLAY OF ECONOMICS AND POLITICS IN THE NEW EUROPEAN SITUATION WE FACE? KORNBLUM: THIS IS THE AREA, AS AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK SAYS, WHERE WE NEED TO SORT OF MIX IT UP. THE THEORY IN POST-WAR WESTERN EUROPE, WHICH WAS ACTUALLY VERY SUCCESSFUL, WAS THAT BY BUILDING A FOUNDATION OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AND MUTUAL SUPPORT, YOU WOULD ALSO MOVE TOWARD COMMON POLITICAL GOALS AND COMMON POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS. WE'RE NOW AT THE POINT WHERE THE PROMISE OF THE COMMON POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IS EITHER GOING TO BE REALIZED OR PERHAPS FALL BACK FOR SOME TIME AND NOT BE REALIZED. AND THERE'S GOING TO BE, IN THE NEXT TWO OR THREE YEARS, A GREAT DEAL OF DEBATE ABOUT THIS. AND IT IS, I THINK, A COMMON VIEW ACROSS THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM IN THE UNITED STATES THAT IT IS IN OUR INTEREST FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS. WE DO NOT WANT TO BE A LEADER IN THE SENSE OF SOMEONE WHO CONTROLS OTHERS, AND WE ALSO, ON THE OTHER HAND, DO NOT WANT TO BE A LEADER IN THE SENSE OF HAVING A LARGE NUMBER OF VERY PROSPEROUS COUNTRIES WHO ARE DEPENDENT UPON US. WE WANT WHAT IS, IF YOU WILL, A FULL PARTNERSHIP. AND SO ENCOURAGING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THESE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IS GOING TO BE COMPLEX, [AND] SOMETIMES DELICATE, BECAUSE SOMETIMES OUR POINTS OF VIEW AREN'T ALWAYS WELCOME IF SOMEBODY IS DEBATING WITH SOMEONE ELSE. IT'S GOING TO BE A VERY COMPLEX TASK AND IT'S GOING TO BE ONE OF THE MAJOR TASKS FOR THE UNITED STATES IN EUROPE IN THE COMING YEARS. HOST: NOW LET'S TURN TO DEFENSE A LITTLE BIT BECAUSE WHEN YOU THINK OF THIS ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL GIANT OR POTENTIAL GIANT EUROPE, YOU OBVIOUSLY THINK OF SOMETHING THAT CAN PAY ITS OWN WAY IN DEFENSE. AND YET THE UNITED STATES CONTINUES TO HAVE A VERY STRONG DEFENSE POSITION IN EUROPE. AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK, IS THIS SOMETHING THAT WE NEED TO SUSTAIN OR COULD WE NOW PERHAPS SCALE BACK? KIRKPATRICK: I BELIEVE VERY STRONGLY IN THE PRESERVATION OF NATO, UNLESS OR UNTIL THERE IS SOME ALTERNATIVE, ALL-EUROPEAN SECURITY STRUCTURE WHICH CAN TRULY FULFILL THE ROLE THAT NATO AT ITS PRIME, IN GOOD SHAPE, CAN FULFILL. I'M VERY WORRIED ABOUT THE WEAKENING OF NATO UNDER CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES. I THINK THAT THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA, AND THE SORT OF SUBMISSION OF NATO TO A KIND OF INFORMAL BUT VERY REAL U-N CONTROL IN ITS ROLE IN BOSNIA, IS VERY SERIOUS AND VERY NEGATIVE. HOST: I WANT TO ASK YOU, AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM, TO DESCRIBE FOR US, A LITTLE BIT, U.S. POLICY TOWARD NATO AND TOWARD THE EXPANSION OF NATO -- THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE, THE QUESTION OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, RUSSIA AND SO FORTH. COULD YOU GIVE US A QUICK SKETCH? KORNBLUM: YES. NATO IS ONE OF THE FOUNDATIONS [ON WHICH] THIS PEACEFUL AND INTEGRATED STRUCTURE IN WESTERN EUROPE WAS BUILT IN THE FORTY, FORTY-FIVE YEARS FOLLOWING WORLD WAR TWO. IT HAD AS A CLOSE COMPATRIOT, IF YOU WILL, THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY, LATER UNION -- WHICH IS THE EXPRESSION OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY. THEY WERE, FOR REASONS THAT WE ALL KNOW, LIMITED TO THE WESTERN PART OF THE CONTINENT. AS WE NOW COME INTO A PERIOD WHERE THERE IS NO LONGER AN EAST-WEST CONFRONTATION, NO LONGER A MILITARY STANDOFF, AND NO SOVIET UNION AND NO WARSAW PACT, THE QUESTION BECOMES: CAN YOU BUILD THROUGHOUT EUROPE THE KIND OF COOPERATION THAT YOU BUILT IN WESTERN EUROPE? THIS IS THE STATED GOAL OF EVERY MAJOR COUNTRY. IT IS PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VERY FIRM BELIEF THAT THIS IS THE FOUNDATION FOR THE FUTURE OF PEACE IN EUROPE. AND SO WE HAVE BEEN WORKING WITH OUR ALLIES AND OUR PARTNERS TO, IF YOU WILL, EXPAND, ENLARGE THE COVERAGE, THE STABILITY, THE SENSE OF SECURITY THAT THIS WESTERN COOPERATION PROVIDES. AND I STRESS THIS WORD "WESTERN COOPERATION" BECAUSE WE'RE NOT NECESSARILY ARGUING THAT TO SAVE EUROPE, YOU EXPAND NATO. RATHER, WHAT WE'RE ARGUING IS THAT THE PATTERNS OF COOPERATION, THE KIND OF INTEGRATION THAT THE WEST ACHIEVED IN DEFENSE, IN ECONOMICS, IN POLITICS, IN WHATEVER, IS A VERY GOOD PATTERN TO TRY AND EXPAND THROUGHOUT EUROPE. AS PART OF THAT, OF COURSE, IT IS VERY LOGICAL THAT BOTH NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION SHOULD HAVE NEW MEMBERS AS WELL AS NEW TASKS AND THERE IS IN BOTH CASES A VERY CAREFULLY MODULATED PROCESS UNDERWAY TO TALK ABOUT THE ROLES, TO CONSIDER WHETHER NEW MEMBERS WOULD BE USEFUL, AND AT THE END OF A CERTAIN PERIOD, WHICH WILL PROBABLY BE A PERIOD OF YEARS, TO IN FACT TAKE IN NEW MEMBERS. BUT, AS I SAID BEFORE, WE ALSO WISH TO PROJECT THE ROLE OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS, AND THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE IS AN EFFORT TO PROJECT THE COOPERATION OF NATO WITH OR WITHOUT THE EXPECTATION OF EXPANSION. SOME OF THE MEMBERS -- THERE ARE NOW TWENTY-FOUR WHO HAVE SIGNED UP TO BE PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES -- SOME OF THEM WISH TO JOIN NATO RATHER RAPIDLY, OTHERS MAY NEVER WISH TO JOIN NATO. BUT WE BELIEVE THAT THE KIND OF COOPERATION WHICH IS ORGANIZED -- AND WHAT IS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE -- IT IS ESSENTIALLY A PROGRAM OF COOPERATION AND COORDINATION IN POLITICAL, MILITARY FIELDS. HOST: AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK, WHAT THE DEBATE IN THE U.S. IS ABOUT THE POLICY THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS FOLLOWED ON PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE? KIRKPATRICK: I DON'T THINK THERE'S BEEN A BIPOLAR KIND OF DEBATE ON THIS. WITH THE VISEGRAD COUNTRIES, FOR EXAMPLE, AS I HAVE, FOR THE LAST THREE YEARS, PROPOSED TO EXPAND IT [NATO], AND ADMIT, AT LEAST, THE NEW DEMOCRACIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE AND PERHAPS EASTERN EUROPE, TAKING CARE NOT TO EXCLUDE RUSSIA, NOT TO DEVELOP A CONFRONTATIONAL OR PROVOCATIVE STRUCTURE VIS-A-VIS RUSSIA. AND THERE HAVE BEEN AMERICANS WHO WERE CONCERNED ABOUT WHETHER THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE WAS GOING TO UNRAVEL NATO. NOW, I THINK I UNDERSTAND THE KINDS OF CONCERNS THAT WOULD HAVE LED THE ADMINISTRATION TO THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE SOLUTION. I REMAIN CONCERNED WHETHER IT WILL LEAD SOMEWHERE AND WHETHER IT WILL PROVIDE GENUINE, REAL, AUTHENTIC SECURITY STRUCTURES FOR THE NEW DEMOCRACIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE AND EASTERN EUROPE IF THEY DESIRE TO BELONG. AND I THINK THEY DO DESIRE TO BELONG. POLAND, HUNGARY, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA VERY MUCH DESIRE TO BELONG. AND I THINK THAT SOME OF US FEAR THAT THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE MAY BE A KIND OF STEP TOWARD THE UNRAVELING OF NATO MORE BROADLY, AND THE WEAKENING OF IT. AND THE U-N ISSUE IS ANOTHER ONE THAT RELATES TO THIS UNRAVELING AND WE WORRY. HOST: HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO THAT CONCERN, AMBASSADOR? KORNBLUM: I THINK THAT IN A PERIOD SUCH AS THIS, THE DANGER OF WEAKENING OR UNRAVELING IS ALWAYS THERE. AND THERE HAS, IN FACT, BEEN A DEBATE, PERHAPS NOT AS MUCH IN THE UNITED STATES AS IN EUROPE ABOUT THIS. SHOULD NATO STAY AS IT IS? OR SHOULD NATO EXTEND BOTH ITS PROTECTION, IF YOU WILL, AND ITS INFLUENCE BEYOND ITS TRADITIONAL AREAS? THERE HAS BEEN A CONSIDERABLE DEBATE ABOUT THIS AND THE QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE MIGHT AFFECT NATO ARE PART OF THIS DEBATE. I THINK THAT THERE WAS A BROAD CONSENSUS, AND CERTAINLY IN THIS GOVERNMENT THERE WAS A BROAD CONSENSUS. THAT IF NATO INCREASINGLY LOOKED AS A REMNANT OF THE COLD WAR PRACTICING CONTINUALLY TO FIGHT A RUSSIAN INVASION WHICH WAS NEVER GOING TO COME, THAT IT MIGHT NOT FADE AWAY, BUT IT WOULD JUST BECOME IRRELEVANT, AND ALSO BECOME IRRELEVANT TO POLICY MAKERS AND MONEY GIVERS, THE CONGRESS IN THE UNITED STATES. HOST: BUT WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT NATO, THE MIND QUICKLY TURNS TO THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA AND I WONDER, AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK, HOW HAS THE FAILURE OF THE NATO COUNTRIES, EUROPE, THE UNITED STATES, TO CONTEND WITH THE TERRIBLE SITUATION IN BOSNIA AFFECTED THE FUTURE OF NATO AND THE DISCUSSION ABOUT BRINGING IN OTHER COUNTRIES? KIRKPATRICK: IT'S POSED A REALLY MAJOR CHALLENGE, BECAUSE WHAT ONE MUST FACE IS THE FAILURE OF EUROPE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION TO SUCCEED IN FINDING A SOLUTION. WITH THE OUTBREAK OF THOSE HOSTILITIES, THE THEN-PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, MR. JAQUES POOS OF LUXEMBOURG, SAID, "THIS IS A EUROPEAN PROBLEM. WE SHOULD HAVE A EUROPEAN SOLUTION. THERE'S NO ROLE HERE FOR THE UNITED STATES." AND THEY TRIED WELL BUT NOT VERY LONG AND THEY FAILED. SO IT'S A FAILURE FOR THEM, ITS A FAILURE FOR THE W-E-U [WEST EUROPEAN UNION], AND IT'S A FAILURE FOR NATO, BECAUSE NATO HAS ALSO DROPPED THIS BALL. AND IT'S A FAILURE FOR THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION. IT'S A BIPARTISAN FAILURE IN THE UNITED STATES. AND, YOU KNOW, IT'S A TRAGEDY BESIDES. AND IT'S A FAILURE FOR THE C-S-C-E [CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE], WHICH HAS SIMPLY BEEN PASSIVE IN THIS. HOST: THAT'S A GOOD QUESTION TO TURN TO. AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM, HOW DO YOU SEE US OVERCOMING THIS DIFFICULTY WITH BOSNIA TO CREATE THE KIND OF UNITY IN THESE COUNTRIES THAT'S NECESSARY FOR TRUE EXPANSION OF NATO? KORNBLUM: I WOULD AGREE COMPLETELY. BOSNIA IS A HUMAN, SPIRITUAL AND POLITICAL FAILURE, AND IT OUGHT TO BE A VERY STRONG MESSAGE TO ALL OF US WHO ARE INTERESTED IN WORLD AFFAIRS, IN RELATIONS AMONG NATIONS, THAT AT A TIME OF THE GREATEST, IF YOU WILL, VICTORY FOR THE DEMOCRATIC FORCES, THAT INTERNAL CONFLICT RIPPED APART AND SHOWED THE WEAKNESSES OF THE VERY FORCES WHICH HAD JUST WON THIS MAJOR VICTORY. IT'S A VERY SOBERING, SOBERING THING, AND ALL YOU CAN DO IS SAY THAT IT HAS WARNED US OF THE KINDS OF DANGERS WHICH EXIST. AND WE COULD SPEND A LONG TIME TALKING ABOUT WHAT THEY ARE; WE DON'T NEED TO NOW. HOST: I WANT TO ASK EACH OF YOU: IS THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA SOMETHING PECULIAR, OR IS THIS A SITUATION THAT COULD SPREAD IN OTHER AREAS OF THE REGION? AMBASSADOR KIRKPATRICK. KIRKPATRICK: I HAVE THOUGHT THERE ARE SEVERAL REASONS THAT BOSNIA IS SO IMPORTANT. ONE IS JUST A HUMAN TRAGEDY AND THE HUMANITARIAN DEVASTATION. BUT TWO IS THAT BOSNIA IS, I BELIEVE, A CONFLICT WHICH COULD SPREAD AND IT COULD SPREAD CONTIGUOUSLY. IT COULD ALSO SPREAD BY EXAMPLE. AND I WORRY ABOUT THAT. HOST: AMBASSADOR KORNBLUM? KORNBLUM: YES, I THINK IT COULD, PERHAPS, SPREAD IN ITS REGION. BUT I THINK THE MESSAGE FOR ALL OF US IS THAT AS WE HAVE JUST COME AWAY FROM MAJOR EAST-WEST CONFRONTATION. THERE ARE NEW KINDS OF TENSIONS WITHIN SOCIETIES WHICH CAN BE EQUALLY AS DANGEROUS AND WE HAVE TO LEARN HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM. HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE. I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUESTS -- JOHN KORNBLUM, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE; JEANE KIRKPATRICK, FROM THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE -- FOR JOINING ME THIS WEEK TO DISCUSS THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEW EUROPE. THIS IS PENN KEMBLE FOR ON THE LINE. 30-Mar-95 5:13 PM EST (2213 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 21356 total bytes, 21356 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continueITU Telecom Information Exchange Services (TIES) NEB Newswire for UTC Thursday 91. SPECIAL ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT REPORT - OZONE ..GAYLE SHIRAKI/WASHINGTON 92. SPECIAL ENGLISH PEOPLE IN AMERICA #1558 - MARY LYON By VIVIAN R. BO.. 93. SPECTER / PRESIDENT (S) By JAMES MALONE/SENATE 94. SPECTER PROFILE By JIM MALONE/SENATE 95. SUDAN / CONFERENCE (S-ONLY) By KIM REID / CAIRO 96. SUDAN REBELS (L ONLY) By ALEX BELIDA/NAIROBI 97. SUDAN/REBELS UPDATE (L ONLY) By ALEX BELIDA/NAIROBI 98. SUDAN/TALKS (L ONLY) By ALEX BELIDA/NAIROBI 99. SYRIA / KOZYREV (L-ONLY) By KIM REID/CAIRO 100. TERROR TRIAL (L-ONLY) By CHRIS SIMKINS/NEW YORK --> 101. THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEW EUROPE 102. THE UNITED STATES AND THE NEW EUROPE - SHORT #1 103. THE WINNIE MANDELA AFFAIR By ANDREW N. GUTHRIE/WASHINGTON 104. THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS By ANDREW N. GUTHRIE/WASHINGTON 105. TURKEY VERSUS THE KURDS A N D PUBLIC OPINION By ANDREW N. GUTHRIE..106. TURKEY/KURDS (L ONLY) By AMBERIN ZAMAN / ANKARA 107. TYSON SPEAKS (S ONLY) By PAUL FRANCUCH/CHICAGO 108. TYSON SPEAKS ALTERNATE (S ONLY) By PARKE BREWER/WASHINGTON Press?Help,qQuit,uupamenu,DDownloadPage:6/7
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DATE=3/30/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20053 TITLE=SCIENCE TODAY: INFANT H-I-V RECOVERY BYLINE=DAVID MCALARY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: MEDICAL RESEARCHERS IN LOS ANGELES SAY AN INFANT BORN INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS, H-I-V, SOMEHOW BECAME UNINFECTED BY HIS FIRST BIRTHDAY -- MUCH TO THEIR AMAZEMENT. V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY TELLS US THAT THE INVESTIGATORS DO NOT KNOW HOW THIS HAPPENED, BUT SUSPECT IT MAY NOT BE THE ONLY CASE. TEXT: INCREASING NUMBERS OF WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ARE CONTRACTING H-I-V AND PASSING IT TO THEIR BABIES IN THE WOMB OR DURING BIRTH. ABOUT 40 PERCENT OF AFRICAN BABIES BECOME INFECTED THIS WAY, WHILE THE TRANSMISSION RATE IS ABOUT 25 PERCENT IN THE UNITED STATES AND 14 PERCENT IN EUROPE. INFECTION WITH H-I-V IS NORMALLY A DEATH SENTENCE FOR BABIES AND ALMOST EVERYONE ELSE WHO GETS IT. BUT AN ARTICLE IN "THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE" [MARCH 30TH ISSUE] SUGGESTS THAT SOME INFECTED NEWBORNS MAY BE ABLE TO ELIMINATE THE VIRUS NATURALLY. RESEARCHERS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA'S LOS ANGELES BRANCH -- U-C-L-A -- REPORT THE FIRST DOCUMENTED CASE WHERE THIS HAS HAPPENED. THE DIRECTOR OF THE U-C-L-A AIDS INSTITUTE -- IRVIN CHEN -- AND COLLEAGUES FOUND H-I-V IN AN INFANT BOY'S BLOOD AT BIRTH AND THEN TWICE MORE DURING THE NEXT TWO MONTHS. THEY CONTINUED TO MONITOR THE CHILD AND WERE SURPRISED TO FIND THAT BY AGE ONE, HE DID NOT HAVE IT -- AND HE HAD NOT BEEN TREATED FOR THE VIRUS. // CHEN ACTUALITY // OUR THINKING WHEN WE FIRST SAW THIS WAS THAT IT MUST HAVE BEEN SOME KIND OF LABORATORY MISTAKE BECAUSE SOMETHING LIKE THIS HAD NEVER BEEN DOCUMENTED BEFORE. // END ACTUALITY // BUT RE-TESTING OF THE BLOOD SAMPLES CONFIRMED THE FINDING, AND MR. CHEN SAYS THE BOY STILL HAS NO SYMPTOMS OF H-I-V INFECTION AT FIVE YEARS OF AGE. // CHEN ACTUALITY // IT'S A VERY UNUSUAL CASE. I SUSPECT, THOUGH, THAT SITUATIONS LIKE THIS MAY HAVE HAPPENED IN THE PAST, BUT WERE WRITTEN OFF AS LABORATORY MISTAKES. SO NOW OUR HOPE IS THAT OTHER SCIENTISTS AND CLINICIANS WILL GO BACK AND LOOK MORE CLOSELY AT SOME OF THE SAMPLES THAT THEY HAVE TO SEE WHETHER IN FACT THE SAME THING IS OCCURRING IN OTHER INFANTS -- AND PERHAPS IN ADULTS AS WELL. // END ACTUALITY // THE SCIENTISTS CAN NOT EXPLAIN HOW THE BOY CLEARED H-I-V FROM HIS BLOOD. THEY DO NOT DISCOUNT THE POSSIBILITY THAT AN INFECTION IS LURKING, HIDDEN SOMEWHERE IN HIS BODY. BUT THEY DO NOT BELIEVE SO BECAUSE OF HIS CURRENT HEALTHY STATE. MR. CHEN SUGGESTS THAT EITHER THE VIRUS MAY HAVE BEEN TOO WEAK TO ESTABLISH INFECTION, OR THE BABY'S IMMUNE SYSTEM WAS ESPECIALLY STRONG, OR A COMBINATION OF THE TWO WERE INVOLVED. BUT A PEDIATRICIAN FAMILIAR WITH THE STUDY -- SANDRA BURCHETT [BIR - 'CHET] OF CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL IN BOSTON -- SAYS SHE WOULD BE SURPRISED IF THE BABY'S IMMUNE SYSTEM WAS TOUGH ENOUGH, OR IMMUNOCOMPETENT ENOUGH, TO FIGHT THE INFECTION BECAUSE THE SYSTEM IS UNDEVELOPED AT THAT AGE. // BURCHETT ACTUALITY // THIS WOULD BE ONE OF THE FEW INSTANCES WHEN AN INFANT WHO IS REALLY IMMUNOLOGICALLY INCOMPETENT IN ALMOST ALL CIRCUMSTANCES COULD DO SOMETHING THAT WE HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO SEE AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT ADULT DO. SO IT'S QUITE UNUSUAL FOR A VERY YOUNG CHILD TO HAVE AN AVID IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE. IN GENERAL, THEY GO THE OTHER WAY AND DON'T HAVE AN APPROPRIATE IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE. // END ACTUALITY // DR. BURCHETT AND MR. CHEN SAY WHAT MAY HAVE HAPPENED IS THAT THE VESTIGES OF THE MOTHER'S IMMUNE CELLS HELPED THE CHILD CLEAR THE H-I-V FROM ITS BLOOD. THE DEVELOPER OF THE FIRST WIDELY USED POLIO VACCINE -- JONAS SALK -- AND HIS COLLEAGUES HAVE PROPOSED THAT MATERNAL ANTIBODIES IN COMBINATION WITH EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSES OF THE AIDS VIRUS MAY IMMUNIZE AN INFANT. THE U-C-L-A TEAM IS SEEKING THE ANSWER. MR. CHEN SAYS IF HE FINDS ONE, IT COULD HAVE PROFOUND IMPLICATIONS FOR AIDS THERAPY. // CHEN ACTUALITY // IF WE UNDERSTAND THAT PROCESS -- WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED THERE -- IT WILL GUIDE US FURTHER IN DESIGNING BETTER VACCINE STRATEGIES FOR OTHER PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT YET INFECTED, OR DESIGNING APPROACHES TO WEAKEN VIRUSES IN PEOPLE WHO ARE INFECTED SO THAT THEY MIGHT POSSIBLY CLEAR IT. // END ACTUALITY // THE U-C-L-A SCIENTIST ADDS THAT AN ANSWER IN THIS CASE MIGHT ALSO HELP EXPLAIN WHY THE MAJORITY OF INFANTS BORN TO H-I-V INFECTED MOTHERS ESCAPE INFECTION THEMSELVES. (SIGNED) NEB/DEM/BG 30-Mar-95 3:15 PM EST (2015 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4927 total bytes, 4927 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/30/95 TYPE=NEWS FEATURE NUMBER=5-20047 TITLE=SCIENCE TODAY: MARS-WATER BYLINE=STEPHEN G. IRMO DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AN AMERICAN SCIENTIST SAYS LARGE RESERVOIRS OF WATER MAY EXIST UNDER THE SURFACE OF MARS. V-O-A'S STEPHEN IRMO REPORTS THE STUDY -- PUBLISHED IN TODAY'S (THURSDAY'S 3/30) ISSUE OF THE SCIENCE JOURNAL, "NATURE" -- PROVIDES NEW EVIDENCE THAT SOME OF MARS' ORIGINAL WARM, WET ATMOSPHERE MAY YET SURVIVE IN THE FORM OF UNDERGROUND WATER. TEXT: MOST SCIENTISTS BELIEVE FREE FLOWING WATER ON MARS DISAPPEARED SEVERAL BILLION YEARS AGO, EVAPORATING INTO THE PLANET'S COOLING, THINNER ATMOSPHERE -- ONE LACKING SUFFICIENT PRESSURE TO KEEP THE WATER IN LIQUID FORM. // OPT // STEVEN LEE, A PLANETARY PHYSICIST AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DESCRIBES AN EARLIER MARS: // OPT LEE ACTUALITY // MARS WAS CONSIDERABLY WARMER. THE ATMOSPHERE WAS MUCH THICKER THAN IT IS AT PRESENT, AND YOU WERE ABLE TO SUSTAIN LIQUID WATER ON THE SURFACE. MANY OF THE DRY RIVER CHANNELS, FOR LACK OF A BETTER WORD, THAT WE SEE APPEAR TO BE CAUSED PERHAPS WHERE YOU HAD PERMAFROST AND THEN A VOLCANIC ERUPTION OR SOMETHING THAT MELTED THE WATER AND THE WATER FLOWED OUT IN A CATASTROPHIC FLOOD. // END ACTUALITY END OPT // THOMAS DONAHUE, (PRON: DOHN-AH-WHO) A UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PHYSICIST STUDYING THE ATMOSPHERES OF PLANETS, SAYS HE HAS MADE NEW OBSERVATIONS USING METEORITES FROM MARS AND COMPARISONS WITH THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE THAT SHOW THERE COULD STILL BE SUB-SURFACE RESERVIORS OF MARTIAN WATER AT LEAST SEVERAL METERS DEEP: // DONAHUE ACTUALITY // THERE ARE MULTITUDES OF LARGE FLOOD PLAINS THAT SHOW THAT WATER HAS COME GUSHING OUT OF THE INTERIOR FROM TIME TO TIME AND SPREAD OVER A LARGE AMOUNT OF THE SURFACE. YOU CAN DO SOME INFORMED SPECULATION AND ARRIVE AT AN ASSESSMENT OF HOW MUCH WATER YOU WOULD REQUIRE UNDER THE SURFACE TO MAKE THOSE FLOOD PLAINS AND YOU COME UP WITH THE ANSWER OF SEVERAL HUNDRED METERS OF WATER SPREAD UNIFORMLY OVER THE PLANET. // END ACTUALITY // THOMAS DONAHUE COMPARED THE RATIO OF DEUTERIUM, A RADIOACTIVE FORM OF HYDROGEN FOUND IN WATER TO NORMAL HYDROGEN EXISTING IN BOTH THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE AND IN ROCKS FROM THE PLANET'S SURFACE. THE MICHIGAN PHYSICIST BELIEVES THE RESULTS PROVIDE THE FIRST EVIDENCE THAT MARS ONCE HAD AN ACTIVE ATMOSPHERE WITH WATER CYCLING FROM LIQUID TO GAS, THE SAME PROCESS WHICH ON EARTH TAKES THE FORM OF RAIN, SNOW AND EVAPORATION. FINDINGS ALSO POINT, HE SAYS TO LARGE STORES OF WATER WHICH HAVE ONLY BEEN PARTIALLY DEPLETED. // DONAHUE ACTUALITY // MEASUREMENTS CLEARLY SHOW THAT THE WATER UNDER THE SURFACE IS LIQUID AND CANNOT ONLY INTERACT WITH THOSE MINERALS IN THOSE METEORITES IN THE CRUST OF MARS AND ALSO IN THE ATMOSPHERE. SO IT HAS GOT TO BE LIQUID. IT HAS GOT TO BE ABLE TO MOVE AROUND BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND THE INTERIOR. // END ACTUALITY // AS TO THE "CANALS" SEEN ON MARS BY EARLY ASTRONOMERS, THOMAS DONAHUE BELIEVES THEY ARE SIMPLY ARTIFACTS OF THEIR OBSERVERS' TIMES. PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN OF THE MARTIAN SURFACE BY THE U-S MARINER AND VIKING MARTIAN MISSIONS, HE MAINTAINS, SHOW NO CANALS. STILL THESE SAME IMAGES -- REPLETE WITH APPARENT RIVER CHANNELS AND FLOOD PLAINS, CONTINUE TO FUEL THE UNLIKELY BUT TANTALIZING POSSIBILITY THAT WITH WATER -- MARS MAY ONCE HAVE HOSTED OR MAY YET HARBOR THE MOST SPECTACULAR OF EARTHLY MIRACLES -- LIFE. (SIGNED) NEB/SI/CF 30-Mar-95 8:56 AM EST (1356 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3858 total bytes, 3858 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/30/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176314 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L-ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: MORE FIGHTING IS REPORTED IN NORTHERN BOSNIA DESPITE HEAVY SNOW AND UNUSUALLY COLD WEATHER. IN CROATIA, A UNITED NATIONS MEDIATOR IS HOLDING CRITICAL TALKS WITH THE REBEL SERBS ON A NEW U-N PEACEKEEPING MANDATE IN CROATIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: CLASHES HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF NORTHERN BOSNIA. MUSLIM REBEL FORCES IN THE BIHAC REGION IN THE NORTHWEST ARE SAID TO HAVE EXPANDED THE AREA THEY CONTROL BY UP TO FIVE KILOMETERS. FIGHTING BETWEEN THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND SERB FORCES IS CONTINUING AT A LOW LEVEL IN THE HILLS AROUND THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA. A U-N SOLDIER WAS KILLED IN THAT AREA WEDNESDAY NIGHT. U-N SPOKESMAN CHRISTOPHER GUNNESS SAYS ATTEMPTS ARE BEING MADE TO FIND OUT WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHELLING THE PEACEKEEPERS POSITION. /// GUNNESS ACT /// I REGRET TO INFORM YOU THAT AT 10 O'CLOCK LAST NIGHT A DUTCH PEACEKEEPER WAS TRAGICALLY KILLED IN AN AREA ABOUT 10 KILOMETERS SOUTH OF STOLICE WHEN THE OBSERVATION POST HE WAS MANNING WAS SHELLED. /// END ACT /// IN SARAJEVO, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS CUT BACK THE NUMBER OF RELIEF FLIGHTS GOING INTO THE BESIEGED BOSNIAN CAPITAL. THE SERBS ARE BLOCKING THE ROAD USED TO TRANSPORT AID FROM THE AIRPORT INTO SARAJEVO AND THERE IS VERY LITTLE SPACE NOW AT THE AIRPORT TO STORE ADDITIONAL U-N RELIEF SUPPLIES. MEANWHILE, UNITED NATIONS MEDIATOR THORVALD STOLTENBERG IS HOLDING CRITICAL TALKS WITH THE CROATIAN SERBS ON THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MANDATE IN CROATIA. THE MANDATE EXPIRES FRIDAY NIGHT. THE SERBS WANT TO EXTEND IT, BUT THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT IS DEMANDING A NEW MANDATE. THE GOVERNMENT WANTS U-N FORCES TO CONTROL CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. U-N SPOKESMAN MICHAEL WILLIAMS IS WORRIED ABOUT THE CONFLICTING DEMANDS. /// WILLIAMS ACT /// GIVEN THAT WE NOW HAVE LESS THAN 36 HOURS REALLY BEFORE THE EXPIRATION OF THE MANDATE, IT MAY WELL BE THAT MR. STOLTENBERG WILL HAVE TO CONTINUE HIS ENDEAVORS (OR NEGOTIATIONS) AND REPORT BACK IN THE NEAR FUTURE TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL ON THE OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW MANDATE. /// END ACT /// THE SECURITY COUNCIL IS EXPECTED TO PASS A RESOLUTION PERHAPS ON A FRAMEWORK OR TRANSITIONAL PEACEKEEPING MANDATE FOR CROATIA BY FRIDAY NIGHT SO CURRENT PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS CAN CONTINUE HERE FOR THE TIME BEING. THE PEACEKEEPING MANDATES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ALSO NEED TO BE RENEWED NOW. THERE WILL BE NO MAJOR CHANGES IN THOSE MANDATES AND NO PROBLEMS ARE EXPECTED IN EXTENDING THEM. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/BG 30-Mar-95 11:00 AM EST (1600 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3041 total bytes, 3041 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/2/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20076*** TITLE=CLIMATE CONFERENCE 1ST WEEK BYLINE=EVANS HAYS DATELINE=BERLIN CONTENT= VOICED AT: // EDS: THIS IS THE CORRECT TEXT FOR THE REPORT FILED TODAY. PLEASE DO NOT USE THE HAYS TEXT SENT EARLIER. /// // ACTUALITY IN ARABIC AVAILABLE IN LANGUAGE BUBBLE. PLS ADVISE M/E DIVISION // INTRO: SOME TWO THOUSAND DELEGATES TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE ARE GOING INTO THEIR SECOND WEEK OF WORK IN BERLIN. THE CONFERENCE IS GOING INTO ITS SECOND AND FINAL STAGE, WITH MORE SENIOR OFFICIALS AND GOVERNMENT MINISTERS TAKING PART. THE GOAL OF THE CONFERENCE IS TO WORK OUT A POLICY TO PROTECT THE EARTH'S ENVIRONMENT BEYOND THE YEAR 2000. BUT JUST HOW TO ACCOMPLISH THAT -- AND HOW TO PAY FOR IT -- ARE STILL BEING DEBATED. V-O-A'S EVANS HAYS IS COVERING THE CONFERENCE AND FILES THIS REPORT. TEXT: THE BERLIN CONFERENCE IS THE FIRST TO BE HELD SINCE THE EARTH SUMMIT MEETING IN RIO DE JANEIRO IN 1992. SINCE THEN, SCIENTISTS HAVE BEEN LOOKING AT A WIDE RANGE OF ISSUES CONCERNING THE ENVIRONMENT. OF SPECIAL CONCERN IS THE QUESTION: ARE HUMANS INTERFERING WITH THE CLIMATE IN WAYS THAT CREATE A DANGER TO LIFE ON EARTH. MOST SCIENTISTS AND GOVERNMENT DELEGATIONS SAY THE ANSWER IS "YES." BUT THEY ARE CAUTIOUS IN THEIR ANSWERS BECAUSE NOT ALL OF THE EVIDENCE IS CONCLUSIVE. RIGHT NOW, THE SCIENTISTS AND OTHER EXPERTS ARE WORKING ON PROBABILITIES. PROFESSOR BERT BOLIN OF SWEDEN, WHO HEADS THE CHIEF SCIENTIFIC PANEL AT THE CONFERENCE, ADMITS THAT EXPERTS STILL HAVE DOUBTS ON THE ISSUE. BUT HE SAYS THE PROBABILITY OF A MAN-MADE DANGER TO OUR CLIMATE IS SO GREAT THAT GOVERNMENTS MUST ACT NOW TO PREVENT A DANGER IN THE FUTURE. HE BELIEVES THAT THE SO-CALLED GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS OF GASES SUCH AS METHANE AND CARBON DIOXIDE THAT DESTROY THE ATMOSPHERE MUST BE CURBED. PROFESSOR BOLIN SAYS THERE IS A DELAYED EFFECT IN STUDIES ON CLIMATE. WHEN SCIENTISTS SEE A CHANGE FOR THE WORSE, THE DAMAGE HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE AND CAN NOT BE REPAIRED. // BOLIN ACT // WHAT WE OBSERVE IS NOT THE FULL EFFECT AS YET BECAUSE OF THE DELAY, THE INERTIA OF THE CLIMATE SYSTEM. AND THEREFORE WE DID NOT EXPECT THE REALIZATION OF THE 50 PERCENT INCREASE OF CARBON DIOXIDE, OR 45 AT THAT TIME, TO BE FULLY SEEN AT ALL. // END ACT // PROFESSOR BOLIN SAYS THAT WHILE THE FACTS ARE STILL OPEN TO DEBATE, THERE IS A GREAT PROBABILITY THAT HUMANS ARE TO BLAME FOR MUCH OF THE DAMAGE TO THE CLIMATE. // BOLIN ACT // IT'S 95 PERCENT PROBABILITY THAT THE CHANGES OBSERVED ARE NOT NATURAL VARIABILITIES, PRIMARILY. THERE IS SOME DISTINCTION THERE. WHAT IS COMING FORWARD NOW WITH THE AID OF (COMPUTER) MODELS IS A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IS IT THAT MAN DOES WITH THE CLIMATE. // END ACT // IF THE SCIENTISTS ARE STILL IN DEBATE, THE INSURANCE COMPANIES ARE NOT. THEY HAVE LOOKED AT THE MONEY THEY MUST PAY OUT FOR LOSSES DUE TO WEATHER-RELATED DISASTERS AND THE FIGURES FOR THEM ARE NOT GOOD. RICHARD KEELING, FORMERLY OF THE LLOYD'S INSURANCE GROUP, SAYS THE PAYMENTS RUN INTO MANY BILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND COULD GO HIGHER. INSURANCE COMPANIES MAKE THEIR PROFITS AND SUFFER THEIR LOSSES BASED ON EXPECTED RISKS. ACCORDING TO MR. KEELING, THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND MORE NATURAL DISASTERS IS TOO GREAT TO BE IGNORED. HE CITED THE EXAMPLE OF HURRICANE ANDREW, WHICH HIT THE SOUTHERN U-S STATE OF FLORIDA, CAUSING MASSIVE DAMAGE. // OPT // // KEELING ACT // TO GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE, HURRICANE ANDREW WAS A 20- BILLION-DOLLAR INSURED LOSS. THAT WAS, I THINK, ABOUT 20 OR 30 MILES SOUTH OF MIAMI. IF IT WENT INTO MIAMI THE ESTIMATES ARE SOMETHING LIKE 50 BILLION DOLLARS. // END ACT // // END OPT // MR. KEELING SAYS THIS IS NO PROOF OF GLOBAL WARMING. BUT IT IS, HE SAYS, A SIGN THAT BUSINESS MUST WAKE UP AND START TAKING ACTION. // OPT // // KEELING ACT // COULD I TAKE THE POINT ABOUT HURRICANE ANDREW BEING PART OF GLOBAL WARMING. THE ANSWER IS NONE OF US KNOW. WHAT WE ARE, I THINK, SAYING IS THAT THERE IS A GREAT BODY OF OPINION THAT SAYS THERE IS A NATURAL CYCLE OF CATASTROPHIC LOSSES AND SUPER-IMPOSED ON THAT MIGHT WELL BE GLOBAL WARMING. SO NONE OF US CAN ABSOLUTELY SAY. WHAT WE ARE SAYING IS THAT WHEN WE CAN ABSOLUTELY PROVE IT, THE INSURANCE BUSINESS IS PROBABLY IN QUITE A BIT OF TROUBLE. SO WE HAVE TO START ACTING TO SEE IF WE HAVE A PROBLEM NOW. // END ACT // // END OPT // THE COUNTRIES BEING WIDELY BLAMED FOR THIS WARMING OF THE EARTH'S CLIMATE ARE THE MAJOR INDUSTRIAL NATIONS, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES. A SPOKESMAN FOR THE WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION GREENPEACE, FOUAD HAMDAN, SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS N OT REDUCED ITS GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AS PROMISED AT THE 1992 RIO MEETING AND NOW WANTS TO SHIFT THE BLAME FOR THIS ONTO OTHER COUNTRIES, MAINLY THE OIL EXPORTING NATIONS OF OPEC. // OPT // // HAMDAN ACT // OPEC IS NOT THE PROBLEM. RUSSIA IS NOT T HE PROBLEM, CHINA IS NOT THE PROBLEM. NONE OF THESE COUNTRIES OR BLOCS ARE A PROBLEM. THE MAIN PROBLEM IS THAT THE INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS ARE HIDING BEHIND OPEC AND OTHER COUNTRIES WHO ARE OFFICIALLY BLOCKING A PROTOCOL AT THE CONFERENCE. THE INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS, MEANING THE U-S, CANADA, THE EUROPEAN UNION, ARE ABLE TO PRESSURE ANY OTHER BLOC, MEANING THE OPEC COUNTRIES OR CHINA OR THE FORMER SOVIET UNION TO ENFORCE A PROTOCOL. BUT THEY DON'T WANT IT FOR POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REASONS. // END ACT // // END OPT // OTHER OFFICIALS REJECT THIS NOTION. THEY SAY THE INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS ARE WORKING TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT, ALTHOUGH NOT PERHAPS AT THE SPEED DESIRED BY SOME DELEGATIONS. WITH ANOTHER WEEK TO GO AT THE CONFERENCE IN BERLIN, MORE ARGUMENTS FOR BOTH SIDES ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO BECOME MORE HEATED. (SIGNED) NEB/EH/DW/BG 02-Apr-95 1:15 PM EDT (1715 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6416 total bytes, 6416 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/2/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20076 TITLE=CLIMATE CONFERENCE/U-S BYLINE=EVANS HAYS DATELINE=BERLIN CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE U-N CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE IN BERLIN IS ABOUT HALF-WAY THROUGH ITS TWO-WEEKS OF WORK. THE CONFERENCE IS A FOLLOW-UP TO THE 1992 EARTH SUMMIT MEETING IN RIO DE JANEIRO. ABOUT TWO-THOUSAND DELEGATES FROM GOVERNMENTS AND PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS ARE TRYING TO MAP OUT AN AGENDA TO PROTECT THE EARTH'S ENVIRONMENT BEYOND THE YEAR 2000. V-O-A'S EVANS HAYS IS COVERING THE CONFERENCE. IN THIS REPORT, HE SPEAKS WITH THE CHIEF OF THE U-S DELEGATION, RAFE POMERANCE, ABOUT THE CONFERENCE'S GOALS. TEXT: THE VERY NAME -- CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE -- MAY LEAD SOME PEOPLE TO BELIEVE THE TWO-THOUSAND OR SO DELEGATES IN BERLIN ARE TAKING ACTION THAT WILL CHANGE TOMORROW'S WEATHER. AS U-S DELEGATION CHIEF RAFE POMERANCE EXPLAINED TO V-O-A, THE CONFERENCE IS DEALING INSTEAD WITH LONG-TERM ISSUES THAT MAY CHANGE THE EARTH'S WEATHER PATTERNS, BUT NOT TOMORROW OR NEXT WEEK. /// INSERT 1ST POMERANCE ACT /// THIS CONFERENCE IS REALLY ABOUT A LONG-TERM CHANGE IN CLIMATE, THAT WILL ULTIMATELY EFFECT THE WEATHER PEOPLE EXPERIENCE. FOR THE PAST 200-YEARS, HUMAN BEINGS HAVE BEEN, THROUGH A VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES, PUTTING LARGE QUANTITIES OF GASSES IN THE ATMOSPHERE THAT HAVE LONG LIFETIMES. THOSE GASSES TRAP HEAT. THAT IN TURN MEANS THE EARTH WILL WARM. THAT IN TURN MEANS THE WEATHER WILL CHANGE. // END 1ST ACT // MR. POMERANCE SAYS SCIENTISTS CAN DESCRIBE THE OVERALL PROBLEM, EVEN THOUGH THEY CANNOT PREDICT EXACTLY WHERE AND WHEN THE WEATHER WILL CHANGE. /// INSERT 2ND ACT /// SCIENTISTS ARE UNABLE TO PREDICT WITH GREAT SPECIFICITY HOW THE WEATHER WILL CHANGE IN A PARTICULAR LOCATION, HOW PRECIPITATION WILL CHANGE, WHETHER THERE WILL BE MORE DROUGHTS, WHETHER THERE WILL BE MORE OR LESS FLOODS. BUT, THEY CAN CHARACTERIZE THE PROBLEM AND CERTAINLY WE WILL SEE LARGE-SCALE CHANGES IN REGIONAL WEATHER PATTERNS, CHANGES IN RAINFALL, CHANGES IN SNOWFALL, CHANGES WHERE THE NATURAL WORLD EXISTS. TREES, FORESTS, THEY ALL LIVE IN CERTAIN TEMPERATURE RANGES, ALL THAT WILL CHANGE. /// END ACT /// MR. POMERANCE SAYS THERE IS NO DOUBT THE CLIMATE IS CHANGING. THE EARTH IS BECOMING WARMER, A FACT SCIENTISTS CAN PROVE. BUT, WHAT SCIENTISTS STILL NEED TO PROVE IS WHETHER THIS CHANGE IS MAN-MADE OR A REGULAR, NATURAL VARIATION. /// INSERT 3RD ACT /// RIGHT NOW THE EARTH IS ABOUT HALF A DEGREE CENTIGRADE WARMER ON AVERAGE THAN IT WAS 100-YEARS AGO, IT HAS WARMED UP ABOUT ONE-HALF DEGREE CENTIGRADE. THAT IS RIGHT AT THE EDGE OF NATURAL VARIABILITY. IF IT GETS ANY WARMER THEN IT WILL BE MUCH MORE LIKELY THE WARMING WILL BE ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT. AND THEN WE WILL BEGIN TO SEE WEATHER CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH IT. /// END ACT /// BUT, MANY SCIENTISTS SAY BY THEN IT WILL BE TOO LATE TO REVERSE THE DAMAGE. THEY SAY THE TIME FOR ACTION IS NOW. (SIGNED) NEB/EH/DW/RAE 02-Apr-95 7:40 AM EDT (1140 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3417 total bytes, 3417 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/1/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176437 TITLE=CROATIA/U-N (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: CROATIA IS CLAIMING A DIPLOMATIC VICTORY BY FORCING THE UNITED NATIONS TO RENAME THE U-N MILITARY PRESENCE IN THE COUNTRY AND TO COME UP WITH A NEW MANDATE FOR THE PEACEKEEPERS. BUT THE CROATIAN SERBS ARE WARNING THEY MAY NOT ALLOW THE PEACEKEEPERS TO CONTINUE TO BE DEPLOYED IN THEIR TERRITORY. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER MANTE GRANIC SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE SECURITY COUNCIL REAFFIRMS CROATIA'S SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY. HE WAS REFERRING TO A CHANGE IN THE NAME OF WHAT HAS BEEN CALLED THE "U-N PROTECTION FORCE" HERE. THE 12-THOUSAND PEACEKEEPERS DEPLOYED IN THIS COUNTRY ARE NOW CALLED THE "U-N CONFIDENCE RESTORATION OPERATION IN CROATIA." THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAD DEMANDED THE NAME CHANGE. THE GOVERNMENT INSISTED THAT PEACEKEEPERS SHOULD NOT BE OFFICIALLY IN CROATIA TO PROTECT THE REBEL SERBS. FOREIGN MINISTER GRANIC SAYS THE DIFFERENT NAME AND A CHANGE IN THE PEACEKEEPERS' MANDATE -- STILL TO BE NEGOTIATED -- WILL ENCOURAGE TALKS ON THE PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF SERB TERRITORY WITH THE REST OF CROATIA. BUT THE SERB LEADER, MILAN MARTIC, IS WARNING THAT THE SERBS WILL NOT ALLOW U-N PEACEKEEPERS IN THEIR TERRITORY TO CONTROL CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND YUGOSLAVIA, AS THE GOVERNMENT DEMANDS. THE SERBS NEED THE PEACEKEEEPERS, THOUGH, MORE THAN THE GOVERNMENT DOES. EVEN THE SMALLER NUMBER OF PEACEKEEPERS WHO WILL REMAIN HERE WILL STILL INDIRECTLY HELP PROTECT THE SERBS FROM CROATIAN ARMY ATTACKS. AT THE SAME TIME, U-N OFFICIALS IN ZAGREB HAVE AGAIN SAID STRICT U-N CONTROLS OF CROATIA'S BORDERS, DEMANDED BY THE GOVERNMENT, ARE SIMPLY NOT FEASIBLE. THE OFFICIALS SAY THE COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDE THE PEACEKEEPERS ARE NOT GOING TO HAVE THEIR TROOPS ENFORCE PEACE IN CROATIA. U-N MEDIATOR THORVALD STOLTENBERG WILL SOON RESUME NEGOTIATIONS WHERE THE GOVERNMENT AND THE SERBS ON DETAILS OF THE NEW U-N MANDATE. MR. STOLTENBERG IS ALSO EXPECTED TO MEET WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE, POSSIBLY NEXT WEEK. THE FRAMEWORK RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS BOUGHT TIME FOR THESE NEGOTIATIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT WHILE THE PEACEKEEPERS DO WHAT THEY HAVE BEEN DOING. BUT THE U-N PRESENCE HERE COULD FACE SERIOUS NEW PROBLEMS WITHIN A FEW WEEKS IF THE GOVERNMENT AND THE SERBS STILL DISAGREE ABOUT THE NEW PEACEKEEPING MANDATE. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/CB-T/GPT 01-Apr-95 2:58 PM EST (1958 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2661 total bytes, 2661 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/1/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176430 TITLE=CROATIA/U-N (S ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN CROATIA HAS A NEW NAME AND A RENEWED LEASE ON LIFE FOLLOWING SECURITY COUNCIL ACTION IN NEW YORK. BUT IT IS NOT CLEAR WHAT KIND OF NEW MANDATE THE PEACEKEEPERS WILL HAVE. VOA'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE HERE IS NOW CALLED "U-N CONFIDENCE RESTORATION OPERATION IN CROATIA." GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS ARE HAPPY BECAUSE THE NEW TITLE IMPLIES GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY OVER REBEL SERB-HELD AREAS OF THE COUNTRY. A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION CONFIRMS THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE'S NEW NAME. THE RESOLUTION ALSO SAYS THE PEACEKEEPERS WILL HELP CONTROL CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. THIS IS TO BE DONE BY MONITORING AND REPORTING ON MILITARY MOVEMENTS ACROSS THE FRONTIERS. BUT U-N MEDIATOR THORVALD STOLTENBERG MUST NEGOTIATE THE DETAILS WITH THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE REBEL SERBS. THE SERBS WANT PEACEKEEPERS TO REMAIN IN CROATIA. BUT THEY OPPOSE THE U-N FORCE'S NEW TITLE AND THEY HAVE SAID THEY WILL ALLOW NO BORDER CONTROLS BECAUSE THEY NEED OUTSIDE AID. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE U-N BORDER CONTROLS THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS DEMANDED ARE JUST NOT FEASABLE, SO THERE ARE STILL DOUBTS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF THE U-N MILITARY PRESENCE IN CROATIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/DW/GPT 01-Apr-95 9:59 AM EST (1459 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1486 total bytes, 1486 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=3/31/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20072 TITLE=U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BYLINE=ELAINE JOHANSON DATELINE=UNITED NATIONS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RE-STRUCTURES ITS PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN THE BALKANS, AS INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS GROPE FOR A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT; SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI GOES TO HAITI AS THE UNITED STATES HANDS OVER PEACEKEEPING COMMAND TO THE UNITED NATIONS; AND REPRESENTATIVES FROM OVER 40 COUNTRIES OPEN A CONFERENCE TO REGULATE OVER-FISHING ON THE HIGH SEAS. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK: TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL ADOPTED A PACKAGE OF RESOLUTIONS DISSOLVING -- IN EFFECT -- ITS PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AS IT HAS EXISTED SINCE 1992. IT CREATED THREE SEPARATE FORCES WITH THEIR OWN COMMANDS -- THOUGH STILL UNDER THE CONTROL OF A U-N CIVILIAN. THE RE-STRUCTURING WAS IN RESPONSE TO CROATIA'S DEMAND FOR MORE INTENSE BORDER PATROLS TO STOP SUPPLIES FROM REACHING ITS REBEL SERBS. THE U-N FORCE IN CROATIA WILL BE REDUCED OVERALL. DETAILS OF DEPLOYMENT AND PRECISE NUMBERS ARE TO BE NEGOTIATED OVER THE NEXT THREE WEEKS WITH THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT. WHILE OFFICIALS IN THE REGION ARE CONSULTING THE SO-CALLED KRAJINA SERBS, CROATIA INSISTS ON HAVING THE FINAL SAY OVER THE ARRANGEMENTS. A DIPLOMATIC DEADLOCK WAS BROKEN BEFORE THE COUNCIL VOTE WHEN MEMBERS AGREED TO CROATIA'S DEMAND THAT THE WORD "CROATIA" BE INCLUDED IN THE NAME OF THE FORCE ON ITS TERRITORY. IT WAS ZAGREB'S WAY OF ASSERTING ITS TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER THE ONE-THIRD OF CROATIA HELD BY REBEL SERB FORCES. THE OPERATIONS IN MACEDONIA AND BOSNIA REMAIN THE SAME. ALL THREE WERE EXTENDED UNTIL NOVEMBER 30TH. IN THE RESOLUTION ON CROATIA -- THE SECURITY COUNCIL NOTED THAT THE NEW FORCE WOULD BE AN INTERIM ARRANGEMENT UNTIL A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT IS REACHED. CROATIA HAS REPEATEDLY EXPRESSED IMPATIENCE WITH THE U-N PRESENCE AS REINFORCING THE STATUS QUO. -0- SENIOR DIPLOMATS AND U-N OFFICIALS HEADED TOWARD HAITI THIS WEEK, AS THE UNITED STATES TRANSFERRED PEACEKEEPING AUTHORITY FROM A U-S LED FORCE TO UNITED NATIONS TROOPS. THE UNITED STATES INTERVENED LAST SEPTEMBER TO ENSURE THE SAFE RETURN OF PRESIDENT JEAN BERTRAND ARISTIDE, WHO HAD BEEN OUSTED IN A MILITARY COUP THREE YEARS EARLIER. THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAD AUTHORIZED THE HAND-OVER AFTER DETERMINING THAT THE SITUATION IN HAITI IS SUFFICIENTLY STABLE. ABOUT SIX-THOUSAND U-N TROOPS FROM 19 COUNTRIES WILL PARTICIPATE IN THE NEW U-N MISSION -- INCLUDING 24-HUNDRED AMERICAN SOLDIERS. -0- THE SECURITY COUNCIL DECIDED TO KEEP UNCHANGED THE SANCTIONS IT IMPOSED ON LIBYA IN 1992 BECAUSE OF LIBYA'S FAILURE TO SURRENDER TWO SUSPECTS IN THE 1988 BOMBING OF AN AMERICAN AIRLINER OVER SCOTLAND. LIBYA INSISTS IT HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH THE INCIDENT AND -- UNDER ITS OWN LAWS -- CANNOT TURN ITS NATIONALS OVER TO A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT. THE UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN ARE DEMANDING THAT THE SUSPECTS STAND TRIAL IN EITHER AN AMERICAN OR BRITISH COURT. THE UNITED STATES URGED THE COUNCIL TO CONSIDER TOUGHER MEASURES. BUT IT ABANDONED HOPES OF IMPOSING AN OIL EMBARGO ON LIBYA BECAUSE IT LACKED SUFFICIENT SUPPORT. LIBYA EXPORTS OIL TO SEVERAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. -0- FISH THAT SWIM IN AND OUT OF COASTAL WATERS WERE THE CENTRAL ISSUE OF A CRITICAL U-N MEETING THAT OPENED THIS PAST WEEK. DELEGATES FROM OVER 40 COUNTRIES ARE TRYING TO WORK OUT LEGAL GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTING OVER-FISHING ON THE HIGH SEAS. A CURRENT DISPUTE BETWEEN CONSERVATION-MINDED CANADA AND SPAIN LENT DRAMATIC URGENCY TO THE NEGOTIATIONS. CANADIAN AND EUROPEAN MINISTERS TRADED CHARGES IN NEW YORK -- AS CANADIAN AUTHORITIES MAINTAINED A STAND-OFF WITH SPANISH TRAWLERS OFF THE CANADIAN COAST. CANADA HAD SEIZED ONE VESSEL, SNIPPED ITS NET AND BROUGHT IT DOWN TO NEW YORK HARBOR TO DISPLAY TO JOURNALISTS. CANADA UNILATERALLY HAD DECLARED A ZONE OUTSIDE ITS TERRITORIAL WATERS OFF-LIMITS TO FISHING -- GIVING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AS ITS JUSITIFICATION. THE DEPLETION OF CERTAIN STOCKS HAS ALSO THROWN CANADIAN FISHERFOLK OUT OF WORK. ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS ARGUE THERE ARE TOO MANY FLEETS GOING AFTER TOO FEW FISH. THEY WANT GOVERNMENTS TO REGULATE THE PROCESS. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 31-Mar-95 7:39 PM EST (0039 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4512 total bytes, 4512 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176467 TITLE=YUGO / SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FIGHTING HAS PICKED UP AGAIN IN NORTHERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AFTER UNUSUALLY BAD WEATHER LIMITED MILITARY ACTIVITY. FOLLOWING A NEW GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE IN THE NORTHEAST, SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL FORCES APPEAR TO HAVE LAUNCHED A COORDINATED OFFENSIVE IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC, IN THE NORTHWEST. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERB FORCES AND BOSNIAN MUSLIM REBELS ARE SAID TO HAVE ATTACKED A GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN NEAR THE REBEL STRONGHOLD IN THE TOWN OF VELIKA KLADUSA. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS HEAR IN ZAGREB SAY THE SERBS AND MUSLIM REBELS LAUNCHED AT LEAST TWO FIERCE ATTACKS. THE OFFICIALS SAY THE ATTACKS ARE THE LATEST INDICATIONS THAT THE ANTI-GOVERNMENT FORCES MAY HAVE BEGUN AN OFFENSIVE IN THE BIHAC ENCLAVE. THE MUSLIM REBEL LEADER, FIKRET ABDIC CLAIMS IT WILL ONLY BE A MATTER OF DAYS BEFORE HE GAINS CONTROL OF THE ENTIRE ENCLAVE. SERB GUNNERS HAVE ALSO SHELLED THE MAIN TOWN OF BIHAC AGAIN. BUT THERE APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN NO CIVILIAN CASUALTIES IN THE U-N - DECLARED SAFE AREA. THE U-N COMMAND IN SARAJEVO RECENTLY RENEWED A WARNING OF POSSIBLE NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS IF THEY ATTACK SAFE AREAS AND DELIBERATELY TARGET CIVILIANS. THE SERBS WERE PUT ON NOTICE THAT THE NEW U-N COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, WOULD BE MORE INCLINED THAN HIS PREDECESSOR TO TAKE FORCEFUL ACTION AGAINST VIOLATIONS OF U-N RESOLUTIONS ON BOSNIA. BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC IMMEDIATELY WARNED THAT HE WOULD REGARD U-N PEACEKEEPERS AS ENEMIES IF THERE ARE MORE NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST HIS FORCES. THE UNITED NATIONS HAS NOW BACKED DOWN. U-N OFFICIALS IN ZAGREB SAY THERE WILL BE NO CHANGE IN THE CAUTIOUS POLICY OF ONLY REQUESTING NATO AIRSTRIKES IN EXTREME CIRCUMSTANCES. IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA, SHELLING ATTACKS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN THE MOUNTAINS, NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA, WHERE A BOSNIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE HAS BEEN STALLED BECAUSE OF BAD WEATHER. A MAJOR GOVERNMENT OBJECTIVE IN THE TUZLA REGION IS TO CAPTURE AN IMPORTANT SERB COMMUNICATIONS TOWER INTACT. GOVERNMENT TROOPS HAVE ALREADY CAPTURED A SIMILAR TOWER NEAR THE TOWN OF TRAVNIK IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, BUT THAT ONE WAS EVIDENTLY DAMAGED DURING THE FIGHTING. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/BD-T/LWM 02-Apr-95 5:56 PM EDT (2156 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2478 total bytes, 2478 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176463 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: HEAVY FIGHTING WAS REPORTED SUNDAY IN THE MAINLY MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC, IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL FORCES MAY BE LAUNCHING A MAJOR OFFENSIVE AGAINST GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN THE REGION. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS ALMOST THE ENTIRE BATTLEFRONT IN THE BIHAC ENCLAVE IS IN FLAMES AND AN AMATEUR RADIO REPORT QUOTED BY THE RADIO SAYS EVERYTHING IS BURNING BECAUSE OF SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL SHELLING ATTACKS. THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO CAN ONLY CONFIRM MODERATE SHELLING IN THE AREA AROUND VELIKA KLODUSA, THE MUSLIM REBEL STRONGHOLD. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB SAYS THE SERBS AND MUSLIM REBELS HAVE ATTACKED A GOVERNMENT HELD TOWN NEAR VELIKA KLODUSA. U-N SOURCES SAY A MAJOR SERB AND REBEL OFFENSIVE MAY BE UNDERWAY IN THE BIHAC ENCLAVE. U-N SOURCES ALSO SAY SERB GUNNERS HAVE SHELLED THE MAIN TOWN OF BIHAC -- A U-N DECLARED SAFE AREA. DETAILS OF CASUALTIES OR DAMAGE ARE NOT AVAILABLE. U-N MILITARY OBSERVERS SAY THERE IS ADDITIONAL FIGHTING BETWEEN THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND BOSNIAN SERB FORCES IN THE MOUNTAINS AROUND THE TOWN OF TUZLA, IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. A GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE IN THAT AREA STALLED EARLIER BECAUSE OF UNUSUALLY COLD WEATHER AND SNOW. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/T-BP/BG 02-Apr-95 2:56 PM EDT (1856 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1501 total bytes, 1501 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176509 TITLE=BOSNIA SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: HEAVY FIGHTING IS REPORTING CONTINUING BETWEEN SERB-BACKED MUSLIM REBELS AND GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. THE MAIN TOWN THERE HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN, AND U-N OFFICIALS HAVE ASKED NATO TO FLY WARPLANES OVER THE AREA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERBS AND THEIR MUSLIM REBEL ALLIES HAVE KEPT UP THEIR GROUND AND SHELLING ATTACKS ON GOVERNMENT TROOPS ON THE BIHAC ENCLAVE. SARAJEVO RADIO REPORTS INTENSE FIGHTING AND SAYS THE SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL ATTACKS HAVE BEEN BEATEN BACK. THE RADIO SAYS BOSNIAN ARMY POSITIONS CONTINUE TO BE SHELLED. SERB GUNNERS HAVE ALSO KEPT UP WHAT IS BECOMING THEIR DAILY SHELLING OF THE MAIN TOWN OF BIHAC, A U-N DECLARED SAFE AREA. U-N OFFICIALS HAVE ASKED NATO TO SEND WARPLANES OVER THE AREA AS A WARNING TO THE SERBS. A U-N SPOKESMAN HERE IN ZAGREB SAID FIVE ARTILLERY SHELLS HIT THE SAFE AREA MONDAY MORNING. HE SAYS THERE ARE NO IMMEDIATE REPORTS OF CIVILIAN CASUALTIES, BUT ONE U-N MILITARY OBSERVER WAS SLIGHTLY WOUNDED. U-N OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE SERBS AND MUSLIM REBELS MAY HAVE LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE TO TRY TO CAPTURE MORE TERRITORY IN THE BIHAC REGION IF NOT ALL OF THE ENCLAVE. THE REGION IS STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT TO BOTH THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERBS, PARTLY BECAUSE OF A RAIL LINE THAT PASSES THROUGH IT. FRESH SERB SHELLING ATTACKS ARE ALSO REPORTED IN OTHER REGIONS OF NORTHERN BOSNIA AND IN THE MOUNTAINS AROUND THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TRAVNIK, IN THE CENTER OF THE COUNTRY. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS GOVERNMENT FORCES ARE HOLDING THEIR POSITIONS AROUND TRAVNIK. MEANWHILE, IN SARAJEVO, THE STRONGLY PRO-GOVERNMENT AMERICAN AMBASSADOR, VICTOR YACKEVICH, AND MEMBERS OF HIS STAFF ARE TO BE TRANSFERRED LATER THIS MONTH. THE AMBASSADOR SAYS THE TRANSFERS ARE ROUTINE ROTATIONS, BUT HE IS BELIEVED TO HAVE HAD POLICY DIFFERENCES WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/JWH 03-Apr-95 11:51 AM EDT (1551 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2170 total bytes, 2170 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176509* TITLE=BOSNIA SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS: RE-ISSUING, CORRECING SPELLING OF NAME IN LAST GRAPH OF TEXT /// INTRO: HEAVY FIGHTING IS REPORTING CONTINUING BETWEEN SERB-BACKED MUSLIM REBELS AND GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. THE MAIN TOWN THERE HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN, AND U-N OFFICIALS HAVE ASKED NATO TO FLY WARPLANES OVER THE AREA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERBS AND THEIR MUSLIM REBEL ALLIES HAVE KEPT UP THEIR GROUND AND SHELLING ATTACKS ON GOVERNMENT TROOPS ON THE BIHAC ENCLAVE. SARAJEVO RADIO REPORTS INTENSE FIGHTING AND SAYS THE SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL ATTACKS HAVE BEEN BEATEN BACK. THE RADIO SAYS BOSNIAN ARMY POSITIONS CONTINUE TO BE SHELLED. SERB GUNNERS HAVE ALSO KEPT UP WHAT IS BECOMING THEIR DAILY SHELLING OF THE MAIN TOWN OF BIHAC, A U-N DECLARED SAFE AREA. U-N OFFICIALS HAVE ASKED NATO TO SEND WARPLANES OVER THE AREA AS A WARNING TO THE SERBS. A U-N SPOKESMAN HERE IN ZAGREB SAID FIVE ARTILLERY SHELLS HIT THE SAFE AREA MONDAY MORNING. HE SAYS THERE ARE NO IMMEDIATE REPORTS OF CIVILIAN CASUALTIES, BUT ONE U-N MILITARY OBSERVER WAS SLIGHTLY WOUNDED. U-N OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE SERBS AND MUSLIM REBELS MAY HAVE LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE TO TRY TO CAPTURE MORE TERRITORY IN THE BIHAC REGION IF NOT ALL OF THE ENCLAVE. THE REGION IS STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT TO BOTH THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERBS, PARTLY BECAUSE OF A RAIL LINE THAT PASSES THROUGH IT. FRESH SERB SHELLING ATTACKS ARE ALSO REPORTED IN OTHER REGIONS OF NORTHERN BOSNIA AND IN THE MOUNTAINS AROUND THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TRAVNIK, IN THE CENTER OF THE COUNTRY. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS GOVERNMENT FORCES ARE HOLDING THEIR POSITIONS AROUND TRAVNIK. MEANWHILE, IN SARAJEVO, THE STRONGLY PRO-GOVERNMENT AMERICAN AMBASSADOR, VICTOR JACKOVICH, AND MEMBERS OF HIS STAFF ARE TO BE TRANSFERRED LATER THIS MONTH. THE AMBASSADOR SAYS THE TRANSFERS ARE ROUTINE ROTATIONS, BUT HE IS BELIEVED TO HAVE HAD POLICY DIFFERENCES WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/JWH 03-Apr-95 11:56 AM EDT (1556 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2253 total bytes, 2253 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176496 TITLE=BOSNIA SITREP (S) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: // EDITORS NOTE: A LONG CR IS EXPECTED BY 15 GMT // INTRO: INTENSE FIGHTING IS REPORTED CONTINUING BETWEEN SERB-BACKED MUSLIM REBELS AND GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC, IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE MAIN TOWN OF BIHAC HAS ALSO BEEN SHELLED AGAIN. VOA'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED SARAJEVO RADIO REPORTS INTENSE SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL ATTACKS ON GOVERNMENT POSITIONS AROUND THE TOWN OF VELIKA KLADUSA. THE RADIO SAYS BOSNIAN ARMY TROOPS BEAT BACK TANK-SUPPORTED GROUND ATTACKS. BUT FIERCE SHELLING OF GOVERNMENT DEFENSE LINES IS SAID TO BE CONTINUING. AT THE SAME TIME, THE UNITED NATIONS DECLARED SAFE AREA IN AND AROUND THE MAIN TOWN OF BIHAC HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN. A U-N SPOKESMAN HERE IN ZAGREB SAID FIVE ARTILLERY SHELLS HIT THE SAFE AREA. IT IS NOT KNOWN IF THERE WERE ANY CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. SERB SHELLING ATTACKS ARE ALSO REPORTED IN OTHER AREAS OF NORTHERN BOSNIA AND AROUND THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TRAVNIK, IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS CIVILIANS IN TRAVNIK HAVE BEEN IN SHELTERS SINCE EARLY MONDAY BECAUSE OF THE SERB MILITARY ACTIVITY IN THE AREA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/CF 03-Apr-95 9:15 AM EDT (1315 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1401 total bytes, 1401 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/3/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE NUMBER=3-21483 TITLE=DIGITAL CLASSROOMS (L) BYLINE=ZLATICA HOKE TELEPHONE=619-2297 / 619-2789 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=NANCY SMART CONTENT= INTRO: Telecommunications experts predict new technology will transform 21st century schools in the United States. Two Washington area communications specialists say by the year 2010 computers will link classrooms with the world and change the role of teachers. And some students are looking forward to it. Zlatica Hoke prepared the following report: TEXT: New computer technology enables people to have better connection between their home, school, work place and libraries. According to Dr. Linda Roberts, special adviser on education technology at the U-S Department of Education, communication in the classroom is on the verge of great change. TAPE CUT ONE ROBERTS 0:30: "What we are aimed at is to significantly expand the use of technology to help kids learn in every subject matter area and to use this technology wisely when we are talking about distance learning or inter-active multi-media. So our focus is on effective practices. We have just provided money for every state to do significant planning with technology, te help them achieve the national goals. TEXT: Stanley Johnson is a teacher at Jefferson Junior High School in Washington, D.C., and a consultant for a number of educational projects. Jefferson School has one of the best computer-oriented programs in the area. TAPE CUT TWO JOHNSON 0:23: "We are actively receiving satellite down-links, the distance learning programs through the D.C. public school system. We have Channel One, we have tie-in programming, and tie-in satellite programming and we are also involved in an ongoing telecommunication project with Apple computer, PBS (Public Television) and WETA, which is our local PBS affiliate." TEXT: Through such links Jefferson School students are able to communicate with other schools and institutions in the country. They are also involved with global laboratory projects that reach 180 countries through programs co-sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. According to Mr. Johnson, students who have access to communications in the near future won't be limited to learning only in a classroom. And Dr. Linda Roberts of the U.S. Department of Education says the new technology could also help solve the shortage of qualified teachers in America, especially in rural areas. The future role of the teacher, she adds, will be to facilitate learning through the use of technology. TAPE: CUT THREE ROBERTS 0:15: "We see evidence that we can really change the role of the teacher, that we can truly empower students and have them be much more the masters, if you will, of their own learning. TEXT: The U-S Department of Education will therefore, says Linda Roberts, give special attention to professional development of teachers who have little or no computer experience. Dr. Roberts and teacher Stanley Johnson say they expect computers combined with communications technology will transform American schools by the year 2010 and connect classrooms with the world. Students who already use computers at school and at home can see it coming. Jonathan Miller is a 14-year-old middle school student at Sidwell Friends, the school attended by President Clinton's daughter Chelsea. TAPE CUT FOUR MILLER 0:20: "Already I see that, I mean, now in this year, 1995, that we are already using computers a lot more than I did a few years ago. I mean, and probably 15 years from now, I mean, I can imagine how much it will be used, because now already they are being widely used for teaching, so..." TEXT: Twelve-year-old Matthew Putic from Swanson Middle School in Arlington would like to use computers at school much more than he does now. CUT FIVE PUTIC 0:24: "I think the idea of using multi-media is a lot better because kids just can't wait to get on a computer and watch, like, videos or hear sounds and it's a lot more fun, and it's attractive, it's attractive, it's much more attractive than somebody talking to you in a monotonous voice. TEXT: Matthew Putic says the availability of communications technology will be an important criteria in choosing the next school he attends. And Jonathan Miller says he does not think computers will undermine the role of teachers. He says he expects students will have access to much more information through computers, but they will still need the teacher to explain what they have not understood. Or help them when they get stuck and frustrated with the new technology. (signed) zh/nes (DR. LINDA ROBERTS AND STANLEY JOHNSON ACTUALITIES FROM WORLDNET) 03-Apr-95 4:55 PM EDT (2055 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5606 total bytes, 5606 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=04-04-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17073 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGISH SCIENCE IN THE NEWS #1807 - POLIO CAMPAIGN BYLINE=NANCY STEINBACH TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=OLIVER CHANLER CONTENT= THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDRENS FUND HAVE ANNOUNCED THE START OF A CAMPAIGN TO END THE DISEASE POLIO IN THE MIDDLE EAST, AND ACROSS ASIA. POLIO ATTACKS THE MUSCLES. VICTIMS CANNOT MOVE THEIR ARMS OR LEGS. SOMETIMES THEY CANNOT BREATHE. SOME VICTIMS DIE. POLIO USUALLY STRIKES CHIDREN, BUT ADULTS ALSO CAN BE AFFECTED. POLIO IS CAUSED BY A VIRUS THAT SPREADS FROM PERSON TO PERSON OR IS CARRIED IN FOOD AND WATER. THE DISEASE FIRST WAS RECORDED IN ANCIENT EGYPT, GREECE AND ROME. IT IS BELIEVED TO HAVE KILLED OR DISABLED MORE THAN TEN-MILLION PEOPLE THROUGHOUT HISTORY. THE INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO END POLIO BEGAN SEVEN YEARS AGO. THE EFFORT HAS SUCCEEDED IN MANY AREAS. THE AMERICAS ARE FREE OF THE DISEASE. AND W-H-O OFFICIALS REPORT GREAT PROGRESS AGAINST POLIO IN CHINA. THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE SUFFERING POLIO HAS DROPPED FROM MORE THAN THREE-HUNDRED-THOUSAND TO FEWER THAN FIVE-THOUSAND IN JUST SEVEN YEARS. OFFICIALS SAY ABOUT EIGHTY PERCENT OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN HAVE RECEIVED THE MEDICINE THAT PREVENTS IT. THE U-N PLAN CALLS FOR GIVING THE MEDICINE TO ABOUT SEVENTY-MILLION CHILDREN. THEY LIVE IN EIGHTEEN COUNTRIES IN THE MIDDDLE EAST, CENTRAL ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA AND THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. THE PROJECT WILL BE DIFFICULT BECAUSE MANY PEOPLE EXPECTED TO RECEIVE THE MEDICINE LIVE IN THE MOUNTAINS, FAR FROM TOWNS. ALSO, MANY OF THEM LIVE IN PLACES WHERE THERE IS WAR. EARLIER THIS MONTH, ROCKETS IN KABUL, AFGHANISTAN DESTROYED EQUIPMENT THAT WAS TO BE USED FOR THE PROJECT. BUT OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL CONTINUE PLANNING FOR THE PROJECT. FOR AFGHANISTAN, THE DARI AND PASHTO SERVICES OF THE VOICE OF AMERICA AND THE BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION WILL BROADCAST DETAILS OF THE U-N ANTI-POLIO CAMPAIGN. MEDICAL WORKERS WILL GIVE THE MEDICINE TO EVERY CHILD UNDER THE AGE OF FIVE TWO TIMES IN TWO MONTHS. THAT SHOULD PROVIDE THEM WITH PROTECTION AGAINST POLIO FOR THE REST OF THEIR LIVES. 03-Apr-95 4:04 PM EDT (2004 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2317 total bytes, 2317 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176592 TITLE=BOSNIA/GENOCIDE (-ONLY) BYLINE=ANDREW BAIRD DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AS FIGHTING CONTINUES IN THE FORMER YUGLOSLAV REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, ATTENTION IS INCREASINGLY BEING FOCUSED ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED BY SERBIAN FORCES WHICH SOME OBSERVERS SAY AMOUNTS TO GENOCIDE. V-O-A'S ANDREW BAIRD REPORTS THAT INFLUENTIAL U-S CONGRESSMEN SAY THEY ARE ANGRY AT INACTION ON THE PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. ANNCR: HEARINGS ON BOSNIA-HERZGOVINA WERE HELD TODAY (TUESDAY) ON CAPITOL HILL UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE U-S COMMISSION ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE. SEVERAL U-S CONGRESSMEN ON THE COMMISSION SAID THAT THEY WERE DISTRESSED THAT THE WEST -- THE NATIONS OF EUROPE ESPECIALLY, BUT THE UNITED STATES AS WELL -- WAS NOT DOING MORE TO ALLEVIATE THE HUMAN RIGHTS CRISIS IN BOSNIA. CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMISSION CONGRESSMAN CHRIS SMITH, A REPUBLICAN FROM NEW JERSEY, SAID THAT WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY HAD TAKEN PLACE ON BOTH SIDES. STILL, HE QUOTED FROM A NEW CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT THAT SERB MILITANTS WERE COMMITTING 90 PERCENT OF THE VIOLATIONS. // SMITH ACT // WE ARE CONFRONTING HERE SOMETHING THAT IS INHERENTLY EVIL, A RACIST FORCE SO IRRATIONAL THAT IT CANNOT BE SATISFIED BY A POSITIVE GESTURE. GENOCIDE MUST BE CONDEMNED, CONFRONTED, AND STOPPED. // SMITH END ACT // WHILE APPLAUDING ONGOING DIPLOMATIC AND HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS IN BOSNIA, MR. SMITH SAID HE WILL SUPPORT LEGISLATION CALLING FOR THE LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, AN ACTION WHICH WOULD PRESUMABLY BENEFIT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IN OBTAINING ARMS. LEGISLATORS ON THE COMMISSION SAID THAT MANY EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS WERE DELIBERATELY MISINFORMING THEIR PEOPLES ABOUT THE EXTENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS BEING COMMITTED BY SERBIAN FORCES. IN ADDITION TO THE SHELLING OF MAJOR POPULATION CENTERS SUCH AS SARAJEVO, THESE VIOLATIONS INCLUDE MASS RAPE, DETENTION IN CONCENTRATION CAMPS, MASS EXECUTIONS, AND THE DESTRUCTION OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS. THE COMMISSION HEARD TESTIMONY FROM SEVERAL WITNESSES, INCLUDING CHERIF BASSIOUNI, A LAW PROFESSOR AND CHAIRMAN OF A U-N COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. MR. BASSIOUNI SAID THAT HIS COMMISSION HAD BEEN TERMINATED EARLIER THAN ITS MANDATE AND HAD TO ISSUE MANY OF ITS FINDINGS INDEPENDENTLY. HE ATTRIBUTED THIS FACT TO POLITICS AND THE NEED TO NEGOTIATE WITH TOP SERB LEADERS, WHO THEMSELVES MAY BE RESPONSIBLE FOR MOUNTING A CAMPAIGN OF GENOCIDE. // BASSIOUNI ACT // IT SEEMS RATHER INCONGRUOUS THAT ONE WOULD SIT WITH POLITICAL LEADERS WHOM ONE WANTS A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT AND WHO ARE RECEIVING HIGH HONORS BY BEING TREATED AS HEADS OF STATES, AND YET AT THE SAME TIME THREATEN THESE VERY SAME PEOPLE AS WAR CRIMINALS OR COMMITTING CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. // BASSIOUNI END ACT // MR. BASSIOUNI ALSO NOTED THAT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WAS BEING STALLED BY BUREAUCRATIC AND BUDGETARY PROBLEMS AT THE UNITED NATIONS. THEY INCLUDED THE DIFFICULTY OF ASSEMBLING MULTINATIONAL LEGAL TEAMS AND THE FACT THAT SOME COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, HAVE NOT ADOPTED IMPLEMENTING LEGISLATION FOR THE TRIBUNAL. // REST OPT // ANOTHER PANELIST, JOURNALIST ROY GUTMAN, CALLED FOR FULL DISCLOSURE OF ALL THE INFORMATION ON GENOCIDE GATHERED BY U-S CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. STILL ANOTHER, JOURNALIST DAVID RIEFF, FRAMED THE ISSUE IN TERMS OF THE POST COLD WAR ORDER. // RIEFF ACT // IT'S NOT JUST A QUESTION OF SPECIFIC TREATY OBLIGATIONS OR EVEN CLAIMS ON OUR SOCIETY. A LARGER QUESTION IS: DO WE WANT TO LIVE IN A WAR IN WHICH THE WAY WAR-FIGHTING IS REALLY GENOCIDE-MAKING? THAT IS A TENDENCY THAT BOSNIA, IN MY VIEW, OPENS, AND WHICH UNCHECKED, WILL SIMPLY BECOME THE WAY OF WAR IN THE NEXT MILLENIUM. AND I THINK THAT FOR ME, AS MUCH AS ANYTHING, IS WHY BOSNIA MATTERS SO MUCH EVEN TO PEOPLE NOT AFFECTED BY IT. // RIEFF END ACT // ANOTHER PANELIST, ANDRAS RIEDLMAYER, A BIBLIOGRAPHER AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY, SAID THAT IN ADDITION TO SUPPORTING INVESTIGATIONS UNDER THE GENOCIDE CONVENTION, THE UNITED STATES SHOULD RATIFY THE 1954 HAGUE CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN WAR TIME, TO WHICH THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WAS A SIGNATORY AND TO WHICH ITS SUCCESSOR STATES ARE BOUND. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 04-Apr-95 6:57 PM EDT (2257 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5110 total bytes, 5110 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176592 (**) TITLE=BOSNIA/GENOCIDE (-ONLY) BYLINE=ANDREW BAIRD DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// RE-RUNNING W/CORRECT IN INTRODUCTION AND IN FIORTH GRAF /// INTRO: AS FIGHTING CONTINUES IN THE FORMER YUGLOSLAV REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, ATTENTION IS INCREASINGLY BEING FOCUSED ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED BY S/E/R/B F/O/R/C/E/S WHICH SOME OBSERVERS SAY AMOUNTS TO GENOCIDE. V-O-A'S ANDREW BAIRD REPORTS THAT INFLUENTIAL U-S CONGRESSMEN SAY THEY ARE ANGRY AT INACTION ON THE PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. TEXT: HEARINGS ON BOSNIA-HERZGOVINA WERE HELD TODAY (TUESDAY) ON CAPITOL HILL UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE U-S COMMISSION ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE. SEVERAL U-S CONGRESSMEN ON THE COMMISSION SAID THAT THEY WERE DISTRESSED THAT THE WEST -- THE NATIONS OF EUROPE ESPECIALLY, BUT THE UNITED STATES AS WELL -- WAS NOT DOING MORE TO ALLEVIATE THE HUMAN RIGHTS CRISIS IN BOSNIA. CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMISSION CONGRESSMAN CHRIS SMITH, A REPUBLICAN FROM NEW JERSEY, SAID THAT WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY HAD TAKEN PLACE ON BOTH SIDES. STILL, HE QUOTED FROM A NEW CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT THAT SERB MILITANTS WERE COMMITTING 90 PERCENT OF THE VIOLATIONS. // SMITH ACT // WE ARE CONFRONTING HERE SOMETHING THAT IS INHERENTLY EVIL, A RACIST FORCE SO IRRATIONAL THAT IT CANNOT BE SATISFIED BY A POSITIVE GESTURE. GENOCIDE MUST BE CONDEMNED, CONFRONTED, AND STOPPED. // SMITH END ACT // WHILE APPLAUDING ONGOING DIPLOMATIC AND HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS IN BOSNIA, MR. SMITH SAID HE WILL SUPPORT LEGISLATION CALLING FOR THE LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, AN ACTION WHICH WOULD PRESUMABLY BENEFIT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IN OBTAINING ARMS. LEGISLATORS ON THE COMMISSION SAID THAT MANY EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS WERE DELIBERATELY MISINFORMING THEIR PEOPLES ABOUT THE EXTENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS BEING COMMITTED BY S/E/R/B F/O/R/C/E/S. IN ADDITION TO THE SHELLING OF MAJOR POPULATION CENTERS SUCH AS SARAJEVO, THESE VIOLATIONS INCLUDE MASS RAPE, DETENTION IN CONCENTRATION CAMPS, MASS EXECUTIONS, AND THE DESTRUCTION OF CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS. THE COMMISSION HEARD TESTIMONY FROM SEVERAL WITNESSES, INCLUDING CHERIF BASSIOUNI, A LAW PROFESSOR AND CHAIRMAN OF A U-N COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. MR. BASSIOUNI SAID THAT HIS COMMISSION HAD BEEN TERMINATED EARLIER THAN ITS MANDATE AND HAD TO ISSUE MANY OF ITS FINDINGS INDEPENDENTLY. HE ATTRIBUTED THIS FACT TO POLITICS AND THE NEED TO NEGOTIATE WITH TOP SERB LEADERS, WHO THEMSELVES MAY BE RESPONSIBLE FOR MOUNTING A CAMPAIGN OF GENOCIDE. // BASSIOUNI ACT // IT SEEMS RATHER INCONGRUOUS THAT ONE WOULD SIT WITH POLITICAL LEADERS WHOM ONE WANTS A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT AND WHO ARE RECEIVING HIGH HONORS BY BEING TREATED AS HEADS OF STATES, AND YET AT THE SAME TIME THREATEN THESE VERY SAME PEOPLE AS WAR CRIMINALS OR COMMITTING CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. // BASSIOUNI END ACT // MR. BASSIOUNI ALSO NOTED THAT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WAS BEING STALLED BY BUREAUCRATIC AND BUDGETARY PROBLEMS AT THE UNITED NATIONS. THEY INCLUDED THE DIFFICULTY OF ASSEMBLING MULTINATIONAL LEGAL TEAMS AND THE FACT THAT SOME COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, HAVE NOT ADOPTED IMPLEMENTING LEGISLATION FOR THE TRIBUNAL. // REST OPT // ANOTHER PANELIST, JOURNALIST ROY GUTMAN, CALLED FOR FULL DISCLOSURE OF ALL THE INFORMATION ON GENOCIDE GATHERED BY U-S CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. STILL ANOTHER, JOURNALIST DAVID RIEFF, FRAMED THE ISSUE IN TERMS OF THE POST COLD WAR ORDER. // RIEFF ACT // IT'S NOT JUST A QUESTION OF SPECIFIC TREATY OBLIGATIONS OR EVEN CLAIMS ON OUR SOCIETY. A LARGER QUESTION IS: DO WE WANT TO LIVE IN A WAR IN WHICH THE WAY WAR-FIGHTING IS REALLY GENOCIDE-MAKING? THAT IS A TENDENCY THAT BOSNIA, IN MY VIEW, OPENS, AND WHICH UNCHECKED, WILL SIMPLY BECOME THE WAY OF WAR IN THE NEXT MILLENIUM. AND I THINK THAT FOR ME, AS MUCH AS ANYTHING, IS WHY BOSNIA MATTERS SO MUCH EVEN TO PEOPLE NOT AFFECTED BY IT. // RIEFF END ACT // ANOTHER PANELIST, ANDRAS RIEDLMAYER, A BIBLIOGRAPHER AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY, SAID THAT IN ADDITION TO SUPPORTING INVESTIGATIONS UNDER THE GENOCIDE CONVENTION, THE UNITED STATES SHOULD RATIFY THE 1954 HAGUE CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN WAR TIME, TO WHICH THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WAS A SIGNATORY AND TO WHICH ITS SUCCESSOR STATES ARE BOUND. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 04-Apr-95 7:06 PM EDT (2306 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5188 total bytes, 5188 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
voa.141 usisbel,
DATE=3/4/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP NUMBER=4-08234 TITLE=LOOKING TOWARD KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA BYLINE=PAMELA TAYLOR TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // VOICER AND INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM S-O-D // INTRO: ONLY WEEKS AGO BALKAN AFFAIRS SPECIALISTS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE WERE PREDICTING ALL-OUT WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. BUT CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN REVERSED THE COUNTDOWN TO A CONFRONTATION WITH SERBIA WHEN HE AGREED TO ALLOW U-N PEACEKEEPERS TO REMAIN TO POLICE THE SITUATION IN THE TROUBLED KRAJINA REGION. AS SOON AS THIS FIRE WAS PUT OUT, ANOTHER SOON ERUPTED IN NEIGHBORING NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA WHEN GOVERNMENT FORCES ATTACKED SERB REBELS NORTH OF TUZLA. EXPERTS PREDICT THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA WILL CONTINUE AT A LOW LEVEL AND THAT IT WILL BE CONFINED TO BOSNIAN TERRITORY. AT THE SAME TIME, FEAR IS BEING EXPRESSED THAT THE SPARK WHICH COULD IGNITE THE BALKANS MIGHT COME FURTHER SOUTH -- IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO REGION OR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (FRYOM). VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS: TEXT: THE NOTION THAT SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS NOT ABANDONED HIS GOAL OF A GREATER SERBIA WILL NOT GO AWAY. MOST ANALYSTS BELIEVE THAT, ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, A LARGE CHUNK OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL EVENTUALLY BECOME A PART OF THIS ENTITY AND THAT TOWARD THIS END MR. MILOSEVIC WILL ONLY TIGHTEN HIS HOLD ON KOSOVO. THIS ONCE AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, POPULATED MAINLY BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS, IS VIEWED BY THE SERBS AS THEIR JERUSALEM. NOT ONLY DOES KOSOVO HOUSE THE MOST IMPORTANT SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES, IT IS ALSO THE SITE OF THE MOST FAMOUS SERBIAN LEGEND OF ALL TIME. FOR CENTURIES THE STORY OF THE 1389 BATTLE OF KOSOVO HAS BEEN HANDED DOWN AS AN EPIC SAGA OF SERBIAN COURAGE AND SACRIFICE AT THE HANDS OF THE OTTOMAN TURKS. HISTORIAN THOMAS EMMERT OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS COLLEGE IN ST. PETER, MINNESOTA, SAYS THE KOSOVO SAGA HAS GAINED SUCH A HOLD ON SERBIAN THINKING THAT TODAY THEY BELIEVE ONE CANNOT BE A TRUE SERB IF HE OR SHE DOES NOT EMBRACE THE LEGEND OF KOSOVO: TAPE: CUT # 1 EMMERT RUNS [:38] "SERBS HAVE LONG BELIEVED THAT THE BATTLE OF KOSOVO WHICH OCCURRED IN JUNE OF 1389 IS THE BEGINNING OF A LONG PERIOD OF TURKISH RULE IN SERBIA BUT AT THE SAME TIME, OUT OF IT CAME A BELIEF THAT THEY WOULD BE "RESURRECTED" ONCE AGAIN AS A STATE. HAVING BEEN DEFEATED THEY ALSO GAINED A SORT OF MORAL VICTORY AND THAT IN THE VERY PLACE OF DEFEAT WILL ARISE ONCE AGAIN A GREAT SERBIAN NATION AND THE GREAT SERBIAN SPIRIT WILL BE PRESERVED." TEXT: PROFESSOR EMMERT SAYS WHILE KOSOVO REMAINS A PART OF SERBIA TODAY, THE PROBLEM IS THAT 90 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IS ETHNIC ALBANIAN AND MOSTLY MUSLIM. FOR THIS REASON, OTHER ANALYSTS SAY, KOSOVO MAY BECOME SERBIA'S WEST BANK, RATHER THAN ITS JERUSALEM. AT A RECENT CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA, AT THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS IN WASHINGTON, D-C, SEVERAL SPEAKERS ADDRESSED THE SPECTER OF A WIDER WAR ERUPTING IN THE BALKANS -- SOUTH OF BOSNIA. ONE OF THE SPEAKERS WAS ELEZ BIBERAJ [EL-ESS BEEB-ER-EYE], A NOTED EXPERT ON ALBANIAN AFFAIRS, WHO IS CURRENTLY ON LEAVE FROM THE VOICE OF AMERICA: TAPE: CUT # 2 BIBERAJ RUNS [:28] "I THINK WE CAN SAY THE WAR IN BOSNIA HAS BEEN MORE OR LESS CONTAINED, BUT THE OUTBREAK OF WAR IN KOSOVO OR IN WESTERN MACEDONIA WILL MOST LIKELY HAVE A SPILLOVER EFFECT LEADING TO A WIDER BALKAN WAR WITH DISASTROUS EFFECTS FOR THE ENTIRE REGION AND PERHAPS BEYOND. IT WOULD ALSO SPELL THE END OF NATO AS WE KNOW IT TODAY, SINCE IT WOULD PIT TWO NATO ALLIES, GREECE AND TURKEY, AGAINST EACH OTHER." TEXT: MR. BIBERAJ SAID THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS STAKED HIS REPUTATION ON REASSERTING CONTROL OVER KOSOVO. THERE ARE SEVERAL INDICATIONS OF THIS. THE SERBIAN MILITARY HAS LAUNCHED A CAMPAIGN TO FORCEFULLY INDUCT ETHNIC ALBANIANS INTO THE YUGOSLAV ARMY. AND A TRIAL IS EXPECTED TO OPEN (IN PRISTINA) THIS WEEK, OF NINE OF THE 200 ETHNIC ALBANIAN POLICEMEN WHO WERE ARRESTED LAST YEAR ON CHARGES OF TRYING TO CREATE A SHADOW KOSOVAR DEFENSE MINISTRY. // OPT // IN FACT, KOSOVO IS ALREADY LARGELY RUN BY A WELL-DEVELOPED, PARALLEL UNDERGROUND GOVERNMENT. THE CHIEF ARCHITECT OF THE SYSTEM, IBRAHIM RUGOVA, IS PRESIDENT OF THE SELF-DECLARED BUT UNRECOGNIZED REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO. WHILE MR. RUGOVA HAS SO FAR MANAGED TO KEEP THE UNARMED PROVINCE QUIET, MANY EXPERTS WONDER HOW LONG HE CAN CONTINUE TO DO SO IN THE FACE OF CONTINUING DEMANDS FOR COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA. // END OPT // FOR THE TIME BEING ALBANIA APPEARS TO HAVE HAS ABANDONED THE IDEA OF CONFEDERATION BETWEEN KOSOVO AND ALBANIA. BUT MANY FEAR THAT IF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ULTIMATELY AGREES TO ALLOW THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO CONFEDERATE WITH SERBIA, IT WON'T BE LONG BEFORE ALBANIA ASKS FOR CONFEDERATION WITH KOSOVO. FORMER STATE DEPARTMENT BALKAN AFFAIRS ANALYST STEPHEN WALKER, WHO RESIGNED OVER THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION'S HANDLING OF THE YUGOSLAV CRISIS IN 1993, TOLD THE CONFERENCE THE UNITED STATES MUST TAKE A STAND IN KOSOVO: TAPE: CUT # 3 WALKER RUNS [:51] "IN KOSOVO, WE'RE IN A POSITION FOR THE UNITED STATES TO DRAW A LINE IN THE SAND: WE WILL NOT TOLERATE AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE BY SERBIA IN KOSOVO. IF THE SERBIAN REGIME HAS INCREASED REPRESSION AGAINST THE ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO, WITHOUT THE WATCHFUL EYE OF C-S-C-E OBSERVERS WHO WERE KICKED OUT, BECAUSE THEY KNOW IF WE HAVEN'T KEPT TO THE AGREEMENTS WE MADE ON PAPER IN BOSNIA, WE'RE CERTAINLY NOT GOING TO INTERVENE INSIDE SERBIA ITSELF. IN MACEDONIA WE'VE PUT 500 U-S GROUND TROOPS ON THE GROUND, SOON TO BE AUGMENTED, AND YET THE REAL THREAT TO MACEDONIA IS THE THREAT OF ETHNIC CONFLICT WITHIN ALBANIA THAT WOULD SPILL OVER INTO THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MINORITY IN MACEDONIA." TEXT: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS SAID THAT KOSOVO SHOULD REMAIN A PART OF SERBIA, WHILE INSISTING THAT BELGRADE SHOW GREATER RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS THERE. AS FOR MACEDONIA, THE UNITED STATES IS CONSIDERING SENDING UP TO 15-HUNDRED TROOPS TO JOIN THE 500 ALREADY THERE -- SHOULD THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA SPREAD TO MACEDONIA. // OPT // MACEDONIA ALREADY HAS ITS OWN INTERNAL ETHNIC PROBLEMS. IN FEBRUARY, TENSIONS FLARED BETWEEN MACEDONIA'S SLAVIC MAJORITY AND THE LARGE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MINORITY AFTER THE GOVERNMENT BLOCKED THE OPENING OF AN ETHNIC ALBANIAN UNIVERSITY. // END OPT // ANALYSTS BELIEVE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS TACITLY AGREED TO WHAT IS CALLED A POLICY OF CONTAINMENT WITH REGARD TO BOSNIA -- MEANING THERE WILL BE NO INTERVENTION SO LONG AS THE CONFLICT IS CONTAINED TO THAT REGION. BUT SHOULD FIGHTING ERUPT ELSEWHERE IN THE BALKANS, MANY THINK THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, NOTABLY NATO, WILL FINALLY DECIDE IT HAS INTERESTS IN THE AREA WORTH PROTECTING. (SIGNED) NEB/PAM/PCH 04-Apr-95 2:36 PM EDT (1836 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 8046 total bytes, 8046 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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// RE-ISSUING FOR ARCHIVES // DATE=3/4/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP NUMBER=4-08234 TITLE=LOOKING TOWARD KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA BYLINE=PAMELA TAYLOR TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // VOICER AND INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM S-O-D // INTRO: ONLY WEEKS AGO BALKAN AFFAIRS SPECIALISTS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE WERE PREDICTING ALL-OUT WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. BUT CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN REVERSED THE COUNTDOWN TO A CONFRONTATION WITH SERBIA WHEN HE AGREED TO ALLOW U-N PEACEKEEPERS TO REMAIN TO POLICE THE SITUATION IN THE TROUBLED KRAJINA REGION. AS SOON AS THIS FIRE WAS PUT OUT, ANOTHER SOON ERUPTED IN NEIGHBORING NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA WHEN GOVERNMENT FORCES ATTACKED SERB REBELS NORTH OF TUZLA. EXPERTS PREDICT THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA WILL CONTINUE AT A LOW LEVEL AND THAT IT WILL BE CONFINED TO BOSNIAN TERRITORY. AT THE SAME TIME, FEAR IS BEING EXPRESSED THAT THE SPARK WHICH COULD IGNITE THE BALKANS MIGHT COME FURTHER SOUTH -- IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO REGION OR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (FRYOM). VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS: TEXT: THE NOTION THAT SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS NOT ABANDONED HIS GOAL OF A GREATER SERBIA WILL NOT GO AWAY. MOST ANALYSTS BELIEVE THAT, ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, A LARGE CHUNK OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL EVENTUALLY BECOME A PART OF THIS ENTITY AND THAT TOWARD THIS END MR. MILOSEVIC WILL ONLY TIGHTEN HIS HOLD ON KOSOVO. THIS ONCE AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, POPULATED MAINLY BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS, IS VIEWED BY THE SERBS AS THEIR JERUSALEM. NOT ONLY DOES KOSOVO HOUSE THE MOST IMPORTANT SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES, IT IS ALSO THE SITE OF THE MOST FAMOUS SERBIAN LEGEND OF ALL TIME. FOR CENTURIES THE STORY OF THE 1389 BATTLE OF KOSOVO HAS BEEN HANDED DOWN AS AN EPIC SAGA OF SERBIAN COURAGE AND SACRIFICE AT THE HANDS OF THE OTTOMAN TURKS. HISTORIAN THOMAS EMMERT OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS COLLEGE IN ST. PETER, MINNESOTA, SAYS THE KOSOVO SAGA HAS GAINED SUCH A HOLD ON SERBIAN THINKING THAT TODAY THEY BELIEVE ONE CANNOT BE A TRUE SERB IF HE OR SHE DOES NOT EMBRACE THE LEGEND OF KOSOVO: TAPE: CUT # 1 EMMERT RUNS [:38] "SERBS HAVE LONG BELIEVED THAT THE BATTLE OF KOSOVO WHICH OCCURRED IN JUNE OF 1389 IS THE BEGINNING OF A LONG PERIOD OF TURKISH RULE IN SERBIA BUT AT THE SAME TIME, OUT OF IT CAME A BELIEF THAT THEY WOULD BE "RESURRECTED" ONCE AGAIN AS A STATE. HAVING BEEN DEFEATED THEY ALSO GAINED A SORT OF MORAL VICTORY AND THAT IN THE VERY PLACE OF DEFEAT WILL ARISE ONCE AGAIN A GREAT SERBIAN NATION AND THE GREAT SERBIAN SPIRIT WILL BE PRESERVED." TEXT: PROFESSOR EMMERT SAYS WHILE KOSOVO REMAINS A PART OF SERBIA TODAY, THE PROBLEM IS THAT 90 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IS ETHNIC ALBANIAN AND MOSTLY MUSLIM. FOR THIS REASON, OTHER ANALYSTS SAY, KOSOVO MAY BECOME SERBIA'S WEST BANK, RATHER THAN ITS JERUSALEM. AT A RECENT CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA, AT THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS IN WASHINGTON, D-C, SEVERAL SPEAKERS ADDRESSED THE SPECTER OF A WIDER WAR ERUPTING IN THE BALKANS -- SOUTH OF BOSNIA. ONE OF THE SPEAKERS WAS ELEZ BIBERAJ [EL-ESS BEEB-ER-EYE], A NOTED EXPERT ON ALBANIAN AFFAIRS, WHO IS CURRENTLY ON LEAVE FROM THE VOICE OF AMERICA: TAPE: CUT # 2 BIBERAJ RUNS [:28] "I THINK WE CAN SAY THE WAR IN BOSNIA HAS BEEN MORE OR LESS CONTAINED, BUT THE OUTBREAK OF WAR IN KOSOVO OR IN WESTERN MACEDONIA WILL MOST LIKELY HAVE A SPILLOVER EFFECT LEADING TO A WIDER BALKAN WAR WITH DISASTROUS EFFECTS FOR THE ENTIRE REGION AND PERHAPS BEYOND. IT WOULD ALSO SPELL THE END OF NATO AS WE KNOW IT TODAY, SINCE IT WOULD PIT TWO NATO ALLIES, GREECE AND TURKEY, AGAINST EACH OTHER." TEXT: MR. BIBERAJ SAID THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS STAKED HIS REPUTATION ON REASSERTING CONTROL OVER KOSOVO. THERE ARE SEVERAL INDICATIONS OF THIS. THE SERBIAN MILITARY HAS LAUNCHED A CAMPAIGN TO FORCEFULLY INDUCT ETHNIC ALBANIANS INTO THE YUGOSLAV ARMY. AND A TRIAL IS EXPECTED TO OPEN (IN PRISTINA) THIS WEEK, OF NINE OF THE 200 ETHNIC ALBANIAN POLICEMEN WHO WERE ARRESTED LAST YEAR ON CHARGES OF TRYING TO CREATE A SHADOW KOSOVAR DEFENSE MINISTRY. // OPT // IN FACT, KOSOVO IS ALREADY LARGELY RUN BY A WELL-DEVELOPED, PARALLEL UNDERGROUND GOVERNMENT. THE CHIEF ARCHITECT OF THE SYSTEM, IBRAHIM RUGOVA, IS PRESIDENT OF THE SELF-DECLARED BUT UNRECOGNIZED REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO. WHILE MR. RUGOVA HAS SO FAR MANAGED TO KEEP THE UNARMED PROVINCE QUIET, MANY EXPERTS WONDER HOW LONG HE CAN CONTINUE TO DO SO IN THE FACE OF CONTINUING DEMANDS FOR COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA. // END OPT // FOR THE TIME BEING ALBANIA APPEARS TO HAVE HAS ABANDONED THE IDEA OF CONFEDERATION BETWEEN KOSOVO AND ALBANIA. BUT MANY FEAR THAT IF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ULTIMATELY AGREES TO ALLOW THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO CONFEDERATE WITH SERBIA, IT WON'T BE LONG BEFORE ALBANIA ASKS FOR CONFEDERATION WITH KOSOVO. FORMER STATE DEPARTMENT BALKAN AFFAIRS ANALYST STEPHEN WALKER, WHO RESIGNED OVER THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION'S HANDLING OF THE YUGOSLAV CRISIS IN 1993, TOLD THE CONFERENCE THE UNITED STATES MUST TAKE A STAND IN KOSOVO: TAPE: CUT # 3 WALKER RUNS [:51] "IN KOSOVO, WE'RE IN A POSITION FOR THE UNITED STATES TO DRAW A LINE IN THE SAND: WE WILL NOT TOLERATE AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE BY SERBIA IN KOSOVO. IF THE SERBIAN REGIME HAS INCREASED REPRESSION AGAINST THE ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO, WITHOUT THE WATCHFUL EYE OF C-S-C-E OBSERVERS WHO WERE KICKED OUT, BECAUSE THEY KNOW IF WE HAVEN'T KEPT TO THE AGREEMENTS WE MADE ON PAPER IN BOSNIA, WE'RE CERTAINLY NOT GOING TO INTERVENE INSIDE SERBIA ITSELF. IN MACEDONIA WE'VE PUT 500 U-S GROUND TROOPS ON THE GROUND, SOON TO BE AUGMENTED, AND YET THE REAL THREAT TO MACEDONIA IS THE THREAT OF ETHNIC CONFLICT WITHIN ALBANIA THAT WOULD SPILL OVER INTO THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MINORITY IN MACEDONIA." TEXT: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS SAID THAT KOSOVO SHOULD REMAIN A PART OF SERBIA, WHILE INSISTING THAT BELGRADE SHOW GREATER RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS THERE. AS FOR MACEDONIA, THE UNITED STATES IS CONSIDERING SENDING UP TO 15-HUNDRED TROOPS TO JOIN THE 500 ALREADY THERE -- SHOULD THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA SPREAD TO MACEDONIA. // OPT // MACEDONIA ALREADY HAS ITS OWN INTERNAL ETHNIC PROBLEMS. IN FEBRUARY, TENSIONS FLARED BETWEEN MACEDONIA'S SLAVIC MAJORITY AND THE LARGE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MINORITY AFTER THE GOVERNMENT BLOCKED THE OPENING OF AN ETHNIC ALBANIAN UNIVERSITY. // END OPT // ANALYSTS BELIEVE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS TACITLY AGREED TO WHAT IS CALLED A POLICY OF CONTAINMENT WITH REGARD TO BOSNIA -- MEANING THERE WILL BE NO INTERVENTION SO LONG AS THE CONFLICT IS CONTAINED TO THAT REGION. BUT SHOULD FIGHTING ERUPT ELSEWHERE IN THE BALKANS, MANY THINK THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, NOTABLY NATO, WILL FINALLY DECIDE IT HAS INTERESTS IN THE AREA WORTH PROTECTING. (SIGNED) NEB/PAM/PCH 04-Apr-95 3:13 PM EDT (1913 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 8082 total bytes, 8082 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/5/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE NUMBER=3-21502 TITLE=50 YEARS AGO:THE DEATH OF PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (S) BYLINE=CHUCK RICH TELEPHONE=619-1113 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= [INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES] INTRO: FIFTY YEARS AGO, NEAR THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO, PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT DIED OF A STROKE AT HIS VACATION HOME IN GEORGIA. A LITTLE MORE THAN A MONTH EARLIER, MR. ROOSEVELT HAD BEGUN ANOTHER FOUR-YEAR TERM IN OFFICE -- AN UNPRECEDENTED FOURTH TERM. THE PRESIDENT'S HEALTH WAS FAILING, BUT MOST AMERICANS WERE SHOCKED BY THE NEWS OF HIS DEATH. VOA'S CHUCK RICH REPORTS ON THE REACTION BOTH INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES. TEXT: FOR MANY AMERICANS, THE NEWS OF APRIL 12TH, 1945 WAS LIKE A DEATH IN THE FAMILY: TAPE: CUT ONE -- RADIO NEWS BULLETIN (JOHN CHARLES DALY) :16 "WE INTERRUPT THIS PROGRAM TO BRING YOU A SPECIAL NEWS BULLETIN FROM CBS WORLD NEWS. A PRESS ASSOCIATION HAS JUST ANNOUNCED THAT PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT IS DEAD. THE PRESIDENT DIED OF A CE-CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE. ALL WE KNOW SO FAR IS THAT THE PRESIDENT DIED AT WARM SPRINGS, IN GEORGIA." TEXT: A NEWSPAPER'S LIST OF WAR CASUALTIES BEGAN WITH THE WORDS "ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN D., COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF." THE NEW YORK FIRE DEPARTMENT SOUNDED THE ALARM THAT INDICATES A FIREMAN HAS DIED ON DUTY. IN WASHINGTON, NARRATING THE ROOSEVELT FUNERAL PROCESSION, RADIO ENTERTAINER ARTHUR GODFREY WAS GRIEF-STRICKEN. TAPE: CUT TWO -- ARTHUR GODFREY RADIO BROADCAST :24 -- FADE AT :11 "(SOUND OF DRUMS) THE DRUMS ARE WRAPPED IN BLACK CREPE AND ARE MUFFLED, AS YOU CAN HEAR. AND THE PACE OF THE MUSICIANS IS SO SLOW. AND BEHIND THEM, THESE ARE NAVY BOYS. AND NOW, JUST, JUST COMING PAST THE TREASURY, I CAN SEE THE HORSES DRAWING THE CAISSON." TEXT: HISTORIAN WILLIAM MANCHESTER WROTE THAT AT THE HOUR OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S FUNERAL, AMERICA SIMPLY STOPPED. AIRPLANES ABOUT TO LAND JUST CIRCLED IN THE AIR. MORE THAN 500 NEW YORK SUBWAY TRAINS STOOD STILL. ON MAY 8TH, 1945, PRESIDENT TRUMAN ANNOUNCED THE END OF THE WAR IN EUROPE: TAPE: CUT THREE -- TRUMAN :16 "I ONLY WISH THAT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT HAD LIVED TO WITNESS THIS DAY. GENERAL EISENHOWER INFORMS ME THAT THE FORCES OF GERMANY HAVE SURRENDERED TO THE UNITED NATIONS. THE FLAGS OF FREEDOM FLY ALL OVER EUROPE." TEXT: PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT DID NOT LIVE TO WITNESS THAT DAY. HIS DEATH HAD COME LESS THAN A MONTH EARLIER, ON APRIL 12TH, 1945 -- FIFTY YEARS AGO. I'M CHUCK RICH. 05-Apr-95 5:01 PM EDT (2101 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2984 total bytes, 2984 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/5/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176617 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: HEAVY SHELLING ATTACKS AND SOME GROUND FIGHTING ARE REPORTED IN NORTHERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ON THE THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF THE BEGINNING OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. IN CROATIA, ETHNIC SERBS ARE THREATENING TO BLOCK SOME U-N PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS BECAUSE OF PROPOSED CHANGES IN THE PEACE-KEEPING MANDATE IN THAT COUNTRY. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE HEAVIEST SHELLING AND GROUND ATTACKS IN BOSNIA HAVE BEEN CONCENTRATED IN THE MOUNTAINS NEAR THE NORTHEASTERN TOWN OF TUZLA. BOSNIAN SERB FORCES ARE, APPARENTLY, TRYING TO PUSH GOVERNMENT TROOPS AWAY FROM AN IMPORTANT SERB COMMUNICATIONS TOWER. THE FIGHTING HAS INTENSIFIED BECAUSE OF MELTING SNOW AND WARMER WEATHER IN THE AREA. SARAJEVO RADIO REPORTS A SERB ARTILLERY ATTACK ON TUZLA, THE SECOND LARGEST TOWN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE RADIO SAYS IT WAS THE THIRD TIME PART OF THE TOWN HAS BEEN SHELLED IN THE PAST 24 HOURS. NO CASUALTIES ARE REPORTED IN THE LATEST ATTACK. IN SARAJEVO, THE BOSNIAN SERBS FIRED MORTAR SHELLS INTO A GOVERNMENT-HELD SUBURB IN WHAT MAY HAVE BEEN A VIOLATION OF THE HEAVY WEAPONS EXCLUSION ZONE AROUND THE CITY. A U-N SPOKESMAN SAYS THE SHELLING OCCURRED AFTER GOVERNMENT FORCES FIRED WITH MACHINEGUNS INTO A SERB REGION. /// OPT /// ALSO IN SARAJEVO, A SNIPER HAS WOUNDED A SERB POLITICIAN, LOYAL TO THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. THE POLITICAN, LJUBOMIR BERBEROVIC, WAS SHOT IN HIS RIGHT LEG AND WAS TAKEN TO A LOCAL HOSPITAL FOR TREATMENT. /// END OPT /// MEANWHILE, IN CROATIA, REBEL ETHNIC SERBS ARE MAKING IT CLEAR THEY ARE NOT GOING TO COOPERATE WITH A NEW U-N PEACEKEEPING MANDATE THAT IS NOT EVEN BEING IMPLEMENTED YET. THE SERBS SAY THEY ARE SUSPENDING U-N PATROLS IN A SERB-HELD AREA OF EASTERN CROATIA BECAUSE PEACE-KEEPERS HAVE NO RIGHT TO BE THERE. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB EARLIER SAID SERB FORCES WERE CONFUSED ABOUT CHANGES IN THE U-N MANDATE. DETAILS OF THE NEW MANDATE ARE TO BE WORKED OUT BY APRIL 21ST. THE NUMBER OF PEACEKEEPERS IN CROATIA IS TO BE REDUCED, AND SOME U-N TROOPS ARE TO BE DEPLOYED IN SERB-HELD TERRITORY ALONG CROATIA'S BORDERS WITH BOSNIA AND SERBIA. BUT, CROATIAN SERB LEADERS HAVE REJECTED THE BORDER DEPLOYMENTS AS WELL AS THE NEW NAME OF THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE WHICH THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT DEMANDED. THE GOVERNMENT EXPECTS THE NEW U-N MANDATE TO HELP REINTEGRATE SERB-OCCUPIED AREAS WITH THE REST OF CROATIA. BUT, THE SERBS SAY THEY WILL ACCEPT NOTHING LESS THAN FULL INDEPENDENCE. EVEN IF THEY WERE GIVEN SUBSTANTIAL AUTONOMY, THE SERBS SAY THEIR TERRITORY WOULD ONLY BE A GHETTO. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/MMK 05-Apr-95 10:41 AM EDT (1441 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2917 total bytes, 2917 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/5/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176633 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: TEXT: THE END OF THE THIRD YEAR OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS BEEN MARKED BY MORE FIGHTING IN THE NORTHEAST OF THE COUNTRY. THE BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER SAYS THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS MUST BE PREPARED FOR 10 YEARS OF WAR. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO REPORTS SHELLING ATTACKS AND SOME GROUND FIGHTING BETWEEN BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND SERB FORCES IN THE MOUNTAINS AROUND THE TOWN OF TUZLA. IT IS THE AREA IN WHICH GOVERNMENT FORCES LAUNCHED AN OFFENSIVE LAST MONTH AND MADE SOME TERRITORIAL GAINS. THE SERBS ARE BELIEVED NOW TRYING TO PUSH GOVERNMENT FORCES BACK. IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, NATO WARPLANES HAVE FORCED A SMALL UNIDENTIFIED AIRCRAFT TO LAND IN GOVERNMENT TERRITORY. THE AIRCRAFT WAS NOT BELIEVED ON A SIGNIFICANT MILITARY MISSION, BUT IT CLEARLY VIOLATED THE NO-FLY ZONE OVER BOSNIA. AS BOSNIA ENDED ITS THIRD YEAR OF WAR, PRIME MINISTER HARIS SILAJDZIC SAYS THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS MUST BE PREPARED FOR 10 YEARS OF FIGHTING. MR. SILAJDZIC SAYS THE SERBS ARE NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO WIPE OUT THE MUSLIMS WHILE MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT FORCES ARE NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO IMPOSE PEACE. HE ACCUSES THE MAJOR POWERS OF BEING ACCOMPLICES TO GENOCIDAL SERB POLICIES BY REFUSING TO LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/MMK 05-Apr-95 12:57 PM EDT (1657 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1563 total bytes, 1563 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/6/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176711 TITLE=HOLBROOKE/BOSNIA (L) BYLINE=DAVID GOLLUST DATELINE=U-S CONGRESS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THERE WERE SPECIAL HEARINGS IN THE U-S CONGRESS THURSDAY AS THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA MOVED INTO A FOURTH YEAR. AS VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION REMAINS UNDER CONGRESSIONAL PRESSURE TO UNILATERALLY LIFT THE U-N ARMS EMBARGO AND SUPPLY MILITARY HARDWARE TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. TEXT: THE HEARINGS, BY THE HELSINKI COMMISSION OF THE CONGRESS, WERE MARKED BY BIPARTISAN ATTACKS ON WHAT WAS TERMED WESTERN APPEASEMENT IN THE FACE OF SERB AGGRESSION IN BOSNIA, AND RENEWED CALLS FOR THE LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO. THE COMMISSION CHAIRMAN, REPUBLICAN CHRISTOPHER SMITH, SAID THAT HAD THE BOSNIAN SERBS BEEN CONFRONTED WITH WESTERN RESOLVE AND CREDIBLE MILITARY THREATS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CONFLICT, THE BLOODSHED AND SUFFERING OF THE LAST THREE YEARS WOULD HAVE BEEN AVOIDED. THE COMMISSION'S RANKING DEMOCRAT, STENY HOYER, SAID DIPLOMATIC MANEUVERS AIMED AT BRINGING THE BOSNIAN SERBS INTO A SETTLEMENT PROCESS HAVE AMOUNTED TO APPEASEMENT -- AND THE LEAST THE UNITED STATES CAN DO IS LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO FOR THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT: /// HOYER ACTUALITY /// THROUGH ALL THE COMPLEXITIES OF THE BALKANS THAT WE MUST CONSIDER, ONE GENERIC FACT REMAINS -- THE AGGRESSOR IS BEING REWARDED. AND WHEN YOU REWARD THE AGGRESSOR, HISTORY SHOWS US YOU GET MORE AGGRESSION. THE U-S CONGRESS IS ON RECORD IN SUPPORT OF LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO TO ENABLE THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA TO DEFEND THEMSELVES AGAINST AGGRESSION AND GENOCIDE. RECOGNIZING THE RIGHT OF SELF-DEFENSE IS THE MINIMUM, IN MY OPINION AND IN THE OPINION OF THE CONGRESS, THAT MUST BE GRANTED TO THE VICTIMS OF THIS VICIOUS AGGRESSION. /// END ACT /// THE LEGISLATORS' GENERAL CRITICISM OF ALLIED DIPLOMACY WENT UNCHALLENGED BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S LEAD WITNESS AT THE HEARING. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAID THE WESTERN RESPONSE TO THE BREAK-UP OF YUGOSLAVIA WILL BE JUDGED BY HISTORY AS THE "GREATEST COLLECTIVE SECURITY FAILURE" SINCE THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR TWO. HE ALSO SAID HE SHARED THE VIEW THAT THE ARMS EMBARGO IS "IMMORAL" IN NATURE. BUT HE SAID LIFTING IT -- AT THIS POINT -- WOULD SURELY PROMPT THE DEPARTURE OF WESTERN PEACEKEEPING FORCES FROM BOSNIA, AND LEAVE THE UNITED STATES WITH THE OBLIGATION OF MASSIVELY ASSISTING THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT: /// HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY /// IF THEY LEAVE, AND ONE MUST ACCEPT IT, JOHN MAJOR REPEATED THIS TO THE PRESIDENT ON TUESDAY AT OUR PRIVATE LUNCH. IF THE BRITISH AND THE FRENCH, AND THE OTHER MAJOR U-N TROOP CONTRIBUTING COUNTRIES LEAVE -- AND THE CANADIANS, AND THE DUTCH AND THE DANES HAVE ALSO SAID THEY'LL LEAVE. IF THEY LEAVE THE VACUUM THAT RESULTS WILL BE FILLED VERY RAPIDLY BY THE SERBS -- UNLESS AS PART OF A LIFT, THE UNITED STATES IS PREPARED TO LEAD IN A MASSIVE AND IMMEDIATE SUPPORT, SUPPLY OF THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. /// END ACT /// MR. HOLBROOKE SAID ANY CONGRESSMAN WHO SUPPORTS AN END TO THE EMBARGO MUST BE PREPARED TO ACCEPT THE CONSEQUENCES, WHICH HE SAID WOULD ALMOST CERTAINLY BE A FLARE-UP OF FIGHTING AND A U-S AID COMMITMENT THAT AT THE VERY LEAST WOULD EXCEED ONE BILLION DOLLARS. THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY SAID THE IMMEDIATE U-S DIPLOMATIC GOAL IN BOSNIA IS ACHIEVING AN EXTENSION OF THE CEASEFIRE WHICH HE CONCEDED IS "ON THE BRINK OF TOTAL COLLAPSE." HE SAID HE UNDERSTANDS THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S RELUCTANCE TO EXTEND THE TRUCE, EXPIRING AT THE END OF THE MONTH, WITH SERB FORCES HOLDING 70 PER CENT OF THE COUNTRY. BUT WITHOUT IT, HE WARNED, THERE IS IN HIS WORDS "A TREMENDOUS DANGER WE WILL SLIP BACK INTO THE ABYSS." (SIGNED) NEB/DAG/LWM 06-Apr-95 3:29 PM EDT (1929 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4103 total bytes, 4103 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/6/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176697 TITLE=HOLBROOKE/BOSNIA (S) BYLINE=DAVID GOLLUST DATELINE=CONGRESS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THERE WERE SPECIAL HEARINGS IN CONGRESS THURSDAY MARKING THE THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF THE BEGINNING OF MAJOR FIGHTING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AS V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS URGING A CONTINUATION OF THE TENUOUS CEASE-FIRE THERE. TEXT: THE ADMINISTRATION'S CHIEF EUROPEAN AFFAIRS EXPERT, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, SAYS THE BOSNIAN CEASEFIRE -- DUE TO EXPIRE AT THE END OF THE MONTH -- IS ALREADY ON THE BRINK OF TOTAL COLLAPSE. AND HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS DOING ALL IT CAN TO EXTEND THE TRUCE -- DESPITE THE STATED OPPOSITION TO AN EXTENSION BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ITSELF. THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE, TESTIFYING AT A SPECIAL MEETING OF THE CONGRESSIONAL HELSINKI COMMISSION, ALSO VOICED OPPOSITION TO DEMANDS FOR A LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. MR. HOLBROOKE TOLD MEMBERS A UNILATERAL U-S MOVE TO LIFT THE EMBARGO WOULD CERTAINLY PROMPT THE DEPARTURE OF U-N PEACEKEEPERS AND OPEN THE WAY TO SERB BATTLEFIELD GAINS: ///HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY/// IF THEY LEAVE, THE VACUUM THAT RESULTS WILL BE FILLED VERY RAPIDLY BY THE SERBS -- UNLESS, AS PART OF A LIFT, THE UNITED STATES IS PREPARED TO LEAD IN A MASSIVE AND IMMEDIATE SUPPORT, SUPPLY OF THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. ///END ACT/// MR. HOLBROOKE SAID AT LEAST ONE BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF U-S AID WOULD BE REQUIRED TO SUPPORT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IN THE IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH OF AN EMBARGO REMOVAL. (SIGNED) NEB/DAG/BG 06-Apr-95 12:09 PM EDT (1609 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1747 total bytes, 1747 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/6/95 TYPE=COMPUTER DIGEST #95-59 NUMBER=3-21509 TITLE=MAGNETIC DATA STORAGE, HOCKEY, SATAN, ETC. BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST: A NEW MAGNETIC DATA-STORAGE DEVICE, ADDING ELECTRONICS TO THE SPORT OF ICE HOCKEY, THE DEBUT OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM CALLED SATAN, SELLING AMERICAN COMPUTERS TO JAPANESE CONSUMERS, AND, HIGH-TECH FOR EDUCATION. ***** DATA-STORAGE DEVICE TEXT: IBM SAYS THAT IT HAS DEVELOPED A TECHNIQUE TO MAGNETICALLY STORE THREE BILLION BITS (THREE GIGABITS) OF DATA ON A COMPUTER DISK DRIVE. THE COMPANY SAYS THAT THE PRODUCT SETS A NEW WORLD RECORD IN MAGNETIC DATA STORAGE DENSITY -- NEARLY FIVE TIMES THE DENSITY OF THE MOST ADVANCED DISK DRIVE AVAILABLE TODAY. THREE BILLION BITS IS EQUAL TO 187, 500 DOUBLE-SPACE TYPEWRITTEN PAGES: A STACK OF PAPER MORE THAN 19-METERS IN HEIGHT. ***** HOCKEY TEXT: THE RUBBER PUCKS, USED BY PROFESSIONAL NORTH AMERICAN ICE HOCKEY TEAMS, MAY SOON BE EMBEDDED WITH COMPUTER CHIPS. THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT THE REASON IS TELEVISION. IT'S DIFFICULT FOR HOME VIEWERS TO SEE THE PUCK WHICH MEASURES LESS THAN EIGHT CENTIMETERS IN DIAMETER. ONE SUGGESTION THAT AN AMERICAN NETWORK IS CONSIDERING, INVOLVES A SMALL COMPUTER CHIP, THE SIZE OF A FINGERNAIL. ACCORDING TO THE NEWSPAPER, "THE CHIP WOULD EMIT A RADIO SIGNAL. A COMPUTER COULD THEN ZERO IN ON THE SIGNAL AND USE GRAPHICS TO DO THINGS TO THE IMAGE OF THE PUCK." IT COULD GIVE IT A COMET-LIKE TAIL, OR A BRIGHT COLOR. TO THE PLAYERS AND FANS IN THE ARENA, "THE PUCK WOULD LOOK JUST AS IT ALWAYS DOES -- A DULL BLACK." ***** SATAN TEXT: A CONTROVERSIAL, FREE PROGRAM, KNOWN AS SATAN WAS PLACED ON THE INTERNET ON WEDNESDAY BY ITS DEVELOPER. SATAN STANDS FOR SECURITY ADMINISTRATORS TOOL FOR ANALYZING NETWORKS AND "IS DESIGNED TO HELP NETWORK ADMINISTRATORS FIND AND PATCH VULNERABILITIES THAT COULD BE EXPLOITED BY UNAUTHORIZED USERS." BUT, AS THE LOS ANGELES TIMES POINTS OUT, "SINCE IT IS FREE AND EASILY ACCESSIBLE, ANYONE WITH BASIC COMPUTER SKILLS COULD JUST AS EASILY USE SATAN TO FIND THE WEAKNESSES AND GAIN ACCESS TO COMMERCIAL, MILITARY, EDUCATIONAL OR GOVERNMENT COMPUTERS THAT CONTAIN SENSITIVE OR VALUABLE INFORMATION." ***** THE JAPANESE MARKET TEXT: AMERICAN COMPANIES ARE ENTERING THE JAPANESE HOME-TECH MARKET. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR REPORTS THAT "LOW PRICES AND LONG-AWAITED JAPANESE-LANGUAGE SOFTWARE ARE GIVING US FIRMS AN EDGE OVER JAPANESE RIVALS." FOR EXAMPLE, APPLE COMPUTER'S MARKET SHARE HAS GONE FROM LESS THAN NINE PERCENT IN 1992 TO MORE THAN FIFTEEN PERCENT IN 1994. ALSO, IN 1994, TOTAL AMERICAN SHIPMENTS OF MS-DOS BASED COMPUTERS REACHED JUST UNDER 28-PERCENT OF THE MARKET, UP FROM APPROXIMATELY 10.5-PERCENT IN 1992. THE MONITOR NOTES THAT "THE INFLUX OF FOREIGN-MADE COMPUTERS BECAME A FLOOD IN LATE 1993 WHEN A BILINGUAL VERSION OF (THE MICROSOFT) WINDOWS (SOFTWARE) WAS INTRODUCED IN JAPAN. ***** SCHOOLS TEXT: EARLIER THIS WEEK, (FYI - TUESDAY, APRIL 4), THE GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE -- THE U-S CONGRESS' INVESTIGATIVE ARM -- CAME OUT WITH A SURVEY SAYING THAT MOST SCHOOLS IN AMERICA "LACK KEY TECHNOLOGIES, AND TEACHERS AREN'T PROPERLY TRAINED TO USE THE EQUIPMENT." MORE THAN HALF OF THE 10,000 SCHOOLS SURVEYED LACK MODEMS AND PHONE LINE CONNECTIONS. A THIRD OF THE SCHOOLS ALSO SAY THAT THEY HAVE INSUFFICIENT ELECTRICAL WIRING TO HANDLE HIGH-TECH DEVICES. 06-Apr-95 5:04 PM EDT (2104 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4258 total bytes, 4258 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/6/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176689 TITLE=BOSNIA SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FIGHTING IS SPREADING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO FEARS A RETURN OF LARGE-SCALE WAR AND INCREASED SUFFERING AMONG CIVILIANS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE MAIN BATTLEFRONT OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS STILL A MOUNTAIN RANGE NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA, IN THE NORTHEAST. HEAVY SHELLING AND GROUND ATTACKS CONTINUE IN THAT REGION, WHERE THE BOSNIAN ARMY BEGAN AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE SERBS LAST MONTH. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS THE SERBS HAVE AGAIN SHELLED TUZLA. THE SERBS HAVE SAID THEY NO LONGER RECOGNIZE TUZLA'S STATUS AS A UNITED NATIONS DECLARED SAFE AREA. WHILE THE FIGHTING AROUND TUZLA HAS INTENSIFIED, THERE HAVE BEEN NEW CLASHES BETWEEN MUSLIM AND SERB FORCES NEAR THE TOWN OF DOBOJ, IN NORTH-CENTRAL BOSNIA. THE MILITARY SITUATION IN AND AROUND SARAJEVO IS ALSO DETERIORATING. SERBS HAVE SHELLED A GOVERNMENT-HELD SUBURB AGAIN AFTER AN INITIAL ATTACK THAT VIOLATED THE U-N AND NATO-BACKED HEAVY WEAPONS EXCLUSION ZONE. THE U-N COMMAND EARLIER REPORTED MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND SHOOTING INCIDENTS IN THE SARAJEVO REGION DURING THE 24-HOUR PERIOD THAT ENDED THURSDAY MORNING. THE WARRING FORCES SHOW NO INTEREST IN NEGOTIATIONS. THERE IS NO DISCERNIBLE OR SIGNIFICANT DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITY BY THE MAJOR POWERS THAT COULD LEAD TO PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE WARRING FORCES ARE TAKING ADVANTAGE OF IMPROVED WEATHER CONDITIONS TO INCREASE THEIR MILITARY ACTIVITIES. HE WARNS THAT BOSNIA MAY BE RETURNING TO A LARGE-SCALE WAR THAT WOULD HAVE TRAGIC REPERCUSSIONS ON CIVILIANS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/BG 06-Apr-95 10:54 AM EDT (1454 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1916 total bytes, 1916 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/6/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176685 TITLE=BOSNIA SITREP (S-UPDATE) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FIGHTING IS SPREADING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AS THE COUNTRY BEGINS A FOURTH YEAR OF WAR. THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO IS WARNING OF A RETURN TO A LARGE-SCALE CONFLICT. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: HEAVY SHELLING AND GROUND ATTACKS HAVE CONTINUED IN THE MOUNTAINS NEAR THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS SERB GUNNERS HAVE AGAIN SHELLED TUZLA, A UNITED NATIONS-DECLARED SAFE AREA. NEW FIGHTING IS REPORTED AROUND THE TOWN OF DOBOJ IN NORTHERN BOSNIA, AND THE U-N COMMAND IN SARAJEVO FEARS FRESH CLASHES IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. THE MILITARY SITUATION IN AND AROUND THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL IS GETTING WORSE, TOO. MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND SHOOTING INCIDENTS WERE REPORTED IN THE SARAJEVO REGION DURING THE 24-HOUR PERIOD THAT ENDED THURSDAY MORNING. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN ARMY AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE BOTH TAKING ADVANTAGE OF BETTER WEATHER TO INCREASE THEIR MILITARY ACTIVITIES. THE SPOKESMAN WARNS THAT BOSNIA MAY BE HEADING FOR A LARGE-SCALE WAR WHICH WOULD HAVE TRAGIC CONSEQUENCES FOR THE CIVILIAN POPULATION. MUCH MORE INTENSE FIGHTING HAS BEEN EXPECTED PARTLY BECAUSE THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT DIPLOMATIC MOMENTUM TOWARD PEACE. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/CF 06-Apr-95 10:24 AM EDT (1424 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1525 total bytes, 1525 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/6/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176674 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS NOTE: A LONG CR ON THIS IS EXPECTED BY 15 GMT /// INTRO: INCREASED FIGHTING IS REPORTED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AS THE COUNTRY BEGINS A FOURTH YEAR OF WAR. THERE HAVE BEEN HEAVY SHELLING ATTACKS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA AND NEW INCIDENTS AROUND SARAJEVO. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO REPORTS CONTINUED HEAVY SHELLING ATTACKS IN THE MOUNTAINS NEAR THE TOWN OF TUZLA IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS SERB GUNNERS HAVE AGAIN SHELLED TUZLA, A U-N / DECLARED SAFE AREA. THE SERBS HAVE SAID THEY NO LONGER RECOGNIZE THE TOWN AS A SAFE AREA BECAUSE GOVERNMENT TROOPS THERE BEGAN A BIG OFFENSIVE AGAINST THEM LAST MONTH. INCREASED MILITARY ACTIVITY IS ALSO REPORTED IN ANOTHER REGION OF NORTHERN BOSNIA AND AROUND SARAJEVO. FRENCH PEACEKEEPERS HAVE FIRED SMOKE GRENADES TO TRY TO STOP THE SERBS FROM FIRING ON A ROAD THROUGH WHICH SUPPLIES ARE BROUGHT INTO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL. REFLECTING GROWING TENSION IN SARAJEVO, THE U-N COMMAND SAYS THERE WERE MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND SHOOTING INCIDENTS IN AND AROUND THE CITY DURING THE 24-HOUR PERIOD THAT ENDED THURSDAY MORNING. ABOUT 200 THOUSAND PEOPLE ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN KILLED OR HAVE DISAPPEARED IN BOSNIA SINCE THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC BEGAN IN 1992. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH 06-Apr-95 6:19 AM EDT (1019 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1572 total bytes, 1572 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176865 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMANDER IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS WARNED THE SERBS THAT NATO WARPLANES COULD ATTACK THEM IF THEY CONTINUE TO SHELL SARAJEVO. NATO PLANES ARE SAID TO BE IDENTIFYING POSSIBLE SERB TARGETS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AFTER TOLERATING SERB SHELLING OF OTHER UNITED NATIONS-DECLARED SAFE AREAS, THE U-N COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, HAS WARNED THE SERBS TO STOP SHELLING SARAJEVO. HE HAS SENT A PROTEST NOTE TO THE SERBS FOLLOWING THEIR REPEATED SHELLING OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL OVER THE WEEKEND. THE SHELLING AND A SNIPING ATTACK KILLED THREE PEOPLE AND WOUNDED A NUMBER OF OTHERS. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE SERBS COWARDLY SHELLED CIVILIANS IN AN UNPROVOKED ATTACK ON THE CITY SUNDAY NIGHT. IN RESPONSE TO THE SHELLING, NATO WARPLANES WERE CALLED OUT TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SERB TARGETS TO ATTACK. A SERB HEAVY MORTAR POSITION WAS CONSIDERED TOO CLOSE TO A CIVILIAN AREA TO BE ATTACKED WITHOUT POSSIBLE CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. IF SARAJEVO CONTINUES TO BE SHELLED, U-N OFFICIALS MAY FEEL AIR STRIKES MUST BE REQUESTED PARTLY TO MAINTAIN THEIR CREDIBILITY WITH THE WARRING FORCES. AMID GROWING TENSION IN SARAJEVO, THE SARAJEVO AIRLIFT REMAINS SUSPENDED FOLLOWING THE LATEST SERB ATTACK ON A RELIEF FLIGHT. A PLANE THAT BROUGHT RELIEF SUPPLIES TO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL WAS HIT BY 10 BULLETS LATE LAST WEEK. IN CROATIA, A POLISH PEACEKEEPER AT A U-N OBSERVATION POST HAS BEEN KILLED BY A CROATIAN ARMY SOLDIER. THE INCIDENT IS BEING INVESTIGATED. MEANWHILE, ENVOYS OF THE MAJOR POWERS ARE ABOUT TO VISIT BELGRADE, SARAJEVO, AND ZAGREB AGAIN IN ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO REVITALIZE THE PEACE PROCESS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. IN BELGRADE, THE DIPLOMATS WILL OFFER SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC A FURTHER, GRADUAL EASING OF SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA IF HE BACKS YUGOSLAV MOVES TO RECOGNIZE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND CROATIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/BG 10-Apr-95 11:19 AM EDT (1519 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2196 total bytes, 2196 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176860 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO HAS WARNED THE BOSNIAN SERBS OF POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THEM IF THEY CONTINUE TO SHELL THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL. NATO WARPLANES HAVE BEEN ASKED TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SERB TARGETS TO ATTACK. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE WARNING OF POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES IS CONTAINED IN A PROTEST NOTE TO THE SERBS FROM THE UNITED NATIONS MILITARY COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH. THE PROTEST FOLLOWS WEEKEND SERB SHELLING ATTACKS ON SARAJEVO IN WHICH THREE PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND A NUMBER OF OTHERS WERE WOUNDED. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS ARE COWARDLY. NATO WARPLANES WERE CALLED OUT TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SERB TARGETS TO ATTACK IF SARAJEVO IS SHELLED AGAIN AND IF U-N OFFICIALS IN ZAGREB REQUEST A NATO RESPONSE. AIR STRIKES HAVE NOT BEEN REQUESTED SINCE NOVEMBER EVEN THOUGH THE SERBS HAVE REPEATEDLY SHELLED U-N / DECLARED SAFE AREAS. THE SERBS APPEAR TO BELIEVE THEY CAN SHELL THESE AREAS WITH VIRTUAL IMPUNITY AS LONG AS THERE ARE FEW CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. SARAJEVO IS ONE OF THESE SO-CALLED SAFE AREAS, BUT IT IS ALSO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, SO IT IS A SPECIAL CASE. U-N OFFICIALS MAY FEEL SARAJEVO MUST BE PROTECTED IF THEY ARE TO MAINTAIN WHAT LITTLE CREDIBILITY THEY MAY STILL HAVE WITH THE WARRING FORCES IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/CF 10-Apr-95 9:26 AM EDT (1326 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1618 total bytes, 1618 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176897 TITLE=U-N AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT/L-A (L-ONLY) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS IS LASHING OUT AT PENDING CONGRESSIONAL LEGISLATION THAT WOULD ALTER AMERICAN POLICY TOWARD AND INVOLVEMENT IN THE WORLD BODY. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN REPORTS ON AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT'S COMMENTS MONDAY TO STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES [U.C.L.A] CAMPUS: TEXT: POSING AND ANSWERING HER OWN QUESTION -- "WHAT'S IN IT FOR US ?" -- AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT CHARGES CONGRESSIONAL CRITICS OF THE U-N WITH PROMOTING A NEW ISOLATIONISM: /// OPT /// /// ALBRIGHT ACTUALITY /// THAT HAS BECOME N-O-T SIMPLY FAULTY POLITICAL STRATEGY. IT IS ABSURD. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// SPEAKING TO STUDENTS OF THE U-C-L-A SCHOOL OF PUBLIC POLICY AND SOCIAL RESEARCH, THE AMERICAN ENVOY LISTS BENEFITS RANGING FROM NUCLEAR INSPECTION TO HEALTH PROGRAMS AND HUMAN RIGHTS. BUT MS. ALBRIGHT RESERVED HER STRONGEST DEFENSE FOR THE ACTIVITY THAT CONGRESSIONAL OPPONENTS WANT MOST TO LIMIT: PEACE-KEEPING. SHE PREDICTS DIRE CONSEQUENCES IF A HOUSE-APPROVED BILL -- PART OF THE REPUBLICAN LEADERSHIP'S "CONTRACT WITH AMERICA" -- SUCCEEDS IN RESTRICTING U-S FUNDING FOR U-N PEACE OPERATIONS: /// ALBRIGHT ACTUALITY /// IF THIS ISOLATIONIST VIEW SHOULD PREVAIL AND PEACEKEEPERS ARE WITHDRAWN, WE COULD EXPECT WIDER WAR IN THE BALKANS, HIGHER TENSIONS IN TINDERBOX REGIONS SUCH AS CYPRUS AND THE MIDDLE EAST, A RENEWED THREAT TO DEMOCRACY IN HAITI AND A FURTHER SERIES OF HUMANITARIAN DISASTERS IN AFRICA. THESE CONSEQUENCES ARE N-O-T ACCEPTABLE. THE ISOLATIONIST TIDE MUST BE TURNED BACK. /// END ACTUALITY /// ACKNOWLEDGING SOME CRITICISMS ARE WARRANTED, AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT SAYS NECESSARY CHANGES ARE BEING MADE TO MAKE ELIMINATE WASTE, FRAUD AND ABUSE AT THE INTERNATIONAL AGENCY: /// ALBRIGHT ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// THE U-N, DURING ITS LIFETIME -- IT IS NOW 50 YEARS OLD THIS YEAR -- HAS, IN FACT, ACQUIRED SOME HABITS THAT ARE N-O-T GOOD IN TERMS OF HAVING AN OVERLY-LARGE BUREAUCRACY AND WASTING MONEY. I THINK THAT THERE THE RESPONSE TO IT IS: WE KNOW THIS. /// END OPT /// IT IS A MESSAGE THAT I CARRY LOUD AND CLEAR THAT IS BEING PICKED UP BY MORE AND MORE OF THE COUNTRIES WITHIN THE U-N ,AND THAT WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IS RESPOND TO THAT SO EVERY DOLLAR OR FRANC OR MARK OR RUBLE THAT IS SPENT IS ACTUALLY GOING TO THE PURPOSES FOR WHICH IT IS GIVEN. /// END ACTUALITY /// ADAPTING A FAVORITE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SLOGAN USUALLY USED TO DESCRIBE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CHANGES, AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT URGES THAT THIS 50TH ANNIVERSARY YEAR BE A TIME TO "RE-INVENT" THE UNITED NATIONS APPROPRIATE AND RELEVANT TO THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD. (SIGNED) NEB/ADS/PT 10-Apr-95 9:48 PM EDT (0148 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3204 total bytes, 3204 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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// RE-ISSUING WITH CORRECT 'TYPE' LINE // DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP NUMBER=4-08248 TITLE=A VIEW OF SARAJEVO BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PAMELA TAYLOR/PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // VOICE TRACK AND INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM S-O-D // INTRO: CORRESPONDENT DOUG ROBERTS RECENTLY RETURNED FROM AN ASSIGNMENT IN SARAJEVO, THE BESIEGED CAPITAL OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS WERE IT NOT FOR AN ON-AGAIN, OFF-AGAIN U-N AIRLIFT, SARAJEVO WOULD BE EFFECTIVELY CUT OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD. INSTEAD, HE FOUND THAT THE BOSNIAN TRUCE NEGOTIATED BY FORMER U-S PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER EARLIER THIS YEAR HAS BROUGHT A SEMBLANCE OF NORMALCY: TEXT: THEY CALL IT "MAYBE AIRLINES", THE ERRATICALLY SCHEDULED U-N FLIGHTS TO SARAJEVO AND OTHER BALKAN CAPITALS. THE NAME SEEMS APPROPRIATE--MAYBE YOU'LL LEAVE ON TIME, BUT MAYBE YOU WON'T. MAYBE, YOU WON'T LEAVE AT ALL. AND YOU MAY WELL BE GLAD YOU DIDN'T, ESPECIALLY IF SOME ANONYMOUS GUNMAN IN SARAJEVO HAS AGAIN DECIDED TO TAKE POT SHOTS AT U-N PLANES. IT HAS HAPPENED MANY TIMES BEFORE AND DOUBTLESS WILL AGAIN. THE U-N RUNS A SHUTTLE SERVICE FROM THE AIRPORT INTO THE CITY. AN ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER RATHER THAN A BUS SNAKED THROUGH A SUBURBAN BATTLEGROUND KNOWN AS DOBRINJA, AND INTO THE HEART OF SARAJEVO. TAPE: CUT # 1 SARAJEVO MARKETPLACE (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:27] TEXT: THE OPEN-AIR MARKET IN THE HEART OF SARAJEVO'S OLD QUARTER. IT WAS A SCENE OF CARNAGE AND HORROR JUST A YEAR AGO WHEN A SUDDEN SERB SHELLING ATTACK LEFT DOZENS DEAD AND WOUNDED. THE BLOODSTAINS HAVE LONG SINCE WASHED AWAY, LIKE SO MANY OTHERS IN THIS BELEAGUERED CITY. THE WOODEN STALLS HAVE BEEN REPAIRED OR REPLACED; AND THE MARKET IS OPEN AND FUNCTIONING AGAIN. THERE WAS HARDLY A CORNUCOPIA OF GOODS ON DISPLAY. FRESH VEGETABLES WERE CONSPICUOUSLY ABSENT. THE VICTORY GARDENS THAT SEEMED TO DOT VIRTUALLY EVERY SPARE PATCH OF GROUND IN THE CITY WILL PROVIDE LETTUCE AND CABBAGE, CARROTS, TOMATOES AND EVEN SOME PEPPERS IN THE SPRING AND SUMMER. BUT IN THE WINTER MONTHS, POTATOS, ONIONS AND A FEW MUSHROOMS SEEMED THE ONLY VEGETABLES AVAILABLE. THERE WAS PLENTY OF MEAT, AS WELL AS EGGS, CANNED GOODS, EVEN NUTS. AND HAWKERS OFFERED BOTTLES OF WINE AND BRANDY. PRICES WERE HIGH, AND THE GERMAN DEUTSCHE-MARK WAS THE ONLY CURRENCY CHANGING HANDS. THE BOSNIAN DINAR IS VIRTUALLY VALUELESS, ACCEPTED ONLY TO PURCHASE BREAD AND NEWSPAPERS. SARAJEVANS SOMEHOW MANAGE TO GET BY, BUT IT WAS DIFFICULT TO SEE HOW. EQUALLY MYSTERIOUS IN A CITY UNDER SEIGE WAS WHERE THE GOODS IN THE MARKETPLACE COME FROM? MY DRIVER, HUSSEIN HADZOVIC, PROVIDED AN ANECDOTAL EXPLANATION, POINTING TO THE DRINKS ON A TABLE IN ONE OF SARAJEVO'S MANY CAFES. THAT GLASS OF MILK, HE SAID --- THAT'S HUMANITARIAN AID. THE CAN OF ORANGE SODA HAD FRENCH MARKINGS, MEANING IT WAS SMUGGLED OUT OF A U-N WAREHOUSE TO BE SOLD ON THE BLACK MARKET. AND THE COLA? BOTTLED IN CROATIA, SAID HUSSEIN, SO IT MUST HAVE COME IN ON THE BLUE ROUTE OR MAYBE THROUGH THE TUNNEL. THE BLUE ROUTE IS THE U-N CONTROLLED ROAD WHICH RUNS ACROSS THE TARMAC OF SARAJEVO AIRPORT, LINKING THE CAPITAL WITH GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY A FEW KILOMETERS TO THE SOUTHWEST. SERB COMMANDERS AGREED TO LET SARAJEVANS USE THE BLUE ROUTE AS PART OF THE NEW YEAR'S TRUCE ACCORD: TAPE: CUT # 3 SOUND OF SCHOOL (UP & UNDER) RUNS [:11] TEXT: SCHOOLS WERE OPEN AGAIN -- AFTER AN EXTENDED WINTER BREAK WHEN POWER SUPPLIES WERE NOT SUFFICIENT TO KEEP THE BUILDINGS HEATED. "WE HAD TO SEND THE CHILDREN HOME", SAID PRINCIPAL VJEKOSLAV BREZAR, BECAUSE THEIR FINGERS WERE STIFF WITH COLD. BUT THIS SARAJEVO WINTER WAS COMPARATIVELY MILD AND BRIEF, AND NINE YEAR OLD AVDIA, FOR ONE, WAS HAPPY TO BE BACK IN CLASS. HE EXCELS AT MATH AND ART BUT LIKE BOYS AROUND THE WORLD, HIS MAIN AMBITION IS TO BE A FOOTBALL (SOCCER) STAR. AVDIA ISN'T THE ONLY ORPHAN AT THE MALTA SCHOOL. AND MANY OF THE PUPILS ARE CHILDREN OF REFUGEES WHO HAVE FLED TO THE CAPITAL FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THERE ARE MUSLIM, CROAT AND SERB CHILDREN AT THE MALTA SCHOOL. TAPE: CUT # 6 -MUSIC FROM INDEPENDENCE CEREMONY (UP AND UNDER) RUNS :41 TEXT: BOSNIA'S UNOFFICIAL NATIONAL ANTHEM (AT) AN INDEPENDENCE DAY CEREMONY AT A DOWNTOWN CONCERT HALL. IT WAS THE FIRST TIME THE EVENT WAS COMMEMORATED HERE. BOSNIA'S MUSLIM CHIEF OF STATE, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, WAS THE MAIN SPEAKER. BUT SERB AND CROAT MEMBERS OF THE COUNTRY'S COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY WERE ALSO IN ATTENDANCE. RUSMIRA HADZIMULIC, A MUSLIM WOMAN IN HER 50'S, BELIEVES BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS MUST LEARN TO LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN. OUR NEIGHBORS ARE SERBS, SHE SAID, AND WE HAVE HELPED EACH OTHER THROUGH THESE TERRIBLE TIMES. BUT IF SARAJEVO'S MUSLIMS DISPLAY WARMTH AND AFFECTION FOR THE SERBS AND CROATS WHO HAVE SHARED THEIR ORDEALS DURING THE THREE YEARS OF WAR, THEY HAVE NOTHING BUT SCORN FOR WHAT THEY CALL THE "CHETNIKS IN THE MOUNTAINS", THE SERB GUNNERS WHO HAVE POUNDED SARAJEVO RELENTLESSLY FROM THE HILLS THAT RING THE CITY. AS I LEFT SARAJEVO, THERE WAS NO SIGN THAT THE WAR WILL END ANYTIME SOON. SNIPERS WERE BACK IN ACTION ON BOTH SIDES OF THE FRONT. (SIGNED) NEB/DR/PAM/PCH 10-Apr-95 3:01 PM EDT (1901 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6145 total bytes, 6145 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK NUMBER=4-08248 TITLE=A VIEW OF SARAJEVO BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PAMELA TAYLOR/PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // VOICE TRACK AND INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM S-O-D // INTRO: CORRESPONDENT DOUG ROBERTS RECENTLY RETURNED FROM AN ASSIGNMENT IN SARAJEVO, THE BESIEGED CAPITAL OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS WERE IT NOT FOR AN ON-AGAIN, OFF-AGAIN U-N AIRLIFT, SARAJEVO WOULD BE EFFECTIVELY CUT OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD. INSTEAD, HE FOUND THAT THE BOSNIAN TRUCE NEGOTIATED BY FORMER U-S PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER EARLIER THIS YEAR HAS BROUGHT A SEMBLANCE OF NORMALCY: TEXT: THEY CALL IT "MAYBE AIRLINES", THE ERRATICALLY SCHEDULED U-N FLIGHTS TO SARAJEVO AND OTHER BALKAN CAPITALS. THE NAME SEEMS APPROPRIATE--MAYBE YOU'LL LEAVE ON TIME, BUT MAYBE YOU WON'T. MAYBE, YOU WON'T LEAVE AT ALL. AND YOU MAY WELL BE GLAD YOU DIDN'T, ESPECIALLY IF SOME ANONYMOUS GUNMAN IN SARAJEVO HAS AGAIN DECIDED TO TAKE POT SHOTS AT U-N PLANES. IT HAS HAPPENED MANY TIMES BEFORE AND DOUBTLESS WILL AGAIN. THE U-N RUNS A SHUTTLE SERVICE FROM THE AIRPORT INTO THE CITY. AN ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER RATHER THAN A BUS SNAKED THROUGH A SUBURBAN BATTLEGROUND KNOWN AS DOBRINJA, AND INTO THE HEART OF SARAJEVO. TAPE: CUT # 1 SARAJEVO MARKETPLACE (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:27] TEXT: THE OPEN-AIR MARKET IN THE HEART OF SARAJEVO'S OLD QUARTER. IT WAS A SCENE OF CARNAGE AND HORROR JUST A YEAR AGO WHEN A SUDDEN SERB SHELLING ATTACK LEFT DOZENS DEAD AND WOUNDED. THE BLOODSTAINS HAVE LONG SINCE WASHED AWAY, LIKE SO MANY OTHERS IN THIS BELEAGUERED CITY. THE WOODEN STALLS HAVE BEEN REPAIRED OR REPLACED; AND THE MARKET IS OPEN AND FUNCTIONING AGAIN. THERE WAS HARDLY A CORNUCOPIA OF GOODS ON DISPLAY. FRESH VEGETABLES WERE CONSPICUOUSLY ABSENT. THE VICTORY GARDENS THAT SEEMED TO DOT VIRTUALLY EVERY SPARE PATCH OF GROUND IN THE CITY WILL PROVIDE LETTUCE AND CABBAGE, CARROTS, TOMATOES AND EVEN SOME PEPPERS IN THE SPRING AND SUMMER. BUT IN THE WINTER MONTHS, POTATOS, ONIONS AND A FEW MUSHROOMS SEEMED THE ONLY VEGETABLES AVAILABLE. THERE WAS PLENTY OF MEAT, AS WELL AS EGGS, CANNED GOODS, EVEN NUTS. AND HAWKERS OFFERED BOTTLES OF WINE AND BRANDY. PRICES WERE HIGH, AND THE GERMAN DEUTSCHE-MARK WAS THE ONLY CURRENCY CHANGING HANDS. THE BOSNIAN DINAR IS VIRTUALLY VALUELESS, ACCEPTED ONLY TO PURCHASE BREAD AND NEWSPAPERS. SARAJEVANS SOMEHOW MANAGE TO GET BY, BUT IT WAS DIFFICULT TO SEE HOW. EQUALLY MYSTERIOUS IN A CITY UNDER SEIGE WAS WHERE THE GOODS IN THE MARKETPLACE COME FROM? MY DRIVER, HUSSEIN HADZOVIC, PROVIDED AN ANECDOTAL EXPLANATION, POINTING TO THE DRINKS ON A TABLE IN ONE OF SARAJEVO'S MANY CAFES. THAT GLASS OF MILK, HE SAID --- THAT'S HUMANITARIAN AID. THE CAN OF ORANGE SODA HAD FRENCH MARKINGS, MEANING IT WAS SMUGGLED OUT OF A U-N WAREHOUSE TO BE SOLD ON THE BLACK MARKET. AND THE COLA? BOTTLED IN CROATIA, SAID HUSSEIN, SO IT MUST HAVE COME IN ON THE BLUE ROUTE OR MAYBE THROUGH THE TUNNEL. THE BLUE ROUTE IS THE U-N CONTROLLED ROAD WHICH RUNS ACROSS THE TARMAC OF SARAJEVO AIRPORT, LINKING THE CAPITAL WITH GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY A FEW KILOMETERS TO THE SOUTHWEST. SERB COMMANDERS AGREED TO LET SARAJEVANS USE THE BLUE ROUTE AS PART OF THE NEW YEAR'S TRUCE ACCORD: TAPE: CUT # 3 SOUND OF SCHOOL (UP & UNDER) RUNS [:11] TEXT: SCHOOLS WERE OPEN AGAIN -- AFTER AN EXTENDED WINTER BREAK WHEN POWER SUPPLIES WERE NOT SUFFICIENT TO KEEP THE BUILDINGS HEATED. "WE HAD TO SEND THE CHILDREN HOME", SAID PRINCIPAL VJEKOSLAV BREZAR, BECAUSE THEIR FINGERS WERE STIFF WITH COLD. BUT THIS SARAJEVO WINTER WAS COMPARATIVELY MILD AND BRIEF, AND NINE YEAR OLD AVDIA, FOR ONE, WAS HAPPY TO BE BACK IN CLASS. HE EXCELS AT MATH AND ART BUT LIKE BOYS AROUND THE WORLD, HIS MAIN AMBITION IS TO BE A FOOTBALL (SOCCER) STAR. AVDIA ISN'T THE ONLY ORPHAN AT THE MALTA SCHOOL. AND MANY OF THE PUPILS ARE CHILDREN OF REFUGEES WHO HAVE FLED TO THE CAPITAL FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THERE ARE MUSLIM, CROAT AND SERB CHILDREN AT THE MALTA SCHOOL. TAPE: CUT # 6 -MUSIC FROM INDEPENDENCE CEREMONY (UP AND UNDER) RUNS :41 TEXT: BOSNIA'S UNOFFICIAL NATIONAL ANTHEM (AT) AN INDEPENDENCE DAY CEREMONY AT A DOWNTOWN CONCERT HALL. IT WAS THE FIRST TIME THE EVENT WAS COMMEMORATED HERE. BOSNIA'S MUSLIM CHIEF OF STATE, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, WAS THE MAIN SPEAKER. BUT SERB AND CROAT MEMBERS OF THE COUNTRY'S COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY WERE ALSO IN ATTENDANCE. RUSMIRA HADZIMULIC, A MUSLIM WOMAN IN HER 50'S, BELIEVES BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS MUST LEARN TO LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN. OUR NEIGHBORS ARE SERBS, SHE SAID, AND WE HAVE HELPED EACH OTHER THROUGH THESE TERRIBLE TIMES. BUT IF SARAJEVO'S MUSLIMS DISPLAY WARMTH AND AFFECTION FOR THE SERBS AND CROATS WHO HAVE SHARED THEIR ORDEALS DURING THE THREE YEARS OF WAR, THEY HAVE NOTHING BUT SCORN FOR WHAT THEY CALL THE "CHETNIKS IN THE MOUNTAINS", THE SERB GUNNERS WHO HAVE POUNDED SARAJEVO RELENTLESSLY FROM THE HILLS THAT RING THE CITY. AS I LEFT SARAJEVO, THERE WAS NO SIGN THAT THE WAR WILL END ANYTIME SOON. SNIPERS WERE BACK IN ACTION ON BOTH SIDES OF THE FRONT. (SIGNED) NEB/DR/PAM/PCH 10-Apr-95 2:26 PM EDT (1826 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6116 total bytes, 6116 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176882 TITLE=E-U/BOSNIA (L) BYLINE=JOHN FRASER DATELINE=LUXEMBOURG CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FIFTEEN EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN MINISTERS (MONDAY) CALLED FOR A RENEWED EFFORT TO BRING PEACE TO BOSNIA. THE FEAR OF AN ESCALATION IN THE CONFLICT WAS DISCUSSED BY THE FOREIGN MINISTERS AT TALKS IN LUXEMBOURG. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM LUXEMBOURG. TEXT: THE INTERNATIONAL CONTACT GROUP, WHICH IS LEADING EFFORTS TO BRING PEACE TO BOSNIA, IS ABOUT TO EMBARK ON A MISSION TO THE REGION. THE BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY, DOUGLAS HURD, IS WORRIED ABOUT RECENT MORTAR ATTACKS ON SARAJEVO, ATTACKS ON HUMANITARIAN AIRCRAFT LANDING AT SARAJEVO AIRPORT, AND A GENERAL UPSURGE IN THE FIGHTING. ///HURD ACT/// THERE IS A DANGER OF A SLIDE INTO MAJOR CONFLICT. IT IS POSSIBLE THE MILITARY PEOPLE ON EITHER SIDE BELIEVE THAT THEY'RE GOING TO BE ABLE TO DELIVER MILITARY VICTORY. I'M QUITE CERTAIN THEY'RE WRONG. HILLS MAY CHANGE HANDS, VALLEYS MAY CHANGE HANDS, PEOPLE MAY GET KILLED -- ALL THAT IS LIKELY. BUT OUT OF THAT WILL NOT COME A DECISIVE MILITARY VICTORY. AND THAT IS WHY THE PEACE EFFORT, THE EFFORTS OF THE CONTACT GROUP, EFFORTS TOWARDS PEACE DOWN THE POLITICAL TRACK, REMAIN ESSENTIAL. ///END ACT/// IF THERE IS NOT PROGRESS TOWARDS PEACE SOON, THE EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN MINISTERS FEAR THERE WILL BE RENEWED PRESSURE FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS FROM BOSNIA. THE EUROPEAN MINISTERS ALSO DISCUSSED THE PROBLEM OF CHECHNYA AND AGREED TO CONTINUE TO SUSPEND A TRADE ACCORD WITH RUSSIA UNTIL THERE IS PROGRESS TOWARDS PEACE AND RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN CHECHNYA. THE MINISTERS DISCUSSED THE TURKISH INVASION OF NORTHERN IRAQ IN PURSUIT OF KURDISH TERRORISTS, AND THE EUROPEAN MINISTERS CALLED FOR A WITHDRAWAL OF THE TURKISH FORCES. AND THEY ALSO DEBATED THEIR FISHERIES DISPUTE, THE ONE BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND CANADA. THE E-U MINISTERS CALLED ON EUROPE'S NEGOTIATORS TO TRY TO SEEK AN ACCORD BEFORE EASTER. (SIGNED) NEB/JF/KK-T/BG 10-Apr-95 3:45 PM EDT (1945 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2267 total bytes, 2267 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176856 TITLE=BRITAIN / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BYLINE=ANDRE DE NESNERA DATELINE=LONDON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR HAS CALLED ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO ACCEPT THE PEACE PLAN PROPOSED BY THE FIVE-NATION CONTACT GROUP. VOA CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON MR. MAJOR MADE THE APPEAL DURING A SPEECH TO THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT. TEXT: MR. MAJOR APPEALED TO ALL SIDES IN THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT TO HEED THE UNITED NATIONS' CALL TO RESPECT THE CEASE-FIRE. THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TOLD A REUNION OF WORLD BANKERS NO ONE WILL PROFIT IF ALL-OUT WAR ERUPTS IN BOSNIA. MR. MAJOR ALSO WARNED THAT THE UNITED NATIONS' PRESENCE IN THE AREA WILL BE SEVERELY JEOPARDIZED IF HOSTILITIES INCREASE. AND HE CALLED ON THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP TO ACCEPT THE PROPOSALS PUT FORTH BY THE CONTACT GROUP AS A BASIS FOR A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT. // MAJOR ACT // THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS READY TO NEGOTIATE ON THIS BASIS. BUT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE, SO FAR, SET THEIR FACE AGAINST THE CONTACT GROUP'S PROPOSALS. WHILE THEY REFUSE TO NEGOTIATE, THEY WILL REMAIN UNDER SANCTIONS AND IN SELF-IMPOSED ISOLATION. // END ACT // THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER SAID THE CONTACT GROUP MUST CONTINUE ITS EFFORTS TO BRING ABOUT PEACE IN THE AREA -- NO MATTER HOW HARD THE TASK SEEMS TO BE. TO THAT END, MR. MAJOR SAID CONTACT GROUP REPRESENTATIVES WILL TRAVEL TO SARAJEVO, BELGRADE AND ZAGREB THIS WEEK. (SIGNED) NEB/ADEN/SKH/CF 10-Apr-95 8:29 AM EDT (1229 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1730 total bytes, 1730 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11//95 TYPE=BOOK WORLD #1178 - TTA NUMBER=3-21555 TITLE="FIRST IN HIS CLASS: A BIOGRAPHY OF BILL CLINTON" BY DAVID MARANISS (S) BYLINE=NANCY BEARDSLEY TELEPHONE=619-1107 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=VICKI SWANEY CONTENT= (INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES) ANNCR: IN 1993, "'WASHINGTON POST" REPORTER DAVID MARANISS (MARE-A-NIS) WON A PULITZER PRIZE FOR A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON. HE HAS NOW TURNED THOSE ARTICLES INTO AN EXHAUSTIVE NEW BIOGRAPHY OF THE PRESIDENT, BASED ON LETTERS, DOCUMENTS AND NEARLY 400 INTERVIEWS WITH CLINTON FRIENDS, RELATIVES AND COLLEAGUES. HERE WITH A REPORT IS --. TEXT: PUBLIC OPINION POLLS SUGGEST MANY AMERICANS REMAIN PUZZLED BY BILL CLINTON, UNCERTAIN WHAT KIND OF PERSON HE IS OR WHAT HE STANDS FOR. A NEW BOOK ENTITLED "FIRST IN HIS CLASS," BY "WASHINGTON POST" REPORTER DAVID MARANISS SUGGESTS THAT MAY BE BECAUSE THE PRESIDENT HAS MANY CONTRADICTORY QUALITIES: TAPE CUT ONE: MARANISS (:15) TEXT: "I SEE THAT IN ALMOST EVERY ASPECT OF HIS LIFE. PEOPLE WANT TO DEFINE THEIR LEADERS IN BLACK AND WHITE AND GOOD AND BAD. AND THE MAJOR CONCLUSIONS OF MY BOOK ARE THAT HE IS AN AMBIVALENT, AMBIGUOUS CHARACTER, AND THOSE THINGS ARE ALWAYS COMPETING WITH EACH OTHER." NARR: DAVID MARANISS BELIEVES BILL CLINTON HAS BEEN ESPECIALLY TORN BETWEEN NOBLE PRINCIPLES ON THE ONE HAND AND PRAGMATIC POLITICS ON THE OTHER. AND HE SAYS THAT HAS FORCED THE PRESIDENT TO MAKE COMPROMISES ALONG HIS PATH TO THE WHITE HOUSE: TAPE CUT TWO: MARANISS (:27) "YOU CAN SEE IT GOING BACK TO THE BENEDICTION HE GAVE AT HIS HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION, A SHORT PRAYER WHICH WAS FULL OF IDEALISM AND WANTING TO OVERCOME THE RACIAL INTOLERANCE THAT HE SAW IN THE SEGREGATED SOUTH OF THAT PERIOD AND OF BRINGING PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD TOGETHER. AND AS HE PROGRESSED POLITICALLY, YOU SEE THE INCREASING PRESSURE ON THAT IDEALISM BY HIS AMBITION AND WHAT IT WOULD TAKE TO ADVANCE TO THE NEXT STAGE." TEXT0: DAVID MARANISS ENDS HIS BOOK WITH BILL CLINTON'S ANNOUNCEMENT THAT HE IS RUNNING FOR U.S. PRESIDENT. BUT HE BELIEVES MUCH OF WHAT HAS HAPPENED SINCE CAN BE EXPLAINED BY HIS STUDY OF HOW THE PRESIDENT'S CHARACTER AND POLITICAL BELIEFS WERE FORMED. (TAPE CUTS FROM DAVID MARANISS FROM AN INTERVIEW ON VOA'S "TALK TO AMERICA") 11-Apr-95 5:00 PM EDT (2100 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2734 total bytes, 2734 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176944 TITLE=CARTER-VOA (L) BYLINE=JANE BERGER DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FORMER PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER SAYS HE WOULD BE WILLING TO RETURN TO BOSNIA IN AN EFFORT TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE SETTLEMENT, IF BOTH SIDES TO THE CONFLICT AGREE TO HIS PRESENCE. CORRESPONDENT JANE BERGER REPORTS MR. CARTER'S COMMENTS CAME (TUESDAY) IN AN APPEARANCE ON THE V-O-A PROGRAM 'TALK TO AMERICA.' TEXT: MR. CARTER SAID HE IS EXTREMELY DISAPPOINTED BY THE RECENT UPSURGE OF VIOLENCE IN BOSNIA, BUT HE SAID HE IS NOT SURPRISED THAT THE CEASE-FIRE HE ARRANGED LATE LAST YEAR HAS BROKEN DOWN. THE FORMER PRESIDENT SAID HE WOULD BE WILLING TO RETURN TO THE REGION IN AN EFFORT TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT. /// CARTER ACT /// WE HAVE OFFERED TO COME BACK AND MEET WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND TO MEET WITH THE GOVERNMENT IN SARAJEVO, TO EXPLORE SOME NEW IDEAS IN AN UNOFFICIAL WAY. BUT WE HAVEN'T HAD A FAVORABLE REACTION FROM BOTH SIDES. AND UNTIL THAT HAPPENS AND UNTIL WE GET FULL APPROVAL FROM THE U-S GOVERNMENT, WE COULD NOT GO BACK IN TO THE BOSNIA AREA. /// END ACT /// MR. CARTER SAID FUTURE TALKS ON BOSNIA SHOULD FOCUS ON NEW IDEAS TO PRESERVE THE INTEGRITY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA YET RECOGNIZE THE ETHNIC DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE COUNTRY. HE CALLED IT A VERY DIFFICULT ISSUE. THE FORMER PRESIDENT WAS QUESTIONED BY MANY LISTENERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD ON A WIDE RANGE OF GLOBAL ISSUES. MANY ASKED HIM ABOUT THE WORK OF THE CARTER CENTER IN HIS HOME STATE OF GEORGIA. MR. CARTER SAID THE CENTER IS CURRENTLY MONITORING ABOUT 30 CONFLICTS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD ON A DAILY BASIS, AND TRIES WHENEVER IT CAN TO FOSTER PEACE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN WARRING PARTIES. /// CARTER ACT /// THE CARTER CENTER IS FREE TO MOVE WHERE WE WANT TO, TO TALK TO WHOM WE CHOOSE, AND WE HAVE A WIDE RANGE OF HUMANITARIAN PROJECTS THAT MAKE UP ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF OUR EFFORTS THAT OPENS DOORS TO US TO GET TO KNOW AND BE TRUSTED BY BOTH SIDES TO DISPUTES. SO WE COMBINE VERY CLOSELY OUR PEACE EFFORTS, OUR DEMOCRACY EFFORTS -- WE HOLD ELECTONS OR HELP MONITOR ELECTIONS IN MANY COUNTRIES WHEN THEY ARE MOVING TOWARD FREEDOM, AND WE ADDRESS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IF THERE IS A SPECIAL CASE OR A PATTERN OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, I CONTACT THE LEADER OF THAT NATION DIRECTLY TO TRY TO CORRECT THE PROBLEM. WE HAVE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ADDRESSED HERE AND HUMANITARIAN PROJECTS. /// END ACT /// ON OTHER ISSUES, MR. CARTER SAID HE HAS ALSO HAS OFFERED TO RETURN TO KOREA TO ARRANGE A SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN LEADERS FROM THE NORTH AND SOUTH. AND HE EXPRESSED HOPE THE UNITED NATIONS COULD CHANGE ITS PEACEKEEPING ROLE TO ONE OF PREVENTING CONFLICTS IN THE FIRST PLACE. (SIGNED) NEB/JB/MMK 11-Apr-95 3:23 PM EDT (1923 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3126 total bytes, 3126 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176946 TITLE=CARTER-VOA (S) BYLINE= JANE BERGER DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FORMER PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER SAYS HE WOULD BE WILLING TO RETURN TO BOSNIA TO TRY TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT, IF BOTH SIDES TO THE CONFLICT AGREE TO HIS PRESENCE. CORRESPONDENT JANE BERGER REPORTS MR. CARTER ANSWERED QUESTIONS FROM LISTENERS AROUND THE WORLD (TUESDAY) IN AN APPEARANCE ON THE V-O-A PROGRAM 'TALK TO AMERICA.' TEXT: FORMER PRESIDENT CARTER SAID HE HAS OFFERED TO RETURN TO BOSNIA TO PURSUE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS, BUT HE SAID BOTH PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT MUST FIRST GIVE HIM THE GO-AHEAD, AND HE ALSO NEEDS APPROVAL FROM THE U-S GOVERNMENT. THE FORMER PRESIDENT SAID HE IS EXTREMELY DISAPPOINTED, BUT NOT SURPRISED, THAT THE CEASE-FIRE HE ARRANGED LATE LAST YEAR HAS BROKEN DOWN. MR. CARTER SAID BOTH SIDES NEED TO FOCUS ON NEW IDEAS FOR PEACE. /// CARTER ACT /// WE NEED TO HAVE A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION, I THINK, AND EXPLORE NEW IDEAS ON HOW WE CAN HAVE THE INTEGRITY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA BUT ALSO WITH RECOGNITION OF THE ETHNIC DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE COUNTRY. THAT IS A VERY DIFFICULT QUESTION THAT NOBODY HAS FOUND AN ANSWER TO YET. /// END ACT /// MR. CARTER SAID HE HAS ALSO OFFERED TO RETURN TO KOREA TO ARRANGE A SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN LEADERS FROM NORTH AND SOUTH. THE FORMER PRESIDENT SAID THE CARTER CENTER IN HIS HOME STATE OF GEORGIA IS MONITORING ABOUT 30 CONFLICTS AROUND THE WORLD, AND TRIES TO DO WHATEVER IT CAN TO BRING WARS TO AN END. (SIGNED) NEB/JB/MMK 11-Apr-95 3:53 PM EDT (1953 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1738 total bytes, 1738 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176919 TITLE=CROATIA / RUSSIAN (S-ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS HAS RELIEVED A RUSSIAN GENERAL OF HIS PEACEKEEPING COMMAND IN CROATIA. HE WAS ACCUSED OF BEING CORRUPT AND OF AIDING THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: IN A HIGHLY UNUSUAL MOVE, A UNITED NATIONS SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB ANNOUNCED THAT RUSSIAN GENERAL ALEXANDER PERELYAKIN HAS BEEN SACKED. THE GENERAL IS SAID TO HAVE SHOWN POOR LEADERSHIP AS COMMANDER OF U-N PEACEKEEPERS IN EASTERN CROATIA. HE IS SAID TO HAVE FAILED TO CORRECT PROBLEMS THAT WERE BROUGHT TO HIS ATTENTION. THE U-N SPOKESMAN CONFIRMS THAT CORRUPTION AMONG RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS AND A CLEAR BIAS TOWARD THE CROATIAN SERBS WERE KEY FACTORS BEHIND GENERAL PERELYAKIN'S DISMISSAL. THE RUSSIAN COMMANDER IS SAID TO HAVE ALLOWED WEAPONS FROM YUGOSLAVIA TO ENTER SERB-HELD TERRITORY OF CROATIA. HE WAS EMBROILED IN A MAJOR DISPUTE WITH BELGIAN PEACEKEEPERS OVER THAT INCIDENT. WHILE SAYING THE RUSSIAN'S PERFORMANCE WAS UNACCEPTABLE, THE U-N SPOKESMAN POINTEDLY SAID GENERAL PERELYAKIN IS BEING REPLACED BY HIS BELGIAN DEPUTY COMMANDER. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS REPEATEDLY COMPLAINED ABOUT THE PERFORMANCE OF PEACE-KEEPERS FROM RUSSIA AND FROM DEVELOPING NATIONS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/MMK 11-Apr-95 10:12 AM EDT (1412 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1490 total bytes, 1490 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11//95 TYPE=BOOK WORLD #1177 - TTA NUMBER=3-21550 TITLE="FIRST IN HIS CLASS: A BIOGRAPHY OF BILL CLINTON" BY DAVID MARANISS (L) BYLINE=NANCY BEARDSLEY TELEPHONE=619-1107 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=VICKI SWANEY CONTENT= (INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES) ANNCR: PUBLIC OPINION POLLS SUGGEST MANY AMERICANS REMAIN PUZZLED BY PRESIDENT CLINTON, UNCERTAIN WHAT KIND OF PERSON HE IS OR WHAT HE STANDS FOR. IN A NEW BIOGRAPHY ENTITLED "FIRST IN HIS CLASS," "WASHINGTON POST" REPORTER DAVID MARANISS (MARE-A-NIS) TRIES TO GET TO THE HEART OF THE PRESIDENT'S SEEMINGLY ELUSIVE PERSONALITY AND CONTRADICTORY POLICIES. THE BOOK GREW OUT OF A SERIES OF ARTICLES WHICH WON MISTER MARANISS A 1993 PULITZER PRIZE. ALTHOUGH THE PRESIDENT DID NOT AGREE TO BE INTERVIEWED, DAVID MARANISS WAS ABLE TO DRAW ON DOCUMENTS, LETTERS AND NEARLY 400 INTERVIEWS WITH CLINTON FRIENDS, RELATIVES AND COLLEAGUES. REVIEWERS HAVE GENERALLY PRAISED THE BOOK AS FAIR AND WELL RESEARCHED. VOA'S NANCY BEARDSLEY HAS MORE: NARR: DAVID MARANISS MAKES IT CLEAR IN HIS NEW BOOK THAT HE DIDN'T SET OUT TO WRITE AN EXHAUSTIVE ANALYSIS OF BILL CLINTON'S PERSONAL FINANCIAL DEALINGS, HIS ALLEGED INFIDELITIES OR ANY OF THE OTHER TOPICS THAT HAVE DOMINATED NEWS HEADLINES SINCE HE ROSE TO NATIONAL PROMINENCE. INSTEAD, HE WANTED TO WRITE ABOUT THE FORCES THAT PROPELLED BILL CLINTON TO THE PRESIDENCY AND SHAPED HIS FIRST TWO YEARS IN OFFICE: TAPE CUT ONE: MARANISS (:20) "I THOUGHT IT WAS WORTHWHILE TO MAKE THE ATTEMPT TO WRITE A BOOK EXPLAINING SOMEONE WHILE THEY'RE STILL RELEVANT TO THE POLITICAL PROCESS. SO THAT WAS ONE OF MY MAJOR GOALS. AND THE OTHER ONE WAS I SAW HIS LIFE AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO WRITE ABOUT OUR GENERATION, THE POST-WAR BABY BOOM GENERATION. SO IN THAT SENSE I WANTED TO MAKE IT A GENERATIONAL BIOGRAPHY." NARR: THOSE BROADER CONCERNS HELP EXPLAIN THE BOOK'S TITLE, "FIRST IN HIS CLASS." BILL CLINTON NEVER ACTUALLY GRADUATED FIRST IN HIS CLASS, BUT HE WAS AN EXCELLENT STUDENT, AND HE WAS THE FIRST OF HIS GENERATION TO ATTAIN THE U.S. PRESIDENCY. WHY HIM--OUT OF ALL THE PROMISING YOUNG PEOPLE OF HIS TIME? DAVID MARANISS ASCRIBES HIS RISE TO SEVERAL FACTORS, INCLUDING THE FACT THAT HE CAME FROM ARKANSAS, A STATE FAR REMOVED FROM POWER CENTERS LIKE NEW YORK OR WASHINGTON: TAPE CUT TWO: MARANISS (:33) "FOR A BRIGHT, AMBITIOUS KID, IT WAS A GREAT PLACE TO COME UP BECAUSE IT WAS EASIER FOR HIM TO GET A RHODES SCHOLARSHIP. THERE WAS LESS COMPETITION. IT WAS EASIER FOR HIM TO GO BACK THERE AND SUCCEED AT AN EARLY AGE WITH HIS INTELLIGENCE AND AMBITION. SO IN FACT IT FUELED HIS RISE. ANOTHER THING WAS HIS INTENSE, TIRELESS NETWORKING. HE KEPT THESE CARD FILES OF PEOPLE HE'D MET STARTING IN COLLEGE. AND EVERY NIGHT HE'D COME BACK HOME AND WRITE OUT EVERYBODY HE'D MET THAT DAY, AND WHAT IT WAS ABOUT THEM HE COULD REMEMBER--TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE." NARR: EASY CHARM AND RELENTLESS DETERMINATION--THOSE QUALITIES SEEMED TO BE PART OF BILL CLINTON FROM THE START--AND PART OF HIS FAMILY LEGACY. HIS GRANDFATHER WAS GENIAL AND FUN-LOVING; HIS GRANDMOTHER HARD WORKING AND AMBITIOUS. HIS MOTHER INHERITED BOTH SETS OF QUALITIES, AND PASSED THEM ON TO HER SON, BORN 3 MONTHS AFTER HIS FATHER DIED IN A CAR ACCIDENT. TOGETHER WITH THAT FAMILY HERITAGE, DAVID MARANISS BELIEVES IT'S ALSO NECESSARY TO UNDERSTAND THE TOWN OF HOT SPRINGS, WHERE BILL CLINTON GREW UP: TAPE CUT THREE: MARANISS (:27) "IT WAS THE MOST COSMOPOLITAN TOWN IN ARKANSAS AND IT HAD THE LARGEST ILLEGAL GAMBLING OPERATION IN AMERICA. IT HAD A NIGHT LIFE THAT RIVALLED LAS VEGAS DURING THAT ERA, AND IT HAD A HORSE TRACK THAT BILL CLINTON'S MOTHER LOVED TO PLAY. AND IT ALSO HAD ALL THESE BAPTIST CHURCHES, MANY OF WHICH WERE FUNDED BY SOME OF THESE OTHER ACTIVITIES. SO IT HAD THAT CERTAIN DUALITY TO IT, TWO SIDES OF LIFE, AND YOU SEE THOSE TWO SIDES OF LIFE IN BILL CLINTON." NARR: BILL CLINTON ALSO SHOWED AN EARLY TALENT FOR OVERCOMING CHALLENGE AND ADVERSITY. HE STOOD UP TO HIS STEPFATHER, AN ABUSIVE ALCOHOLIC, AND HELPED HOLD HIS FAMILY TOGETHER DURING TROUBLED TIMES. HE ARRIVED AT COSMOPOLITAN GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY A SEEMINGLY UNSOPHISTICATED YOUNG MAN FROM THE SOUTH, AND SOON WON THE CLASS PRESIDENCY. HE WENT ON TO EARN A PRESTIGIOUS RHODES SCHOLARSHIP TO OXFORD UNIVERSITY. (BEGIN OPT) WHEN HE RETURNED TO THE U.S. TO ENTER YALE LAW SCHOOL, HE MET HILLARY RODHAM, WHOSE DRIVE SEEMED EQUAL TO HIS OWN: TAPE CUT FOUR: MARANISS (:19) "SHE WAS FAR BETTER KNOWN THAN HE WAS AS A STUDENT ACTIVIST OF THAT ERA. SHE'D GIVEN A FAMOUS COMMENCEMENT ADDRESS AT HER COLLEGE. AND FROM THE VERY BEGINNING THEY HAD A VERY INTELLECTUAL, PRAGMATIC RELATIONSHIP WHERE THEY WERE BOTH INTENSELY INTERESTED IN POLITICS AND SAW THAT THEY COULD GET SOMEWHERE TOGETHER THAT THEY MIGHT NOT GET TO SEPARATELY." (END OPT) NARR: FROM ARKANSAS TO GEORGETOWN, OXFORD, YALE, AND BACK TO ARKANSAS, WHERE HE BECAME STATE GOVERNOR--DAVID MARANISS BELIEVES BILL CLINTON'S ROAD TO THE PRESIDENCY WAS SHAPED BY A REFORMER'S ZEAL AND A POLITICIAN'S PRAGMATISM. AND THAT MEANT MAKING COMPROMISES ALONG THE WAY: TAPE CUT FIVE: MARANISS (:33) "HE DEFINITELY WENT INTO POLITICS WITH A LOT OF IDEALISM. YOU CAN SEE IT GOING BACK TO THE BENEDICTION HE GAVE AT HIS HIGH (BEGIN OPT) SCHOOL GRADUATION, A SHORT PRAYER WHICH WAS HIS FIRST MAJOR POLITICAL SPEECH, FULL OF WANTING TO OVERCOME THE RACIAL INTOLERANCE THAT HE SAW IN HIS SEGREGATED HIGH SCHOOL IN THE SEGREGATED SOUTH OF THAT PERIOD AND OF BRINGING PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD TOGETHER. (END OPT) AND AS HE PROGRESSED POLITICALLY, YOU SEE THE INCREASING PRESSURE ON THAT IDEALISM BY HIS AMBITION AND WHAT IT WOULD TAKE TO ADVANCE TO THE NEXT STAGE." NARR: DAVID MARANISS ENDS HIS BOOK WITH BILL CLINTON'S ANNOUNCEMENT THAT HE WOULD SEEK THE PRESIDENCY. BUT HE BELIEVES MUCH OF WHAT'S HAPPENED TO PRESIDENT CLINTON SINCE THAT TIME CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THEMES HE EXPLORES IN HIS BOOK. AND WHILE HIS PROSPECTS MAY LOOK BLEAK AT A TIME WHEN REPUBLICANS ARE PUSHING THROUGH THEIR OWN AGENDA FOR CHANGE, DAVID MARANISS SAYS BILL CLINTON HAS A RARE CAPACITY FOR POLITICAL COMEBACKS. THIS TIME, HE BELIEVES THAT COMEBACK COULD HAPPEN IF PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOWS AMERICANS EXACTLY WHAT HE STANDS FOR--AND CLINGS TO THE PRINCIPLES THAT HAVE LONG MOTIVATED HIS POLITICAL QUEST. (TAPE CUTS FROM DAVID MARANISS FROM AN INTERVIEW ON VOA'S "TALK TO AMERICA") 11-Apr-95 5:08 PM EDT (2108 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 7583 total bytes, 7583 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176924 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS HAS RELIEVED A RUSSIAN GENERAL OF HIS PEACEKEEPING COMMAND IN A PART OF CROATIA. THE GENERAL WAS ACCUSED OF BEING CORRUPT AND OF AIDING THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AFTER GROWING COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE PERFORMANCE OF RUSSIAN PEACE-KEEPERS IN EASTERN CROATIA, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS FINALLY SACKED THE RUSSIAN COMMANDER, GENERAL ALEXANDER PERELYAKIN. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB SAYS THE GENERAL HAS BEEN RELIEVED OF HIS COMMAND BECAUSE OF SEVERE SHORTCOMING IN HIS LEADERSHIP. THE ENERAL IS SAID TO HAVE FAILED TO CORRECT PROBLEMS WHEN THEY WERE BROUGHT TO HIS ATTENTION. THE PROBLEMS INCLUDE ALLEGED CORRUPTION AMONG RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS AND A BLATANT BIAS TOWARD THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. THE RUSSIANS ARE SAID TO HAVE SOLD U-N FUEL TO THE SERBS. MORE SERIOUS, HOWEVER, IS THAT GENERAL PERELYAKIN IS BLAMED FOR ALLOWING WEAPONS FROM YUGOSLAVIA TO REACH SERB-HELD TERRITORY OF CROATIA. HIS FAVORITISM TOWARD THE SERBS LED TO A FURIOUS DISPUTE WITH BELGIAN PEACE-KEEPERS. THE BELGIANS PROTESTED AND BROUGHT THE MATTER TO THE ATTENTION OF SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS. A BELGIAN DEPUTY COMMANDER IS REPLACING THE DISMISSED RUSSIAN GENERAL. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS COMPLAINED ABOUT THE PERFORMANCE OF RUSSIAN PEACE-KEEPERS AND PEACE-KEEPERS FROM DEVELOPING NATIONS WHO ARE DEPLOYED IN CROATIA. THE GOVERNMENT IS DEMANDING THE RIGHT TO DETERMINE THE COMPOSITION OF THE U-N FORCE IN CROATIA UNDER A NEW MANDATE WHICH IS BEING NEGOTIATED. CROATIAN OFFICIALS WANT THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE TO BE MADE UP OF EUROPEANS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. THE OFFICIALS THINK EUROPEANS WOULD UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEMS THE GOVERNMENT FACES WITH THE REBEL SERBS AND WOULD DEAL WITH THE SERBS MORE EFFECTIVELY. IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA, CONTINUED CLASHES ARE REPORTED BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND SERB FORCES IN THE NORTH AND CENTER OF THE COUNTRY. MEANWHILE, DIPLOMATS FROM THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY AND RUSSIA WERE TO MEET IN BELGRADE AGAIN WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. THE MAJOR POWERS HOPE MR. MILOSEVIC CAN BE PERSUADED TO TAKE STEPS TOWARD RECOGNIZING BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND CROATIA IN RETURN FOR A PHASED EASING OF INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. THIS IS SAID TO BE A MORE ATTRACTIVE OFFER THAN WHAT HAS BEEN PROPOSED BEFORE. BUT, THERE IS NO INDICATION THAT THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT MIGHT ACCEPT IT. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/GPT 11-Apr-95 11:06 AM EDT (1506 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2714 total bytes, 2714 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/11/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176936 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L-UPDATE) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS: NEW INFO IN 9TH GRAF TO REFLECT CROATIAN ARMY NOT HELD RESPONSIBLE NOW FOR U-N PEACEKEEPER'S DEATH /// INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS HAS RELIEVED A RUSSIAN GENERAL OF HIS PEACEKEEPING COMMAND IN A PART OF CROATIA. THE GENERAL WAS ACCUSED OF BEING CORRUPT AND OF AIDING THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AFTER GROWING COMPLAINTS ABOUT RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS IN EASTERN CROATIA, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS FINALLY SACKED THE RUSSIAN COMMANDER, GENERAL ALEXANDER PERELYAKIN. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB SAYS THE GENERAL HAS BEEN RELIEVED OF HIS COMMAND BECAUSE OF SEVERE SHORTCOMING IN HIS LEADERSHIP. THE GENERAL IS SAID TO HAVE FAILED TO CORRECT PROBLEMS WHEN THEY WERE BROUGHT TO HIS ATTENTION. THE PROBLEMS INCLUDE ALLEGED CORRUPTION AMONG RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS AND A BLATANT BIAS TOWARD THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. THE RUSSIANS ARE SAID TO HAVE SOLD U-N FUEL TO THE SERBS. IN A MORE SERIOUS MATTER, GENERAL PERELYAKIN IS BLAMED FOR ALLOWING WEAPONS FROM YUGOSLAVIA TO REACH SERB-HELD TERRITORY OF CROATIA. HIS FAVORITISM TOWARD THE SERBS LED TO A FURIOUS DISPUTE WITH BELGIAN PEACEKEEPERS. THE BELGIANS PROTESTED AND BROUGHT THE MATTER TO THE ATTENTION OF SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS. A BELGIAN DEPUTY COMMANDER IS REPLACING THE SACKED RUSSIAN GENERAL. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS COMPLAINED ABOUT THE PERFORMANCE OF RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS AND PEACEKEEPERS FROM DEVELOPING NATIONS WHO ARE DEPLOYED IN CROATIA. THE GOVERNMENT IS DEMANDING THE RIGHT TO DETERMINE THE COMPOSITION OF THE U-N FORCE UNDER A NEW MANDATE WHICH IS BEING NEGOTIATED. CROATIAN OFFICIALS WANT THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE TO BE MADE UP OF EUROPEANS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. THE OFFICIALS SAY EUROPEANS WOULD DEAL MORE EFFECTIVELY WITH THE REBEL SERBS. MEANWHILE, THE UNITED NATIONS SAYS THE CROATIAN ARMY WAS NOT INVOLVED IN THE KILLING OF A POLISH PEACEKEEPER, AS A U-N REPORT HAD INDICATED. AS FIGHTING CONTINUES IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL BOSNIA, THE MAJOR POWERS HAVE BEGUN ANOTHER PEACE MISSION TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP HOPES TO PERSUADE THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, TO TAKE A SERIES OF STEPS TOWARD RECOGNIZING BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND CROATIA. INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA WOULD BE EASED IN RETURN. THIS IS SAID TO BE A MORE ATTRACTIVE OFFER THAN WHAT THE CONTACT GROUP HAS PROPOSED BEFORE. BUT THERE IS NO SIGN MR. MILOSEVIC MIGHT ACCEPT IT. FOLLOWING TALKS IN BELGRADE, THE CONTACT GROUP PLANS TO VISIT ZAGREB AND, IF POSSIBLE, SARAJEVO. THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT IS CLOSED BECAUSE SERB GUNNERS SHOT AT AND HIT A U-N RELIEF FLIGHT. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/BG 11-Apr-95 1:44 PM EDT (1744 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2914 total bytes, 2914 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/12/95 TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES #95-365 NUMBER=3-21559 TITLE=ABACUS VERSUS COMPUTER BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY IS SOMETIMES SEEN AS THE SAVIOR OF AMERICA'S EDUCATION SYSTEM, AS AN ELECTRONIC MEETING PLACE FOR PEOPLE WITH COMMON INTERESTS, AND AS A USEFUL TOOL IN THE SCIENCE AND ACADEMIC COMMUNITY. BUT, AS DAN NOBLE REPORTS, THERE ARE SOME LIMITATIONS AND CONCERNS. TEXT: CLIFF STOLL IS AN ASTRONOMER AND COMPUTER EXPERT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY. HE'S BEEN USING THE INTERNET, AND ITS PREDECESSOR ARPANET, FOR CLOSE TO 20-YEARS. HOWEVER, NOW HE HAS SOME SECOND THOUGHTS ABOUT THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION. TAPE: CUT ONE -- CLIFF STOLL (0:09) "OH I'M QUESTIONING MUCH OF WHAT I'VE DONE IN COMPUTING. HOWEVER, I SEE IT AS QUESTIONING, RATHER THAN AS COMING TO A CONCLUSION." TEXT: IN HIS BOOK, "SILICON SNAKE OIL," MISTER STOLL WRITES THAT "COMPUTERS FORCE US INTO CREATING WITHOUT OUR MINDS AND PREVENT US FROM MAKING THINGS WITH OUR HANDS. THEY DULL THE SKILLS WE USE IN EVERYDAY LIFE." TAPE: CUT TWO -- CLIFF STOLL (0:58) "ONE OF THE LOSSES OF COMPUTERS, ONE OF THE THINGS THAT OUR NETWORKS DESTROY IS REFLECTIVE THOUGHT. WHEN WE CAN SEND ELECTRONIC MAIL, CLICK, SNAP IT ACROSS THE CONTINENT AND GET IT FROM HERE TO THERE INSTANTLY, ONE OF THE THINGS WE LOSE OUT ON IS: 'OH, I WANT TO THINK ABOUT THIS LETTER AS I WRITE IT. I WANT TO THINK ABOUT THIS LETTER AS I READ IT. THIS INSTANTANIETY, THIS QUICKNESS OF THE COMPUTER ERODES THE SENSE OF REFLECTION, THE SENSE OF: 'OH, I'M GOING TO DO THIS OVER AND OVER AGAIN UNTIL I GET IT RIGHT'. AND BECAUSE IT IS WORK TO TYPE OUT A LETTER, TO HANDWRITE A LETTER, WE DON'T PUT AS MUCH CARE INTO OUR INSTANTANEOUS ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION AS WE WOULD A HANDWRITTEN LETTER." TEXT: AS AN EXAMPLE, CLIFF STOLL RECALLS AN OPPORTUNITY HE HAD. SOME YEARS AGO, HE WAS SELECTED TO PARTICIPATE IN THE UNITED STATES-CHINA SCHOLARLY EXCHANGE PROGRAM. THE YOUNG ASTRONOMER WAS ASSIGNED TO THE PURPLE MOUNTAIN OBSERVATORY IN NANJING PROVINCE. HE BROUGHT ALONG WITH HIM A HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-85 COMPUTER. AT THAT TIME IT WAS A STATE-OF-THE-ART INSTRUMENT... TAPE: CUT THREE -- CLIFF STOLL (0:21) "...REALLY MODERN STUFF. I WAS GOING TO SHOW THESE ASTRONOMERS HOW WE, IN THE WEST, DO GOOD ASTRONOMY. SO, I MEET THIS ASTRONOMER THERE. PROFESSOR LI. HE'S TRYING TO CALCULATE HOW THE POLE OF THE EARTH HAS EVOLVED OVER THE YEARS, LOOKING AT THE CHANGE IN THE EARTH'S POLES." TEXT: AND AS CLIFF STOLL RECALLS IT, PROFESSOR LI WAS USING TRIGONOMETRY TABLES, HANDWRITTEN COLUMNS OF NUMBERS, AND TWELVE ABACUSES. TAPE: CUT FOUR -- CLIFF STOLL (0:17) "ALL MANUALLY. I SNICKERED TO MYSELF AND SAID: HEY, I'LL SHOW HIM. HE'S ENTERING ALL THESE NUMBERS IN THIS LEDGER, WRITING EVERYTHING OUT BY HAND, DOING VERY MECHANICAL, ROTE, NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS. I SAID: I'LL FIX THINGS. I'LL SHOW HIM HOW TO DO THINGS." TEXT: PROFESSOR LI SPENT FIVE MONTHS ON THE PROJECT. CLIFF STOLL TOOK A LOT LESS TIME. BUT THE AMERICAN COMPUTER EXPERT SAYS THE RESULTS TAUGHT HIM A LESSON. TAPE: CUT FIVE -- CLIFF STOLL (1:20) "INDEED, HE HAD DONE A FAR BETTER JOB OF IT THAN MY COMPUTER HAD BECAUSE BY CRAFTING HIS CALCULATIONS BY HAND, BY WORRYING ABOUT THE ACCURACY OF EACH DATA POINT, BY THINKING ABOUT THE PROCESS HE WAS GOING THROUGH, HE WAS ABLE TO SPOT DATA POINTS THAT THAT, OH, 'THESE ARE NOT QUITE SO RELIABLE. I WON'T PLACE SO MUCH EMPHASIS ON THESE. THESE OTHER REPORTS WERE DONE BY VERY COMPETENT ASTRONOMERS. I'LL PLACE A GREAT DEAL OF CONFIDENCE IN THESE'. THE WAY HE CRAFTED HIS DATA ANALYSIS SYSTEM WAS BY HAND. HIS ANSWERS WERE BOTH ROBUST, RELIABLE AND IMPRESSIVELY HIGH QUALITY. WHAT I HAD DONE ON THE COMPUTER, THE WAY THE COMPUTER INFLUENCED ME, WAS TO TREAT THIS ENTIRE PROCESS AS A DATA ANALYSIS PROBLEM, RATHER THAN AS A WAY TO COME UP WITH NEW SOLUTIONS. I SAW IT CAST AS: I JUST WRITE A COMPUTER PROGRAM AND GET THE RIGHT ANSWER. HE SAW IT AS A PROCESS, A WAY OF GOING ABOUT SCIENCE." TEXT: CLIFF STOLL, AUTHOR OF "SILICON SNAKE OIL: SECOND THOUGHTS ON THE INFORMATION SUPER HIGHWAY," STILL USES A COMPUTER. BUT HE CAUTIONS HIGH-TECH USERS TO TAKE CARE WITH HOW THEY USE THE NEW TECHNOLOGY. HE WORRIES THAT: "SIMPLY BY TURNING TO A COMPUTER WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A PROBLEM, YOU LIMIT YOUR ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE OTHER SOLUTIONS. WHEN THE ONLY TOOL YOU KNOW IS A HAMMER, EVERYTHING LOOKS LIKE A NAIL. WHICH," ASKS CLIFF STOLL, "IS THE TOOL: THE COMPUTER OR THE USER?" 12-Apr-95 4:50 PM EDT (2050 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5429 total bytes, 5429 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/12/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176986 TITLE=U-S / MILOSEVIC (S-O) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENT CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS THE CONTACT GROUP OF THE U-S, BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY AND RUSSIA HAS FAILED TO CONVINCE SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO SUPPORT A PROPOSAL FOR MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT. TEXT: THE PROPOSAL FROM THE CONTACT GROUP IS TO EASE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA IN EXCHANGE FOR SERBIA'S RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLICS OF CROATIA AND BOSNIA. HOWEVER, THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE MEETING WITH PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE DID NOT SUCCEED IN GETTING HIS AGREEMENT. SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE TO THE CONTACT GROUP MEETING WAS NOT OPTIMISTIC. /// BURNS ACT /// THAT MEETING GAVE NO CAUSE FOR OPTIMISM REGARDING EARLY MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE MUTUAL EARLY RECOGNITION AMONG THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS OR REALLY ANY OPTIMISM ABOUT A BOSNIA CEASEFIRE. /// END ACT /// THE LACK OF SERBIAN AGREEMENT TO STOP THE SHELLING OF SARAJEVO PREVENTED THE CONTACT GROUP FROM DISCUSSING EXTENSION OF THE CEASEFIRE WITH BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC. THEY WENT INSTEAD TO CROATIA. MR. BURNS SAYS THE FIVE NATION CONTACT GROUP WILL CONTINUE ITS EFFORTS BUT IT IS NOT CLEAR IF THE DIPLOMATS HAVE AN ALTERNATIVE PROPOSAL.(SIGNED) NEB / RP / BD/PT 12-Apr-95 4:53 PM EDT (2053 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1621 total bytes, 1621 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/12/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176967 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN DESPITE UNITED NATIONS AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WARNINGS THAT CONTINUED MORTAR OR ARTILLERY ATTACKS ON THE CITY WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. AT THE SAME TIME, THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA HAS DELAYED, IF NOT CANCELLED, A PLANNED VISIT TO SARAJEVO. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AT LEAST ONE MORTAR ROUND WAS FIRED INTO THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO AFTER A ONE-DAY LULL IN THE SHELLING OF THE BESIEGED BOSNIAN CAPITAL. SEVEN PEOPLE, APPARENTLY ALL CIVILIANS, ARE REPORTED TO HAVE BEEN WOUNDED. SERB FORCES ARE BELIEVED RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LATEST SHELLING. THE MORTAR ATTACK OCCURRED DESPITE UNITED NATIONS WARNINGS OF POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB POSITIONS IF THE SHELLING CONTINUES. BEFORE THE ATTACK, BOSNIA'S MUSLIM PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC ALSO WARNED THAT GOVERNMENT FORCES AND LOCAL RESIDENTS WOULD BE ASKED TO BREAK THE SERB SIEGE OF SARAJEVO IF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CANNOT PROTECT THE CITY. MEANWHILE, THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA HAS DELAYED, IF NOT CANCELLED, A VISIT TO SARAJEVO. SERB MILITARY LEADERS WOULD NOT GUARANTEE THE SAFETY OF THE CONTACT GROUP'S FLIGHT FROM ZAGREB. THE GROUP WANTS TO PERSUADE THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TO EXTEND THE CURRENT OFFICIAL CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA WHICH EXPIRES AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC HAS SAID HIS GOVERNMENT WILL ONLY EXTEND THE TRUCE IF YUGOSLAVIA RECOGNIZES BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND CROATIA AND IF THE BOSNIAN SERBS ACCEPT THE CONTACT GROUP'S BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN. UNABLE TO GO TO SARAJEVO AS PLANNED, ENVOYS OF THE CONTACT GROUP HAVE HAD WHAT IS CALLED A USEFUL EXCHANGE OF VIEWS IN ZAGREB WITH CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN. ON TUESDAY, THE ENVOYS, REPRESENTING THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY AND RUSSIA, MET IN BELGRADE WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. THEY OUTLINED A PROPOSAL FOR STEP-BY-STEP YUGOSLAV RECOGNITION OF BOSNIA AND CROATIA IN RETURN FOR A PHASED EASING OF INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. MR. MILOSEVIC'S INITIAL REACTION WAS, APPARENTLY, NOT VERY POSITIVE. HE IS TO CAREFULLY CONSIDER THE PROPOSAL, THOUGH, AND TO THEN REPLY TO IT THROUGH DIPLOMATIC CHANNELS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH 12-Apr-95 10:55 AM EDT (1455 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2468 total bytes, 2468 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/12/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176952 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN, PRESUMABLY BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS, DESPITE UNITED NATIONS WARNINGS OF POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WARNINGS OF A BOSNIAN ARMY RESPONSE. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AT LEAST ONE MORTAR ROUND, BELIEVED FIRED FROM A SERB POSITION, EXPLODED IN THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO. A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WERE WOUNDED. THE SHELLING OCCURRED JUST BEFORE DIPLOMATS OF THE MAJOR POWERS WERE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE IN THE CITY FOR TALKS WITH BOSNIA'S MUSLIM PRESIDENT, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, AND OTHER SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC EARLIER WARNED THAT, IF THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO CANNOT PROTECT SARAJEVO, THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND SARAJEVO RESIDENTS WILL BE ASKED TO LIBERATE THE BESIEGED CITY, REGARDLESS OF THE PRICE. MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAID HE IS DETERMINED NOT TO ALLOW THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL TO ENDURE YET ANOTHER WINTER IN THE CONDITIONS IT NOW FACES. AT THE SAME TIME, HE PROPOSED A 20-KILOMETER DEMILITARIZED ZONE AROUND THE CITY. HE LINKED THAT IDEA TO A LONG-STANDING PROPOSAL FOR THE UNITED NATIONS TO ADMINISTER SARAJEVO FOR TWO YEARS WHILE ITS FUTURE IS NEGOTIATED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/CF 12-Apr-95 8:07 AM EDT (1207 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1434 total bytes, 1434 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/12/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176952 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN, PRESUMABLY BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS, DESPITE UNITED NATIONS WARNINGS OF POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WARNINGS OF A BOSNIAN ARMY RESPONSE. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AT LEAST ONE MORTAR ROUND, BELIEVED FIRED FROM A SERB POSITION, EXPLODED IN THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO. A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WERE WOUNDED. THE SHELLING OCCURRED JUST BEFORE DIPLOMATS OF THE MAJOR POWERS WERE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE IN THE CITY FOR TALKS WITH BOSNIA'S MUSLIM PRESIDENT, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, AND OTHER SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC EARLIER WARNED THAT, IF THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO CANNOT PROTECT SARAJEVO, THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND SARAJEVO RESIDENTS WILL BE ASKED TO LIBERATE THE BESIEGED CITY, REGARDLESS OF THE PRICE. MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAID HE IS DETERMINED NOT TO ALLOW THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL TO ENDURE YET ANOTHER WINTER IN THE CONDITIONS IT NOW FACES. AT THE SAME TIME, HE PROPOSED A 20-KILOMETER DEMILITARIZED ZONE AROUND THE CITY. HE LINKED THAT IDEA TO A LONG-STANDING PROPOSAL FOR THE UNITED NATIONS TO ADMINISTER SARAJEVO FOR TWO YEARS WHILE ITS FUTURE IS NEGOTIATED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/CF 12-Apr-95 8:07 AM EDT (1207 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1434 total bytes, 1434 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/12/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-176962 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S-UPDATE) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS NOTE: UPDATES WITH ENVOYS CANCELLING VISIT TO SARAJEVO /// INTRO: SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN, PRESUMABLY BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS, AND DIPLOMATS OF THE MAJOR POWERS HAVE BEEN FORCED TO CANCEL A FLIGHT TO THE CITY. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AT LEAST ONE MORTAR ROUND, BELIEVED FIRED FROM A SERB POSITION, EXPLODED IN THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO. A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WERE WOUNDED. THE ATTACK OCCURRED DESPITE UNITED NATIONS AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WARNINGS OF A MILITARY REACTION IF THE SERBS CONTINUE TO SHELL CIVILIANS IN SARAJEVO. IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, MEMBERS OF THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA, HAVE CANCELLED A PLANNED FLIGHT TO SARAJEVO BECAUSE THE SERBS WOULD NOT GUARANTEE THE SAFETY OF THEIR PLANE. THE GROUP WANTED TO DISCUSS AN EXTENSION OF THE OFFICIAL CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WITH PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC AND OTHER SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC HAS SAID HIS GOVERNMENT WOULD ONLY EXTEND THE TRUCE BEYOND THIS MONTH IF YUGOSLAVIA RECOGNIZES BOSNIA AND IF THE SERBS ACCEPT THE CONTACT GROUP'S PEACE PLAN. HE HAS ALSO SAID THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND SARAJEVO RESIDENTS WILL BE ASKED, IN HIS WORDS, TO LIBERATE THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL IF THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO CANNOT PROTECT THE BESIEGED CITY. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/MMK 12-Apr-95 10:07 AM EDT (1407 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1587 total bytes, 1587 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/15/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177085 TITLE=BOSNIA/SNIPER (S ONLY) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: ANOTHER FRENCH SOLDIER SERVING WITH THE U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA WAS SHOT DEAD BY A SNIPER IN SARAJEVO SATURDAY. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS IT WAS THE SECOND FATALITY FOR THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN TWENTY FOUR HOURS. TEXT: THE FRENCH SOLDIER WAS HELPING TO ERECT A BARRICADE DESIGNED TO PROTECT AN EXPOSED BOULEVARD IN THE HEART OF SARAJEVO AGAINST SNIPER FIRE FROM SERB POSITIONS LESS THAN TWO HUNDRED METERS AWAY. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE SOLDIER WAS SHOT IN THE CHEST AT MID-MORNING SATURDAY. HE WAS PRONOUNCED DEAD AT A NEARBY HOSPITAL. THREE PEOPLE WERE WOUNDED BY SNIPER FIRE IN THE SAME AREA ON FRIDAY. AND ANOTHER FRENCH PEACEKEEPER WAS SHOT DEAD IN THE SUBURB OF DOBRINJA, NEAR SARAJEVO'S U-N CONTROLLED AIRPORT. U-N OFFICIALS HAVE NOT SAID WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FIRST FRENCH FATALITY. THE AIRPORT HAS BEEN CLOSED FOR THE PAST WEEK AFTER A RELIEF PLANE WAS RIDDLED BY GUNFIRE AS IT CAME IN FOR A LANDING. A SERB REFUSAL TO PROVIDE SECURITY GUARANTEES FOR INCOMING PLANES PREVENTED DIPLOMATS FROM THE FIVE POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA FROM TRAVELLING TO SARAJEVO EARLIER THIS WEEK. THE CONTACT GROUP IS TRYING TO PERSAUDE THE WARRING FACTIONS TO EXTEND THE NEW YEAR'S CEASEFIRE THAT IS DUE TO EXPIRE AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. BUT WITH THE TRUCE NOW MORE VIOLATED THAN RESPECTED, U-N OFFICIALS ARE WARNING THAT BOSNIA IS SLIDING BACK TOWARD FULL-SCALE WAR. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MMK 15-Apr-95 8:30 AM EDT (1230 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1654 total bytes, 1654 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/14/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177055 TITLE=U-S/BOSNIA-IRAN (S) BYLINE=DEBORAH TATE DATELINE=WHITE HOUSE CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY IRAN MAY BE SUPPLYING ARMS TO THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT, BUT THEY ARE DENYING A PUBLISHED REPORT THAT THE UNITED STATES TACITLY APPROVED OF ANY EFFORT TO SEND WEAPONS TO THE BOSNIANS. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS. TEXT: WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAYS THERE IS MUCH CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE THAT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS HAD ACCESS TO SMALL ARMS AND MUNITIONS, AND HE SAYS IT WOULD NOT BE SURPRISING IF IT IS DISCOVERED THE WEAPONS HAD COME FROM IRAN. MR. MCCURRY'S COMMENTS COME IN RESPONSE TO A REPORT IN THE WASHINGTON POST NEWSPAPER SAYING IRAN HAS DELIVERED ARMS TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT DURING THE LAST SIX MONTHS WITH THE ADMINISTRATION'S TACIT ACCEPTANCE. MR. MCCURRY SAYS THE UNITED STATES, AS A MEMBER OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL, SUPPORTS U-N RESOLUTIONS CONCERNING THE ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA. HE SAYS THE ADMINISTRATION LOOKS NEGATIVELY ON ANYTHING THAT CONTINUES TO FUEL THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA. WHEN ASKED IF THE UNITED STATES HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN TO THE UNITED NATIONS ABOUT A POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF THE EMBARGO, HE RESPONDED BY SAYING WASHINGTON IS FORBIDDEN BY CONGRESS FROM ENFORCING THE ARMS BAN. PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS FAVORED AN END TO THE THE U-N EMBARGO TO ALLOW THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS TO GET ARMS TO DEFEND THEMSELVES, BUT HE HAS DECLINED TO LIFT THE BAN UNILATERALLY AMID STRONG OBJECTIONS FROM BRITAIN AND FRANCE. (SIGNED) NEB/DAT/GO/CF 14-Apr-95 11:04 AM EDT (1504 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1680 total bytes, 1680 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue0
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DATE=4/16/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177116 TITLE=DOLE/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BYLINE=VICTOR BEATTIE DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SENATE MAJORITY LEADER AND REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL HOPEFUL ROBERT DOLE HAS REPEATED HIS SUPPORT FOR UNILATERALLY LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS SENATOR DOLE -- RESPONDING TO SUSPICIONS IRAN IS SUPPLYING SARAJEVO WITH ARMS -- SUGGESTS U-S ARMS SHIPMENTS WOULD UNDERCUT TEHRAN'S ALLEGED INVOLVEMENT: TEXT: SENATOR DOLE SAYS ONCE THE MAY FIRST EXPIRATION DATE FOR THE CURRENT FOUR-MONTH CEASE-FIRE IS REACHED HE WILL MOVE LEGISLATION FORWARD TO UNILATERALLY LIFT THE EMBARGO: /// DOLE ACTUALITY /// MY VIEW IS THEY'RE AN INDEPENDENT NATION, THEY'RE A MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS, THEY'RE ENTITLED TO A RIGHT TO SELF-DEFENSE. I'M NOT TALKING ABOUT SENDING AMERICAN TROOPS, NOT EVEN AIRSTRIKES, PROVIDING WEAPONS YES. /// END ACTUALITY /// SENATOR DOLE SAYS SUCH A MOVE HAS BIPARTISAN SUPPORT. HE EXPECTS TO CO-SPONSOR SUCH LEGISLATION WITH DEMOCRATIC LAWMAKER JOSEPH LIEBERMAN. MR. DOLE SAYS IF THE UNITED STATES WOULD ARM THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS THERE WOULD BE NO REASON FOR THE IRANIANS TO DO SO. HIS COMMENTS FOLLOW WHITE HOUSE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS HAVE HAD ACCESS TO SMALL ARMS AND MUNITIONS, POSSIBLY FROM TEHRAN. THE WASHINGTON POST NEWSPAPER REPORTS THAT IRAN HAS BEEN SENDING SUCH WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION TO SARAJEVO FOR SIX MONTHS WITH WASHINGTON'S TACIT (SILENT) APPROVAL. PRESIDENT CLINTON SUPPORTS A LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO A VIEW NOT SHARED MY OTHER MEMBERS OF THE BOSNIA CONTACT GROUP. (SIGNED) NEB/VB/LWM 16-Apr-95 5:40 PM EDT (2140 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1843 total bytes, 1843 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/16/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177116* TITLE=DOLE/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BYLINE=VICTOR BEATTIE DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: // RE-RUNNING TO DELETE LAST GRAPH OF TEXT // INTRO: SENATE MAJORITY LEADER AND REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL HOPEFUL ROBERT DOLE HAS REPEATED HIS SUPPORT FOR UNILATERALLY LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS SENATOR DOLE -- RESPONDING TO SUSPICIONS IRAN IS SUPPLYING SARAJEVO WITH ARMS -- SUGGESTS U-S ARMS SHIPMENTS WOULD UNDERCUT TEHRAN'S ALLEGED INVOLVEMENT: TEXT: SENATOR DOLE SAYS ONCE THE MAY FIRST EXPIRATION DATE FOR THE CURRENT FOUR-MONTH CEASE-FIRE IS REACHED HE WILL MOVE LEGISLATION FORWARD TO UNILATERALLY LIFT THE EMBARGO: /// DOLE ACTUALITY /// MY VIEW IS THEY'RE AN INDEPENDENT NATION, THEY'RE A MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS, THEY'RE ENTITLED TO A RIGHT TO SELF-DEFENSE. I'M NOT TALKING ABOUT SENDING AMERICAN TROOPS, NOT EVEN AIRSTRIKES, PROVIDING WEAPONS YES. /// END ACTUALITY /// SENATOR DOLE SAYS SUCH A MOVE HAS BIPARTISAN SUPPORT. HE EXPECTS TO CO-SPONSOR SUCH LEGISLATION WITH DEMOCRATIC LAWMAKER JOSEPH LIEBERMAN. MR. DOLE SAYS IF THE UNITED STATES WOULD ARM THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS THERE WOULD BE NO REASON FOR THE IRANIANS TO DO SO. HIS COMMENTS FOLLOW WHITE HOUSE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS HAVE HAD ACCESS TO SMALL ARMS AND MUNITIONS, POSSIBLY FROM TEHRAN. THE WASHINGTON POST NEWSPAPER REPORTS THAT IRAN HAS BEEN SENDING SUCH WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION TO SARAJEVO FOR SIX MONTHS WITH WASHINGTON'S TACIT (SILENT) APPROVAL. (SIGNED) NEB/VB/LWM 16-Apr-95 6:28 PM EDT (2228 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1776 total bytes, 1776 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE= APRIL 16, 1995 TYPE= EDITORIAL NUMBER= 0-06335 TITLE= ROLE OF THE MILITARY IN A DEMOCRACY CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST APRIL 16, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. VOICE: AS JOSEPH NYE, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, SAID IN A RECENT SPEECH, THE ROLE OF THE MILITARY IN MANY PARTS OF THE WORLD IS CHANGING. NUMEROUS COUNTRIES UNDERGOING DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONS ARE, FOR THE FIRST TIME, CREATING MECHANISMS FOR CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THEIR MILITARIES. IN EASTERN EUROPE, LATIN AMERICA AND THE COUNTRIES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONSTITUTIONS ARE BEING REWRITTEN, PARLIAMENTS ARE ENACTING OVERSIGHT LAWS, AND CIVILIAN DEFENSE MINISTRIES ARE EXERCISING NEW RESPONSIBILITIES. THE U.S. HOPES TO PROMOTE THE GROWTH OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES BY ENCOURAGING CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE MILITARY. IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, THE U.S. IS DOING THIS THROUGH THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. THE PARTNERSHIP WILL IMPROVE MILITARY COOPERATION AND DEVELOP TIES BETWEEN MEMBERS OF DIFFERENT MILITARIES. JOINT EXERCISES BRING SOLDIERS INTO CLOSE CONTACT WITH MEN AND WOMEN THEY USED TO REGARD AS ENEMIES. MILITARY OFFICERS FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SEE FIRSTHAND HOW THEIR COUNTERPARTS FROM THE WEST OPERATE. THIS YEAR ALONE, NATO INTENDS TO CONDUCT UP TO TWENTY JOINT MILITARY EXERCISES. IN THE U.S., DEMOCRATIC TRADITIONS HAVE PROVIDED THE BASIS FOR CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS. THE MILITARY IS SUBORDINATE TO CIVILIAN AUTHORITY IN ALL MATTERS. BUT MANY COUNTRIES IN LATIN AMERICA, ASIA AND AFRICA, IT HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN THE ROLE OF THE MILITARY TO DECIDE THE DESTINY OF THE NATION. BUT AS DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS BECOME STRONGER, SUCH HABITS ARE BEING EXAMINED IN MANY COUNTRIES. IN ITS OWN EXPERIENCE, THE U.S. HAS FOUND THAT DEMOCRACY IS ONLY SECURE WHEN THE MILITARY IS UNDER CIVILIAN CONTROL. AS THOMAS JEFFERSON, ONE OF AMERICA'S FOUNDING FATHERS, WROTE, "IN ALL CASES THE MILITARY SHOULD BE UNDER STRICT SUBORDINATION TO, AND GOVERNED BY, THE CIVIL POWER." ANNCR: THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 14-Apr-95 11:01 AM EDT (1501 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2587 total bytes, 2587 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/14/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177067 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (L UPDATE) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: // EDITORS: UPDATES WITH FRENCH REACTION // INTRO: ANOTHER UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPER HAS BEEN KILLED, AND AN ELDERLY MAN HAS DIED DURING RENEWED SERB VIOLENCE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: A SNIPER SERIOUSLY WOUNDED A FRENCH PEACE-KEEPER WHO WAS NEAR THE FRONTLINES BETWEEN BOSNIAN ARMY AND SERB FORCES. THE FRENCH SOLDIER DIED LATER IN A SARAJEVO HOSPITAL. HE WAS THE 57TH U-N SOLDIER TO BE KILLED IN ATTACKS ON PEACE-KEEPERS DURING THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE WAS SAID TO HAVE BEEN DELIBERATELY TARGETTED. THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT HAS DEMANDED THAT THE SNIPER, RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LATEST INCIDENT, BE IDENTIFIED AND PUNISHED. PRIME MINISTER EDOUARD BALLADUR HAS ALSO CALLED FOR AN URGENT MEETING OF THE COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDE PEACE-KEEPERS IN BOSNIA TO APPROVE ALL NECESSARY MEASURES TO PROTECT THEIR SOLDIERS. AT THE SAME TIME, FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE CRITICIZED THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, FOR NOT COOPERATING WITH THE MAJOR POWER'S EFFORTS TO END THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. MEANWHILE, AN ELDERLY MAN HAS DIED DURING A RENEWED SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. HE COLLAPSED AND DIED FROM EXHAUSTION AFTER BEING FORCED TO WALK SEVEN KILOMETERS FROM HIS HOME TOWARD GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY. THE MAN WAS AMONG ABOUT 100 NON-SERBS UPROOTED FROM THE BIJELJINA AREA DURING THE PAST FEW DAYS. THE SERBS HAVE EXPELLED THOUSANDS OF MUSLIMS AND ETHNIC CROATS FROM THE REGION SINCE THE WAR IN BOSNIA BEGAN. SERB SOLDIERS ARE ALSO CONTINUING TO HARRASS AND RESTRICT U-N OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA. BUT, THE UNITED NATIONS IS NOW REACTING MORE STRONGLY. U-N FUEL SUPPLIES TO THE SERBS HAVE BEEN SUSPENDED. THIS IS IN RETALIATION FOR THE THEFT BY SERB SOLDIERS OF ABOUT SEVEN THOUSAND DOLLARS IN GERMAN MARKS FROM A U-N CONVOY. THE HEAVIEST FIGHTING IN BOSNIA IS REPORTED IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN THE NORTHWEST. SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL FORCES THERE HAVE LAUNCHED WHAT SARAJEVO RADIO CALLS FIERCE ATTACKS ON GOVERNMENT POSITIONS NEAR THE TOWN OF VELIKA KLADUSA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/CF 14-Apr-95 2:35 PM EDT (1835 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2372 total bytes, 2372 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/14/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177056 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: ANOTHER UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPER HAS BEEN KILLED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND AN ELDERLY MAN HAS DIED DURING A RENEWED SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN THERE. TENSION HAS ALSO INCREASED IN NEIGHBORING CROATIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: A SNIPER SERIOUSLY WOUNDED A FRENCH PEACEKEEPER WHO WAS STANDING IN THE TURRET OF A UNITED NATIONS TANK NEAR THE FRONTLINES BETWEEN BOSNIAN ARMY AND SERB FORCES. THE FRENCH SOLDIER DIED LATER IN A HOSPITAL. HE WAS THE 57TH U-N SOLDIER TO BE KILLED AS A RESULT OF COMBAT-RELATED ACTIVITIES DURING THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE U-N COMMAND IN SARAJEVO COULD NOT IMMEDIATELY CONFIRM WHICH OF THE WARRING FORCES WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS DEATH. BUT, THE SNIPING ATTACK ON THE FRENCH PEACEKEEPER FOLLOWED AN EXCHANGE OF GUNFIRE BETWEEN SERB AND FRENCH SOLDIERS AT A U-N OBSERVATION POST. IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA, AN ELDERLY MAN HAS DIED DURING A RENEWED SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN. HE COLLAPSED AND DIED FROM EXHAUSTION AFTER BEING FORCED TO WALK SEVEN KILOMETERS TOWARD GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY. THE MAN WAS AMONG ABOUT 100 NON-SERBS UPROOTED FROM THE BIJELJINA AREA OVER THE PAST FEW DAYS. THOUSANDS OF NON-SERBS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FROM THE REGION DURING THE WAR IN BOSNIA. ONLY ABOUT TWO THOUSAND ARE BELIEVED TO REMAIN THERE. THE SERBS HAVE CONTINUED TO EXPEL MUSLIMS AND ETHNIC CROATS FROM SERB-CONTROLLED REGIONS, DESPITE REPEATED INTERNATIONAL PROTESTS OVER THE BRUTAL ETHNIC CLEANSING POLICY. SERB SOLDIERS ARE ALSO CONTINUING TO HARRASS AND RESTRICT U-N HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA. BUT, THE UNITED NATIONS IS BEGINNING TO REACT TO THIS WITH MORE THAN ROUTINE PROTESTS. U-N FUEL SUPPLIES TO THE SERBS HAVE BEEN SUSPENDED BECAUSE THE SERBS STOLE ABOUT SEVEN THOUSAND DOLLARS IN GERMAN MARKS FROM A U-N CONVOY. THE HEAVIEST FIGHTING IN BOSNIA IS REPORTED IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN THE NORTHWEST. SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL FORCES THERE ARE ATTACKING BOSNIAN ARMY POSITIONS NEAR THE TOWN OF VELIKA KLADUSA. /// OPT /// U-N OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE SERBS AND MUSLIM REBELS HAVE PUSHED BACK GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN ONE AREA. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS GOVERNMENT FORCES HAVE FOUGHT OFF FIERCE GROUND AND SHELLING ATTACKS AND HAVE HELD THEIR POSITIONS. /// END OPT /// IN NEIGHBORING CROATIA, THE GOVERNMENT HAS WARNED IT WILL RESPOND WITH ALL AVAILABLE MEANS IF THE SERBS LAUNCH MORE ATTACKS IN VIOLATION OF THE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT. ON THURSDAY, THE DUBROVNIK AREA ON THE ADRIATIC COAST WAS SHELLED, PRESUMABLY FROM SERB POSITIONS IN NEARBY BOSNIA. ONE CIVILIAN WAS KILLED. REBEL SERB FORCES EARLIER FIRED A SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILE IN CROATIA, BUT NO CASUALTIES OR DAMAGE WERE REPORTED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/MMK 14-Apr-95 11:27 AM EDT (1527 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2977 total bytes, 2977 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/14/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177047 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A FRENCH PEACE-KEEPER HAS BEEN SHOT AND KILLED BY AN UNIDENTIFIED SNIPER IN SARAJEVO. AN ELDERLY CIVILIAN IS ALSO SAID TO HAVE DIED AS THE RESULT OF A RENEWED BOSNIAN-SERB ETHNIC-CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE FRENCH SOLDIER WAS HIT BY A SNIPER'S BULLET WHILE STANDING IN THE TURRET OF A TANK NEAR THE FRONTLINES BETWEEN BOSNIAN-ARMY AND SERB FORCES. HE DIED LATER IN A HOSPITAL. THE U-N COMMAND IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE PEACE-KEEPER WAS DELIBERATELY TARGETED. BUT, THE COMMAND COULD NOT IMMEDIATELY CONFIRM IF THE SNIPER WAS A SERB OR A BOSNIAN-ARMY SOLDIER. IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA, AN ELDERLY MAN IS SAID TO HAVE DIED AFTER HE AND NEARLY 90 OTHER CIVILIANS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES IN A SERB-HELD AREA. THE MAN IS SAID TO HAVE DIED FROM EXHAUSTION AFTER HE WAS FORCED TO WALK SEVEN-KILOMETERS. HE WAS AMONG THE THOUSANDS OF NON-SERB CIVILIANS AFFECTED BY A SERB ETHNIC-CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN THE TOWN OF BIJELJINA. MEANWHILE, HEAVY FIGHTING IS REPORTED CONTINUING BETWEEN BOSNIAN ARMY AND SERB FORCES IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/RAE 14-Apr-95 7:47 AM EDT (1147 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1428 total bytes, 1428 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/14/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177052 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) UPDATE BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: (EDITORS: NEW INFORMATION THROUGHOUT) INTRO: A FRENCH PEACE-KEEPER HAS BEEN SHOT AND KILLED BY AN SNIPER IN SARAJEVO, AND A SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN HAS CLAIMED THE LIFE OF AN ELDERLY MAN IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE FRENCH SOLDIER WAS HIT BY A SNIPER'S BULLET WHILE STANDING IN THE TURRET OF A UNITED NATIONS TANK NEAR FRONTLINES BETWEEN BOSNIAN ARMY AND SERB FORCES. IN ANOTHER SIGN OF TENSION BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE WARRING FORCES IN BOSNIA, U-N OFFICIALS HAVE SUSPENDED FUEL SUPPLIES TO THE SERBS. THE FUEL CUTOFF WAS ANNOUNCED AFTER THE SERBS ROBBED A U-N CONVOY OF ABOUT SEVEN THOUSAND DOLLARS IN GERMAN MARKS. IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA, AN ELDERLY MAN IS SAID TO HAVE DIED FROM EXHAUSTION AFTER HE AND ABOUT 100 OTHER NON-SERB CIVILIANS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES IN A SERB-HELD AREA. MEANWHILE, SERB AND MUSLIM REBEL FORCES ARE CONTINUING AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST BOSNIAN ARMY TROOPS IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF BIHAC IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. U-N OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE SERBS AND MUSLIM REBELS HAVE MADE SOME GAINS, BUT SARAJEVO RADIO DENIES IT. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/GPT 14-Apr-95 9:53 AM EDT (1353 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1420 total bytes, 1420 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE= APRIL 18, 1995 TYPE= EDITORIAL NUMBER= 0-06338 TITLE= ALBRIGHT ON HUMAN RIGHTS CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST APRIL 18, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. VOICE: THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYS TWO STRATEGIES TO ADVANCE THE CAUSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS THROUGH THE UNITED NATIONS. THE FIRST IS TO DEFEND THE PRINCIPLES ENSHRINED IN THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS; THE SECOND IS TO DEVELOP THE MEANS BY WHICH THOSE PRINCIPLES CAN BE APPLIED MORE BROADLY AROUND THE WORLD. A CASE IN POINT IS AMERICA'S SUPPORT FOR THE RIGHT OF WOMEN TO PARTICIPATE FULLY IN THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE OF THEIR COUNTRY. THE U.S. BELIEVES THAT WOMEN ARE ENTITLED TO EQUAL ACCESS TO SCHOOLS, JOBS AND THE POLITICAL PROCESS. AS THE U.S. AMBASSADOR TO THE U-N, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, SAID IN A RECENT SPEECH, THERE ARE APPALLING ABUSES BEING COMMITTED TODAY AGAINST WOMEN. THEY INCLUDE FORCED STERILIZATIONS AND ABORTIONS; CHILDREN SOLD INTO PROSTITUTION; DOWRY MURDER; AND OFFICIAL INDIFFERENCE TO VIOLENCE. SOME ARGUE THAT THESE ARE CULTURAL ISSUES ABOUT WHICH LITTLE CAN BE DONE. THE U.S. SAYS THESE ARE CRIMINAL PRACTICES AND IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENTS EVERYWHERE TO STOP THEM. THE SECOND PART OF THE U.S. STRATEGY IS TO BUILD MECHANISMS THAT WILL CONTRIBUTE ON A LONG-TERM BASIS TO RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. THE U.S. SUPPORTS STRONGLY THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. THE U.S. IS ALSO THE PRINCIPAL SUPPORTER OF THE U-N VOLUNTARY FUND TO AID THE VICTIMS OF TORTURE. IN ANOTHER CAPACITY, THE U-N IS HELPING NEW DEMOCRACIES TO DRAFT CONSTITUTIONS, IMPROVE JUDICIAL STRUCTURES, TRAIN HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIALS, AND TRANSFORM ARMED MOVEMENTS INTO POLITICAL PARTIES. THE FIGHT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS WILL NOT END SOON. BUT AS AMBASSADOR ALBRIGHT SAID, "LET US ALL KEEP FAITH THAT EACH CHILD SAVED, EACH REFUGEE HOUSED, EACH PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE FREED, EACH BARRIER TO JUSTICE BROUGHT DOWN WILL INSPIRE OTHERS AND EXPLODE OUTWARD THE BOUNDARIES OF WHAT IS ACHIEVABLE ON THIS EARTH." ANNCR: THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 17-Apr-95 2:17 PM EDT (1817 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2638 total bytes, 2638 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/17/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP (TTA) NUMBER=4-08261 TITLE=CARTER ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS BYLINE=NEAL LAVON TELEPHONE=619-0112 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // VOICER AND ACTUALITIES AVAILABLE IN S-O-D // INTRO: FORMER PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER DISCUSSED A WIDE RANGE OF FOREIGN POLICY PROBLEMS ON VOA'S INTERNATIONAL CALL-IN PROGRAM, "TALK TO AMERICA". MR. CARTER, WHO SERVED AS PRESIDENT FROM 1977-1981, HAS REMAINED ACTIVE IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS ON BEHALF OF THE CARTER CENTER, LOCATED IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA. USING THE BANNER OF THE CENTER, HE HAS BROUGHT HIS UNIQUE BRAND OF PERSONAL DIPLOMACY TO THE GLOBE'S MOST THORNY ISSUES. VOA'S TOM MAHONEY REPORTS ON PRESIDENT CARTER'S COMMENTS AND INSIGHTS ON FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES CURRENTLY FACING THE UNITED STATES. ANNCR: PRESIDENT CARTER HAS UNDERTAKEN SEVERAL DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVES UPON LEAVING OFFICE. LAST JUNE, THE FORMER CHIEF EXECUTIVE HELPED BROKER AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND PYONGYANG THAT CREATED A CONSORTIUM TO FINANCE CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY REACTORS IN NORTH KOREA. BUT PYONGYANG'S INSISTENCE THAT SOUTH KOREAN REACTORS BE EXCLUDED FROM THAT CONSORTIUM THREATENS THE ENTIRE PROJECT. SPEAKING FROM ATLANTA, PRESIDENT CARTER SAID NORTH KOREA DOES NOT WISH TO BE SEEN AS INFERIOR TO SOUTH KOREA, AND HE HOPES THAT THIS ISSUE CAN BE RESOLVED BEFORE A LOOMING DEADLINE AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. TAPE: CARTER, CUT 1, :21 "I HOPE THAN WE CAN FINESSE THIS ISSUE PAST THE 21ST OF THIS MONTH, WHEN THERE IS A DEADLINE, KIND OF, AND GO ON TO OTHER MATTERS AND THEN JUST LET THE LIGHT-WATER REACTORS ISSUE BREW FOR AWHILE UNTIL THIS CAN BE WORKED OUT. THE NEXT AND MOST IMPORTANT STEP, OBVIOUSLY, IS DIRECT TALKS BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH KOREA." ANNCR: ANOTHER REGION IN WHICH PRESIDENT CARTER BECAME DEEPLY INVOLVED WAS THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE HELPED TO ARRANGE A CEASEFIRE LAST DECEMBER BETWEEN THE WARRING FACTIONS, BUT THE ACCORD COLLAPSED AND FIGHTING BROKE OUT AGAIN. MR. CARTER SAID HE WOULD RETURN TO THE REGION IF ALL SIDES REQ UESTED HIS PRESENCE AS A PEACEMAKER. TAPE: CUT 2, CARTER :25 "WE HAVE OFFERED TO COME BACK AND MEET WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND TO MEET WITH THE GOVERNMENT IN SARAJEVO TO EXPLORE SOME NEW IDEAS IN AN UNOFFICIAL WAY. BUT WE HAVEN'T HAD A FAVORABLE REACTION FROM BOTH SIDES. AND UNTIL THAT HAPPENS, AND UNTIL WE GET FULL APPROVAL FROM THE U-S GOVERNMENT, WE COULD NOT GO BACK INTO THE BOSNIA AREA." ANNCR: ONE OF PRESIDENT CARTER'S LESS-PUBLICIZED TRIUMPHS WAS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A STAND-DOWN OF THE FIGHTING IN SUDAN. IT WAS A DIFFICULT NEGOTIATION, MR. CARTER POINTED OUT, BECAUSE SUDAN'S GOVERNMENT WAS RELUCTANT TO HALT MOVING ITS ARTILLERY AND JEEPS OVER DRY ROADS WHICH SOON WILL BECOME IMPASSABLE WITH THE ADVANCE OF JUNE'S TRADITIONAL RAINY SEASON IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE NATION. BUT THE FORMER PRESIDENT BELIEVES THE CEASEFIRE WILL HOLD BECAUSE BOTH SIDES NEED THE HUMANITARIAN AID OF THE UNITED STATES. TAPE: CARTER, CUT 3, :36 "I THINK THE CEASE-FIRE IS LIKELY TO HOLD BECAUSE BOTH SIDES HAVE AN ADVANTAGE HERE. THEY NEED THE HUMANITARIAN SERVICES THAT WE ARE PROVIDING, ALONG WITH MANY OTHERS. THE GOVERNOR IN KHARTOUM ANNOUNCED A CEASEFIRE ON MIDNIGHT OF THE 28TH OF LAST MONTH, AND SO FAR IT HAS HELD AFTER A FEW MINOR SKIRMISHES. THE REVOLUTIONARIES IN THE SOUTH, THE HEADS OF SPLA AND SSIM SHORTLY THEREAFTER, ANNOUNCED A CEASEFIRE. THERE HAVE BEEN SOME MINOR VIOLATIONS, BUT SO FAR, THEY ARE HOLDING." ANNCR: FORMER PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER SPEAKING ABOUT SOME OF HIS DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITIES ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA'S INTERNATIONAL CALL-IN PROGRAM, "TALK TO AMERICA". NEB/NL/PCH 17-Apr-95 1:22 PM EDT (1722 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4447 total bytes, 4447 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=04-18-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17105 TITLE=SCIENCE IN THE NEWS #1809 - EARTH DAY BYLINE=JERI WATSON TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=OLIVER CHANLER CONTENT= (THEME) VOICE ONE: THIS IS ________. VOICE TWO: AND THIS IS ________ , WITH SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, A V-O-A SPECIAL ENGLISH PROGRAM ABOUT RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE. (THEME) VOICE ONE: THIS SATURDAY, MILLIONS OF AMERICANS AND PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD WILL OBSERVE THE TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF EARTH DAY. ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, GROUPS WILL LISTEN TO SPEECHES AND DEMONSTRATE TO SHOW THEIR SUPPORT FOR PROTECTING THE EARTH'S ENVIRONMENT. SINCE THE FIRST EARTH DAY ON APRIL TWENTY-SECOND, NINETEEN-SEVENTY, MUCH HAS BEEN DONE TO HALT ACTIONS THAT POLLUTE THE AIR, WATER AND LAND. LAWMAKERS HAVE PASSED LAWS TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT. SOME OF THESE LAWS FORCE INDUSTRIES, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS TO LIMIT THE RELEASE OF WASTE MATERIALS INTO THE AIR AND WATER. SOME OF THESE LAWS ARE DESIGNED TO PROTECT WILDLIFE AND PREVENT MANY KINDS OF ANIMALS FROM DISAPPEARING FOREVER. SOME OF THESE LAWS LIMIT THE KINDS OF CHEMICALS USED IN AGRICULTURE. VOICE TWO: IN THE TWENTY-FIVE YEARS SINCE THE FIRST EARTH DAY, THERE HAVE BEEN MANY DISPUTES ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT. SOME PEOPLE SAY TOO MUCH MONEY IS BEING SPENT, WITH LITTLE EFFECT. OTHERS SAY NOT ENOUGH IS BEING DONE TO HALT THE DESTRUCTIVE ACTIVITIES OF HUMANS. STILL OTHERS SAY THAT ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS LIMIT FREEDOM AND VIOLATE THE RIGHTS OF PROPERTY OWNERS. THESE ARGUMENTS ARE PART OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DEBATES ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT. AND THESE CONTINUING DEBATES REALLY BEGAN ON EARTH DAY, TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO. DURING THE NINETEEN-SIXTIES, MANY SCIENTISTS AND OTHER EXPERTS BEGAN WARNING ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT. THEY SAID THAT THE EARTH IN THE FUTURE MIGHT BE VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE PLANET WE HAVE KNOWN. VOICE ONE: THEY SAID THAT FARMING, MINING AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES HAD CREATED CONDITIONS THAT THREATEN THE WORLD'S FUTURE. THEY SAID THAT OCEANS WERE DIRTY. THEY SAID MANY LAKES AND RIVERS WERE POLLUTED WITH WASTE MATERIALS AND HARMFUL CHEMICALS. THESE MATERIALS AND SUBSTANCES WERE KILLING WILDLIFE. THEY SAID THE AIR MIGHT BE EXTREMELY HARMFUL AND DIRTY -- EVEN POISONOUS. IT WAS NOT CLEAR HOW MANY PEOPLE HEARD THESE WARNINGS, OR BELIEVED THAT THEIR WORLD MAY BE IN DANGER. THE FIRST EARTH DAY PROVIDED MANY MILLIONS OF AMERICANS WITH A CHANCE TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THEY DID UNDERSTAND, AND TO SHOW THEIR DEEP CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. ((MUSIC BRIDGE)) VOICE TWO: THE MAN MOST RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FIRST EARTH DAY WAS SENATOR GAYLORD NELSON, FROM THE STATE OF WISCONSIN. SENATOR NELSON BELIEVED MOST AMERICANS DID NOT CONSIDER THE ENVIRONMENT AN IMPORTANT ISSUE. HE DECIDED IT WAS NECESSARY TO EDUCATE AMERICANS ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT. HE WANTED AMERICANS TO KNOW THAT POLLUTION WAS A THREAT TO ALL LIVING THINGS, INCLUDING HUMANS. SO, SENATOR NELSON AND A GROUP OF ACTIVISTS DECIDED TO ORGANIZE A NATIONWIDE DEMONSTRATION TO EDUCATE AMERICANS ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT. VOICE ONE: THE DEMONSTRATION WAS EARTH DAY. IT WAS THE LARGEST PUBLIC DEMONSTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO. TWENTY-MILLION AMERICANS DEMONSTRATED IN CITIES AND TOWNS ACROSS THE COUNTRY. NATIONAL AND LOCAL POLITICIANS GAVE SPEECHES AND ATTENDED LOCAL DEMONSTRATIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT. NEW YORK'S GOVERNOR SIGNED A MEASURE CALLING FOR ACTION TO IMPROVE AIR AND WATER. STILL, THERE WAS CRITICISM. SOME PEOPLE SAID THE EARTH DAY DEMONSTRATION WAS A COMMUNIST PLOT. OTHERS SAID THE ENVIRONMENT COULD TAKE CARE OF ITSELF. THESE ARGUMENTS AND OTHERS, HOWEVER, BECAME LOST IN THE EVENTS THAT FOLLOWED THE FIRST EARTH DAY. VOICE TWO: WITHIN A FEW MONTHS, CONGRESS APPROVED NEW LEGISLATION CALLED THE CLEAN AIR ACT. THAT WAS FOLLOWED BY A NUMBER OF OTHER MEASURES TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT. THEY INCLUDED THE CLEAN WATER ACT, A MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT, AN ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT, A SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT, AND A TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT. SENATOR NELSON'S CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT IS NOW PART OF EVERY AMERICAN'S LIFE. THERE ARE LASTING EFFECTS IN THE AIR WE BREATHE, THE WATER WE DRINK AND THE FOOD WE EAT. VOICE ONE: MANY SUPPORTERS OF EFFORTS TO IMPROVE AND PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT FEARED EARTH DAY WOULD LOSE POPULARITY AFTER ITS EARLY SUCCESS. HOWEVER, EACH EARTH DAY THAT FOLLOWED SEEMED TO GATHER MORE SUPPORT. SOON, LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE IN OTHER COUNTRIES ALSO WERE WORKING ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS IN CONNECTION WITH EARTH DAY. VOICE TWO: SINCE THE FIRST EARTH DAY, A NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES HAVE BEEN HELD ON THE ENVIRONMENT. IN NINETEEN NINETY-TWO, WORLD LEADERS MET IN RIO DE JANEIRO TO ESTABLISH GOALS FOR REDUCING THE RELEASE OF HARMFUL CHEMICALS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. EARLIER THIS MONTH, DELEGATES FROM ABOUT ONE-HUNDRED-TWENTY COUNTRIES MET FOR ELEVEN DAYS IN BERLIN TO DISCUSS THOSE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFORTS. SUCH CONFERENCES ARE BELIEVED TO BE DIRECT RESULTS OF EARTH DAY ACTIVITIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS. VOICE ONE: NINETEEN-NINETY WAS THE TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF EARTH DAY. THAT YEAR, MANY THOUSANDS OF FRENCH CITIZENS OBSERVED THE ANNIVERSARY BY LINKING ARMS ACROSS THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS OF FRANCE. IN ITALY, FIVE-THOUSAND PEOPLE LAY ON THE GROUND TO PROTEST ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY AUTOMOBILES. IN JAPAN, SWIMMERS REMOVED WASTE MATERIALS FROM THE SEAS. IN NEPAL, PEOPLE CLIMBED MOUNT EVEREST TO GATHER WASTE MATERIAL LEFT THERE BY EARLIER CLIMBERS. VOICE TWO: THIS YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES, PEOPLE FROM COAST TO COAST WILL TAKE PART IN MANY EARTH DAY PROGRAMS. IN LOS ANGELES THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WILL GATHER WASTE MATERIALS THROWN AWAY BY OTHERS. THEY WILL SEARCH BEACHES, RIVERS, ROADS AND OTHER PUBLIC PLACES FOR MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AGAIN, OR RECYCLED. RECYCLING INVOLVES TREATING MATERIALS SUCH AS PAPER, BOTTLES AND PRODUCTS MADE OF PLASTIC TO BE USED AGAIN. VOICE ONE: CITIZENS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN STATE OF FLORIDA WILL PLANT SEEDS AND SMALL TREES. THE CITY OF NEW YORK IS PLANNING A PARADE FOR THE PLANET. REPRESENTATIVES OF MANY FOREIGN NATIONS WILL ATTEND A CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK. THEY WILL DISCUSS ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND LINKS BETWEEN THE TWO. MANY OTHER NATIONS WILL OBSERVE EARTH DAY. PEOPLE ARE EXPECTED TO PLANT TREES AS WELL AS TAKE PART IN CLEAN-UP AND RECYCLING PROGRAMS. COUNTRIES PLANNING EARTH DAY PROGRAMS INCLUDE BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, BANGLADESH, CANADA, CROATIA, CHINA JAPAN, ROMANIA, THE PHILIPPINES, RUSSIA AND CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES. ((MUSIC BRIDGE)) VOICE TWO: AMONG THE MANY LIVES CHANGED BY THE FIRST EARTH DAY WAS THAT OF CHARLES DEVENEY (DUH-VEN'-EE). IN NINETEEN-SEVENTY, MISTER DEVENEY WAS A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT IN FLORIDA. HE BECAME DEEPLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT. AS THE YEARS PASSED, HIS INTEREST IN THE ENVIRONMENT INCREASED. IN NINETEEN-EIGHTY-SEVEN, MISTER DEVENEY WAS DRIVING TO HIS TEACHING JOB AT CORAL SPRINGS HIGH SCHOOL IN FLORIDA. AS HE DROVE, HE SAW MACHINES BELONGING TO LAND DEVELOPERS DESTROYING A LARGE NUMBER OF TREES. VOICE ONE: MISTER DEVENEY SHARED HIS ANGER ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION WITH HIS STUDENTS. HE SAYS, "I TOLD THEM OF WHAT I HAD SEEN AS A CHILD AND AS A YOUNG MAN. I TOLD THEM OF HOW I ONCE COULD LOOK FROM BRIDGES AND SEE CLEAR WATER AND MANY FISH. I SPOKE OF WALKING IN THE FORESTS AND SEEING WILD ANIMALS." THEN HE TALKED ABOUT THE EMPTY LAND, AND FORESTS THAT NOW ARE GONE. MISTER DEVENEY'S STUDENTS DECIDED TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT THEIR TEACHER WAS SAYING. THEY FORMED AN ORGANIZATION CALLED "SAVE WHAT'S LEFT". VOICE TWO: THE STUDENTS SUCCEEDED IN STOPPING THE CLEARING OF ONE-HUNDRED-FIFTY-SIX HECTARES OF LAND NEAR THE SCHOOL. THE STUDENTS ATTENDED PUBLIC MEETINGS ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE DONE WITH THE LAND. THEY ASKED THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE TO SIGN A STATEMENT URGING THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT TO MAKE THE LAND A PARK. MISTER DEVENEY SAYS THAT CAMPAIGN TOOK SEVERAL YEARS OF HARD WORK. VOICE ONE: NOW, THE TREES ON THE ONE-HUNDRED-FIFTY-SIX HECTARES WILL STAY THERE -- PROTECTED FOR FUTURE CITIZENS OF THE PLANET EARTH. "SAVE WHAT'S LEFT" HAS GROWN FROM THE ONE GROUP OF MISTER DEVENEY'S STUDENTS TO MORE THAN EIGHT-HUNDRED ORGANIZATIONS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES. EARTH DAY IS A DAY FOR THEM TO CELEBRATE THE WORK THEY HAVE DONE. AND IT IS A DAY FOR THEM, AND THE REST OF US, TO CONSIDER HOW TO DO MORE TO PROTECT OUR HOME, THE EARTH. ((THEME)) VOICE TWO: TODAY'S SCIENCE IN THE NEWS WAS WRITTEN BY JERI WATSON. THIS IS ____________. VOICE ONE: AND THIS IS ___________. JOIN US AGAIN NEXT WEEK AT THIS SAME TIME FOR MORE NEWS ABOUT SCIENCE, IN SPECIAL ENGLISH, ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA. (THEME) 17-Apr-95 3:27 PM EDT (1927 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 8973 total bytes, 8973 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/17/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177129 TITLE=FRANCE/BOSNIA ( L ONLY) BYLINE=JULIAN NUNDY DATELINE=PARIS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT IS HOLDING URGENT DISCUSSIONS WHICH COULD LEAD TO NEW CALLS TO WITHDRAW FRANCE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE UNITED NATIONS FORCE IN BOSNIA. THIS IS IN REACTION TO THE DEATHS OF TWO FRENCH SOLDIERS IN SARAJEVO DURING THE WEEKEND. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS. TEXT: ONE OF THE KILLINGS WAS ACTUALLY FILMED BY A TELEVISION CREW AND SHOWN ON FRANCE'S MAIN EVENINGS NEWS PROGRAMS. A SOLDIER IN A VEHICLE WAS TRANSPORTING A CONTAINER WHICH HE WANTED TO USE TO SCREEN OFF PART OF THE FAMOUS "SNIPER'S ALLEY" IN SARAJEVO. SUDDENLY HE TOOK A DIRECT HIT TO THE CHEST. THE BULLET PIERCED HIS ARMORED VEST AND THE SOLDIER FELL FROM THE CAB. ON THE GROUND, ANOTHER BULLET STRUCK HIM. WITH FOUR THOUSAND 500 MEN IN THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE, FRANCE HAS MORE SOLDIERS IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY. THE DEATHS OF THE TWO SOLDIERS WERE DESCRIBED BY FRANCOIS LEOTARD, THE DEFENSE MINISTER, AS "MURDERS". THEY GAVE RISE TO NEW SPECULATION THAT FRANCE MIGHT WITHDRAW ITS TROOPS FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. WITH THE FRENCH PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION STARTING NEXT SUNDAY, THE ISSUE HAS GIVEN EDOUARD BALLADUR, THE PRIME MINISTER AND ONE OF THE TWO GAULLIST CANDIDATES FOR THE PRESIDENCY, AN UNWANTED FOREIGN POLICY CRISIS. LIONEL JOSPIN, THE SOCIALIST CANDIDATE, CALLED ON THE GOVERNMENT TO TAKE ALL POSSIBLE MEASURES TO PROTECT FRENCH SOLDIERS IN BOSNIA. BUT HE WARNED THAT IT WAS IMPORTANT NOT TO TAKE A HASTY DECISION WHICH COULD CHANGE FRENCH POLICY JUST BECAUSE OF THE ELECTIONS. JACQUES CHIRAC, THE OTHER GAULLIST CANDIDATE AND THE MAN MOST LIKELY TO BE ELECTED PRESIDENT, CALLED ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO TAKE ACTION AGAINST THE KILLERS. ACCORDING TO THE FRENCH DEFENSE MINISTRY, ONE SOLDIER WAS KILLED BY A BOSNIAN MUSLIM GUNMAN, THE OTHER BY A SERB. JACQUES LANXADE, THE CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE FRENCH ARMED FORCES, SAID FRANCE DID NOT WANT TO WITHDRAW FROM BOSNIA BUT WOULD DO SO IF THE SITUATION DETERIORATED FURTHER. MR. BALLADUR REACTED BY SCHEDULING AN EMERGENCY CABINET MEETING WITH HIS DEFENSE AND FOREIGN MINISTERS. IN ADDITION, HE HAS ASKED FOR ALL THE 37 COUNTRIES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TROOPS TO THE U-N FORCE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA TO MEET TO DISCUSS THE CONTINUATION OF THEIR MISSION. HE ALSO SAID HE WOULD ASK THE EUROPEAN UNION AND NATO TO TAKE DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVES TO PERSUADE THE WARRING SIDES AROUND SARAJEVO TO EXTEND THE CEASE-FIRE THAT THEY DECLARED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE YEAR. AT THE MOMENT, THE TRUCE IS DUE TO EXPIRE AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. (SIGNED) NEB/JN/MH/CF 17-Apr-95 7:56 AM EDT (1156 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2788 total bytes, 2788 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/17/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP NUMBER=4-08260 TITLE=GEORGE SOROS ON THE POST-COMMUNIST ERA BYLINE=LEOS ROUSEK DATELINE=NEW YORK EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // ACTUALITIES AVAILABLE FROM S-O-D // INTRO: GEORGE SOROS, THE AMERICAN FINANCIER AND PHILANTHROPIST, SPOKE RECENTLY TO A GROUP OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND PROFESSORS ABOUT, WHAT HE CALLED, THE "PERILS OF THE POST-COMMUNIST ERA." MR. SOROS HAS PUT HIS MONEY AND VISION INTO BUILDING A NETWORK OF FOUNDATIONS AIMED AT ESTABLISHING OR RESTORING OPEN SOCIETIES IN FORMER EAST-BLOC COUNTRIES IN EUROPE, AS WELL AS BURMA AND SOUTH AFRICA. VOA'S LEOS ROUSEK REPORTS FROM NEW YORK. TEXT: BILLIONAIRE FINANCIER GEORGE SOROS SAYS IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS THE WEST HAS SHOWN A LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO GUARD THE VALUES OF AN OPEN SOCIETY -- A SOCIETY IN WHICH NO CENTRAL POWER HAS AUTHORITY OVER ALL ASPECTS OF LIFE. MR. SOROS SAYS DESPITE THE CURRENT TREND IN THE WEST TO DIMINISH THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN PEOPLE'S LIVES, DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS STILL MUST PLAY A ROLE IN PROTECTING THE IDEA OF AN OPEN SOCIETY. IN A SPEECH TO A CONFERENCE AT BARD COLLEGE NEAR NEW YORK CITY, MR. SOROS OFFERED SEVERAL IDEAS ON HOW TO DEAL WITH THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD. MR. SOROS SAID THAT THE IDEA OF AN OPEN SOCIETY HELPED BRING THE DEMISE OF THE CLOSED, TOTALITARIAN SYSTEM THAT RULED THE FORMER SOVIET EMPIRE. HOWEVER, HE SAID WHAT REPLACED THAT SYSTEM VARIES THROUGHOUT EASTERN EUROPE. TAPE: CUT # 1 - SOROS "ONE HAS TO DISTINGUISH, OF COURSE, BETWEEN CENTRAL EUROPE, POLAND, HUNGARY, CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVENIA, BALTIC STATES, WHERE IT'S (AN OPEN SOCIETY) MORE OR LESS (PREVAILING), FROM THE FORMER SOVIET UNION WHERE YOU'RE VERY, VERY FAR AWAY FROM IT. AND IN FACT, THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, EXCLUDING NOW THE BALTIC STATES, YOU HAD A PROCESS WHERE THE OLD SYSTEM WAS DISINTEGRATING WITHOUT A NEW SYSTEM TAKING ITS PLACE. AS OPPOSED TO THE CENTRAL EUROPE WHERE IMMEDIATELY THE COMMUNISM WAS GONE, PEOPLE WHERE EITHER LOOKING TO EUROPE, LOOKING TO THE FUTURE OR AT LEAST THEY COULD LOOK TO THE PAST AND GO BACK TO THE SYSTEM THAT PREVAILED PREVIOUSLY. TEXT: ON RUSSIA, MR. SOROS SAID THAT HE HAD ORIGINALLY FORESEEN IT BECOMING A SORT OF BLACK HOLE, AFFLICTED WITH EVER WORSENING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DETERIORATION. BUT LAST YEAR A NEW SOCIAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM BEGAN EMERGING. UNFORTUNATELY, HE SAID, IT WAS A SYSTEM DOMINATED BY "ROBBER CAPITALISM", AS HE CALLS IT -- NOT QUITE WHAT RUSSIA NEEDS. TAPE: CUT # 2 - SOROS "IT WAS BROUGHT ABOUT BY A VERY RAPID PRIVATIZATION WHERE THE ASSETS OF THE STATE WERE DISTRIBUTED TO THE PEOPLE AT PRACTICALLY NO COST. THERE WERE AT LEAST POTENTIALLY VALUABLE ASSETS THERE, LIKE OIL AND RAW MATERIALS. SO PEOPLE STARTED GRABBING; SOME CLEVER PEOPLE STARTED GRABBING THOSE ASSETS." TEXT: GEORGE SOROS IS SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE FUTURE STABILIZATION OF THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM IN RUSSIA. AS HE SEES IT, THE CURRENT FOCUS OF RUSSIA'S REFORM EFFORTS IS -- "WHO WILL GRAB THE STATE"; IN HIS WORDS, "THE EVERYBODY-GRABS-EVERYTHING PRIVATIZATION" FEEDS LAWLESSNESS AND IMMORALITY IN THE SOCIETY AT LARGE. THE HUNGARIAN-BORN PHILANTHROPIST SEES TWO POWER GROUPS WHICH COULD BENEFIT FROM THE DEVELOPMENT OF SO-CALLED ROBBER CAPITALISM. ONE IS THE RESOURCE INDUSTRY AND THE OTHER THE MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX. MR. SOROS TOLD THE GATHERING OF SEVERAL HUNDRED STUDENTS AND PROFESSORS IT IS TIME FOR WORLD LEADERS TO RETHINK THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD ORDER. HE SAID THE WEST HAS SQUANDERED SEVERAL OPPORTUNITIES TO ESTABLISH A FUNCTIONING NEW INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. HE CITED THE CIVIL WAR IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AS ONE SUCH MISSED CHANCE. [OPT] MR. SOROS VOICED PARTICULAR CRITICISM OF THE BOSNIA POLICIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. HE SAID THAT BRITAIN, ACTING AS EUROPEAN UNION CHAIRMAN IN 1992 WHEN THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA ERUPTED, PUSHED FOR SENDING UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING FORCES TO THE REGION WHERE THERE WAS NO PEACE TO KEEP. TAPE: CUT #3 - SOROS "IT DISCREDITED THE UNITED NATIONS. IT HAS DISCREDITED THE WESTERN POWERS AND AS A SIDE EFFECT IT ALSO GREATLY DAMAGED NATO. BECAUSE UNTIL ITS INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIA IT HAD BEEN A SOURCE OF UNTESTED AND THEREFORE IMPRESSIVE STRENGTHS. BUT AFTER BOSNIA, NATO IS NOT QUITE WHAT IT WAS BEFORE. SO YOU HAVE NOW A SITUATION WITH NO INTERNATIONAL ORDER AND THEREFORE YOU HAVE THE PROSPECT OF INCREASING INTERNATIONAL DISORDER." TEXT: ASKED WHAT COULD BE DONE ABOUT THE WAR IN THE BALKANS NOW, MR. SOROS SAID IT IS DIFFICULT TO DO ANYTHING. THE BILLIONAIRE PHILANTHROPIST NOTED HIS ORGANIZATION'S AID EFFORTS AIMED AT PREVENTING THE CONFLICT FROM SPREADING INTO MACEDONIA, THE SOUTHERNMOST REPUBLIC OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, BORDERING GREECE. SHOULD FIGHTING ERUPT THERE, HE ADDED, THE SECURITY INTERESTS OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION COULD BE DIRECTLY ENDANGERED. GEORGE SOROS SAID MAYBE THE TIME HAS COME TO CHANGE THE ROLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO TO MAKE THEM PILLARS OF A FUNCTIONING INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM. HE SUGGESTED THAT THE UNITED NATIONS MIGHT BE DIVIDED UP INTO SEVERAL INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATIONS. (SIGNED) NY/LR/ES/PCH 17-Apr-95 12:42 PM EDT (1642 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6101 total bytes, 6101 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177177 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER / BOSNIA (L) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=NEW YORK CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS EXPRESSING OUTRAGE AT THE UNITED NATIONS' REFUSAL TO FLY THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO BOSNIA OUT OF SARAJEVO. AS V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NEW YORK, THE ACTION WAS TAKEN BECAUSE THE BOSNIAN SERBS' COULD NOT GUARANTEE THE AMBASSADOR'S SECURITY. TEXT: THIS WAS THE FIRST TIME IN THREE YEARS THAT AN IMPORTANT OFFICIAL HAS BEEN REFUSED PERMISSION TO BOARD A UNITED NATIONS FLIGHT OUT OF SARAJEVO. U-S AMBASSADOR VICTOR JACKOVICH WAS LEAVING HIS JOB MONDAY WHEN THE BOSNIAN SERBS TOLD THE UNITED NATIONS THEY COULD NOT GUARANTEE THE SECURITY OF THE FLIGHT. AMBASSADOR JACKOVICH WAS THEN FORCED TO TAKE AN ARMORED CAR AROUND MOUNT IGMAN UNDER THE GUNS OF SERBIAN SNIPERS TO LEAVE THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL. HE IS RETURNING TO WASHINGTON FOR PREPARATION FOR HIS NEXT ASSIGNMENT AS AMBASSADOR TO SLOVENIA. SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER REACTED TO THE AMBASSADOR'S PREDICAMENT WITH OUTRAGE. /// CHRISTOPHER ACT /// FROM WHAT I KNOW OF THAT EVENT YESTERDAY IT WAS UNJUSTIFIED AND OUTRAGEOUS. THAT'S A VERY DANGEROUS PLACE FOR AMERICANS TO SERVE. WE'VE HAD AN EMBASSY THERE BECAUSE WE THOUGHT IT SERVED AN IMPORTANT PURPOSE. I DON'T SEE ANY BASIS FOR ADDING TO THE RISKS AND DANGERS FOR AMERICANS. BASED ON THE FACTS AS I KNOW THEM NOW I'M GOING TO HAVE SOMETHING TO SAY TO THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS ABOUT THEIR DECISION. /// END ACT /// THE UNITED NATIONS IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE SOVEREIGNTY OVER SARAJEVO AIRPORT. BUT THE SERBS HAVE RECENTLY DEMANDED CONTROL OVER WHO BOARDS U-N FLIGHTS AS THE PRICE FOR NOT SHOOTING AT THE AIRPLANES. A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL PROTEST TO THE UNITED NATIONS ABOUT ACCEDING TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS' DEMANDS AND PUTTING THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO BOSNIA AT RISK. AMBASSADOR JACKOVICH HAS BEEN A STRONG SUPPORTER OF THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. THE U-S OFFICIAL SAYS THE UNITED STATES WANTS TO KNOW WHY THE UNITED NATIONS TOOK THE WORD OF A LOW-LEVEL BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIAL IN REFUSING PERMISSION TO AMBASSADOR JACKOVICH TO BOARD THE FLIGHT AT SARAJEVO AIRPORT. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER DISCUSSED EVENTS IN BOSNIA WITH FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND GERMANY HERE IN NEW YORK. THE FRENCH ARE UPSET AT THE KILLING OF TWO FRENCH PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA AND ARE CONSIDERING PLANS TO REMOVE THEIR U-N CONTINGENT. AMERICAN OFFICIALS ARE ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT THE DETERIORATING SITUATION IN BOSNIA AND THE APPARENT REFUSAL OF SERBIA TO CONSIDER THE PLAN OF THE BOSNIA CONTACT GROUP FOR MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF ALL FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS. THE WESTERN MINISTERS ARE LOOKING AT DIFFERENT WAYS TO GET THE FIVE-NATION CONTACT GROUP AGAIN INVOLVED IN STOPPING THE BOSNIAN WAR. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/LTJ/JWH 18-Apr-95 12:44 PM EDT (1644 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3088 total bytes, 3088 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177175 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER-BOSNIA (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=NEW YORK CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER IS EXPRESSING OUTRAGE AT THE REFUSAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS TO FLY THE U-S AMBASSADOR FOR BOSNIA OUT OF SARAJEVO. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM NEW YORK. TEXT: THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO BOSNIA, VICTOR JACKOVICH, WAS DENIED PERMISSION TO TAKE A UNITED NATIONS FLIGHT OUT OF SARAJEVO BECAUSE THE BOSNIAN SERBS WOULD NOT GUARANTEE HIS SECURITY. INSTEAD, THE AMBASSADOR WAS FORCED TO LEAVE BY ROAD, UNDER THE GUNS OF SERBIAN SNIPERS ON MOUNT IGMAN, AS HE DEPARTED HIS POST. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER TOLD REPORTERS HERE IN NEW YORK, HE IS OUTRAGED BY THE ACTIONS OF THE SERBS AND THE UNITED NATIONS. ///CHRISTOPHER ACT/// BASED ON WHAT I KNOW OF THAT ACT, I THOUGHT IT WAS AN OUTRAGEOUS ACT BY THE SERBS. I'M GOING TO BE DISCUSSING THAT WITH MY COLLEAGUES, AS WELL AS WITH THE UNITED NATIONS. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF TRAGIC AND OUTRAGEOUS EVENTS THERE -- AS I MENTIONED, THE DEATHS OF THE TWO FRENCH PEACEKEEPERS -- BUT FROM WHAT I KNOW OF THAT EVENT YESTERDAY, IT WAS UNJUSTIFIED AND OUTRAGEOUS. ///END ACT/// MR. CHRISTOPHER SAYS HE SEES NO BASIS FOR ADDING TO THE DANGERS FOR AMERICANS SERVING IN BOSNIA, AND HE SAYS HE WILL HAVE SOMETHING TO SAY TO THE UNITED NATIONS ABOUT THE DECISION TO DENY THE U-S AMBASSADOR A FLIGHT OUT OF SARAJEVO. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/MMK 18-Apr-95 11:55 AM EDT (1555 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1666 total bytes, 1666 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177161 TITLE=FRANCE / BOSNIA (L) BYLINE=SONJA PACE DATELINE=PARIS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FRANCE IS CALLING FOR AN EMERGENCY MEETING OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL ON THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA. A STATEMENT ISSUED BY THE PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICE IN PARIS SAYS FRANCE WILL HAVE TO WITHDRAW ITS TROOPS FROM BOSNIA IF THE CURRENT CEASE-FIRE IS NOT EXTENDED. SONJA PACE REPORTS FROM THE FRENCH CAPITAL. TEXT: PRIME MINISTER EDOUARD BALLADUR'S OFFICE SAYS CONDITIONS IN BOSNIA HAVE WORSENED TO THE POINT WHERE THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSION IS SERIOUSLY JEOPARDIZED. A STATEMENT FROM MR. BALLADUR'S OFFICE CALLS FOR AN EMERGENCY MEETING OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL TO DRAW UP MEASURES TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF THE PEACEKEEPERS AND ALLOW THEM TO CARRY OUT THEIR MISSION. FRANCE HAS 45-HUNDRED TROOPS IN BOSNIA, THE SINGLE BIGGEST U-N CONTINGENT. BUT TUESDAY'S STATEMENT SAYS THOSE TROOPS WILL HAVE TO BE WITHDRAWN UNLESS PROGRESS IS MADE ON EXTENDING THE CURRENT CEASE-FIRE, WHICH IS DUE TO EXPIRE THE END OF THIS MONTH. FRANCE IS ALSO CALLING FOR A RESUMPTION OF STALLED PEACE NEGOTIATIONS, AND FOR ENSURING FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND ACTION FOR U-N FORCES. THE STATEMENT COMES JUST DAYS AFTER TWO FRENCH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED IN SARAJEVO. IT WAS ISSUED AFTER MR. BALLADUR CHAIRED AN EMERGENCY CABINET MEETING IN PARIS THAT INCLUDED FOREIGN MINISTER ALAIN JUPPE, DEFENSE MINISTER FRANCOIS LEOTARD AND THE ARMED FORCES CHIEF OF STAFF. FOREIGN MINISTER JUPPE IS TO HEAD TO NEW YORK TO LAUNCH A NEW PEACE DRIVE UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE CONTACT GROUP, MADE UP OF FRANCE, THE UNITED STATES, GERMANY, BRITAIN AND RUSSIA. RENEWED CONCERNS HERE ABOUT THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA COME IN THE MIDST OF THE FRENCH PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, IN WHICH MR. BALLADUR IS A CANDIDATE. HIS MAIN RIVALS ARE FRONT-RUNNER JACQUES CHIRAC AND SOCIALIST CANDIDATE LIONEL JOSPIN. THE FIRST ROUND OF VOTING TAKES PLACE ON SUNDAY. (SIGNED) NEB/SP/SKH/CF 18-Apr-95 8:32 AM EDT (1232 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2064 total bytes, 2064 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177160 TITLE=FRANCE / BOSNIA (S) BYLINE=SONJA PACE DATELINE=PARIS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FRANCE IS CALLING FOR AN EMERGENCY MEETING OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL ABOUT THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S SONJA PACE IN PARIS REPORTS A STATEMENT ISSUED BY THE PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICE SAYS FRANCE WILL HAVE TO WITHDRAW ITS TROOPS FROM BOSNIA IF THE CURRENT CEASEFIRE IS NOT EXTENDED. TEXT: PRIME MINISTER EDOUARD BALLADUR'S OFFICE SAYS CONDITIONS IN BOSNIA HAVE WORSENED TO THE POINT WHERE THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSION IS IN JEOPARDY. THE STATEMENT CALLS ON THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL TO DRAW UP MEASURES TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF THE PEACEKEEPERS AND ALLOW THEM TO CARRY OUT THEIR MISSION. FRANCE SAYS IT WILL HAVE TO WITHDRAW ITS TROOPS FROM BOSNIA UNLESS PROGRESS IS MADE ON EXTENDING THE CURRENT CEASEFIRE, RE-STARTING STALLED PEACE NEGOTIATIONS, AND GIVING FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT TO U-N FORCES. THE STATEMENT COMES JUST DAYS AFTER TWO FRENCH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED IN SARAJEVO. FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER ALAIN JUPPE IS TO HEAD TO NEW YORK TO LAUNCH A NEW PEACE DRIVE UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE CONTACT GROUP, MADE UP OF FRANCE, THE UNITED STATES, GERMANY, BRITAIN, AND RUSSIA. (SIGNED) NEB/SP/SKH/JWH 18-Apr-95 8:19 AM EDT (1219 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1335 total bytes, 1335 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177180 TITLE=FRANCE/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BYLINE=ELAINE JOHANSON DATELINE=UNITED NATIONS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FRANCE IS PRESSING THE UNITED NATION SECURITY COUNCIL TO MEET URGENTLY ON BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA -- WHERE TWO FRENCH PEACEKEEPERS WERE KILLED LAST WEEK. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS THE FRENCH ARE INSISTING THE COUNCIL ADOPT A RESOLUTION: TEXT: THE FRENCH WANT THE SECURITY COUNCIL TO TIGHTEN SECURITY AROUND THE U-N PEACEKEEPERS AND GUARANTEE THEIR FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT. IT ALSO WANTS THE COUNCIL TO PROD THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO RENEW A SHAKEY CEASE-FIRE THAT IS DUE TO EXPIRE AT THE END OF APRIL. FRANCE HAS THREATENED TO PULL ITS SOLDIERS OUT IF THE SITUATION CONTINUES TO DETERIORATE. THE FRENCH -- WITH OVER 45-HUNDRED TROOPS -- HAVE THE LARGEST CONTINGENT IN BOSNIA. AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK, FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER ALAIN JUPPE TOLD REPORTERS A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INDICATES THAT ONE OF THE FRENCH PEACEKEEPERS COULD HAVE BEEN KILLED BY BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES. HOWEVER, A U-N SPOKESMAN SAID THE EVIDENCE OF WHO FIRED THE SHOTS IS STILL INCONCLUSIVE. THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS NOT SCHEDULED A FORMAL MEETING YET. RUSSIA HAS PRESENTED ITS OWN PAPER TO THE COUNCIL. DIPLOMATS ARE TRYING TO MERGE IT WITH THE FRENCH PROPOSALS. (SIGNED) UN/EJ/CF 18-Apr-95 1:12 PM EDT (1712 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1449 total bytes, 1449 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177163 TITLE=U-N/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SERB FORCES HAVE EXPELLED MORE MUSLIM CIVILIANS FROM THE NORTHEAST BOSNIAN TOWN OF BIJELINA. OFFICIALS OF THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) IN GENEVA REPORTED THIS LATEST ROUND IN THE SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN, AS WE HEAR FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS. TEXT: U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS SAY A TOTAL OF 126 MUSLIMS WERE EXPELLED FROM BIJELINA DURING A TWO DAY PERIOD LATE LAST WEEK. SPOKESMAN RON REDMOND SAID THE LAST GROUP TO REACH THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA INCLUDED THREE MENTALLY-HANDICAPPED PEOPLE AND SEVEN ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN SO SEVERELY DISABLED THEY COULD BARELY WALK. THEY WERE ROUNDED UP BY ARMED SERB MILITIAMEN AND TAKEN TO BIJELINA'S RAILWAY STATION, AND FROM THERE TO THE FRONT LINE VILLAGE OF PIPERI. // REDMOND ACT // THERE, ALL THE MILITARY DRAFT AGE MEN WERE SEPARATED, AND THEY WERE BEATEN IN FRONT OF THE REST OF THE GROUP. // END ACT // MR. REDMOND SAID THE REMAINING MEMBERS OF THE GROUP WERE THEN FORCED TO WALK ACROSS THE BATTLE LINES TO GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY. BUT THE YOUNG MEN REMAINED IN CUSTODY. SERB COMMANDERS SAID THEY WOULD ONLY BE RELEASED WHEN SERB RESIDENTS OF TUZLA ARE ALLOWED TO LEAVE THE TOWN. U-N AND RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND MUSLIMS AND CROATS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FROM SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN NORTHERN BOSNIA SINCE THE WAR BEGAN THREE YEARS AGO. AND THEY SAY ONLY A FEW THOUSAND NON-SERBS REMAIN IN THE AREA. A RED CROSS SPOKESWOMAN SAID IT IS CLEAR THAT THE ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN HAS NOW REACHED ITS FINAL STAGES. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/CF 18-Apr-95 8:56 AM EDT (1256 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1847 total bytes, 1847 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177163* TITLE=U-N/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: // RERUNNING TO CORRECT SPELLING OF BOSNIAN TOWN THROUGHOUT. // INTRO: SERB FORCES HAVE EXPELLED MORE MUSLIM CIVILIANS FROM THE NORTHEAST BOSNIAN TOWN OF BIJELJINA. OFFICIALS OF THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) IN GENEVA REPORTED THIS LATEST ROUND IN THE SERB ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN, AS WE HEAR FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS. TEXT: U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS SAY A TOTAL OF 126 MUSLIMS WERE EXPELLED FROM BIJELJINA DURING A TWO DAY PERIOD LATE LAST WEEK. SPOKESMAN RON REDMOND SAID THE LAST GROUP TO REACH THE GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWN OF TUZLA INCLUDED THREE MENTALLY-HANDICAPPED PEOPLE AND SEVEN ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN SO SEVERELY DISABLED THEY COULD BARELY WALK. THEY WERE ROUNDED UP BY ARMED SERB MILITIAMEN AND TAKEN TO BIJELJINA'S RAILWAY STATION, AND FROM THERE TO THE FRONT LINE VILLAGE OF PIPERI. // REDMOND ACT // THERE, ALL THE MILITARY DRAFT AGE MEN WERE SEPARATED, AND THEY WERE BEATEN IN FRONT OF THE REST OF THE GROUP. // END ACT // MR. REDMOND SAID THE REMAINING MEMBERS OF THE GROUP WERE THEN FORCED TO WALK ACROSS THE BATTLE LINES TO GOVERNMENT-HELD TERRITORY. BUT THE YOUNG MEN REMAINED IN CUSTODY. SERB COMMANDERS SAID THEY WOULD ONLY BE RELEASED WHEN SERB RESIDENTS OF TUZLA ARE ALLOWED TO LEAVE THE TOWN. U-N AND RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND MUSLIMS AND CROATS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FROM SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN NORTHERN BOSNIA SINCE THE WAR BEGAN THREE YEARS AGO. AND THEY SAY ONLY A FEW THOUSAND NON-SERBS REMAIN IN THE AREA. A RED CROSS SPOKESWOMAN SAID IT IS CLEAR THAT THE ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN HAS NOW REACHED ITS FINAL STAGES. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/CF 18-Apr-95 10:45 AM EDT (1445 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1917 total bytes, 1917 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/18/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20242 TITLE=U-S AND U-N PEACEKEEPING BYLINE=DON HENRY DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SECURITY ADVISER SAYS BILLS BEFORE CONGRESS TO RESTRICT THE U-S ROLE IN UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS WOULD HAVE DANGEROUS CONSEQUENCES AROUND THE GLOBE, IF APPROVED. VOA'S DON HENRY REPORTS DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS AT A FOREIGN POLICY FORUM TODAY (TUESDAY) DISAGREED SHARPLY ABOUT THE PEACEKEEPING LEGISLATION, BUT ACKNOWLEDGED THERE IS WIDESPREAD FRUSTRATION WITH THE U-N THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. TEXT: THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS LINED UP A HALF DOZEN NATIONAL SECURITY EXPERTS TO DEBATE THE REPUBLICAN PEACEKEEPING RESTRICTION PLAN THAT WAS PASSED IN THE HOUSE AND IS PENDING IN THE SENATE. THE LEGISLATION WOULD REQUIRE THE PRESIDENT TO GET APPROVAL AND FUNDING FROM CONGRESS PRIOR TO PLACING AMERICAN TROOPS UNDER U-N COMMAND IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN MOST CASES. THE MEASURE ALSO WOULD ALLOW THE UNITED STATES TO DEDUCT FROM ITS U-N ASSESSMENT THE COST OF AMERICAN MILITARY ACTIONS RELATED TO PEACEKEEPING EVEN WHEN THEY ARE NOT U-N OPERATIONS. SAMUEL BERGER, PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DEPUTY NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER, CONSIDERS THE LEGISLATION OUTRAGEOUS. // BERGER ACT / THESE BILLS REPRESENT AN ASSAULT ON THE AUTHORITY OF THE PRESIDENT AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF AND WOULD DEBILITATE PEACEKEEPING RATHER THAN REFORM IT. // END ACT // HE SAID DEDUCTING THE COST OF U-S OPERATIONS LIKE HUMANITARIAN RELIEF WOULD EVENTUALLY BRING AN END TO UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING, BECAUSE OTHER U-N MEMBERS WOULD FOLLOW THAT LEAD. DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN LEE HAMILTON AGREED. HE SAID THE UNITED STATES ROUTINELY SPENDS MORE MONEY ON NON-UNITED NATIONS PEACE-RELATED ACTIONS THAN IT DOES ON U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS, AND THE RESULTS WOULD BE PREDICTABLE AND DRASTIC. // HAMILTON ACT // WHAT THAT MEANS IS THE END OF U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS -- THE END IN CYPRUS, THE END IN JERUSALEM, THE END IN ANGOLA, KUWAIT, RWANDA. IT MEANS NO-FLY ZONES WOULD BE ENDED IN IRAQ, AND IT MEANS THE END OF HUMANITARIAN RELIEF IN BOSNIA. // END ACT // SHAPRLY DISAGREEING WAS FORMER DEFENSE SECRETARY CASPAR WEINBERGER. HE SAYS THE LEGISLATION WOULD HAVE NO SUCH CONSEQUENCES AND ALSO WOULD NOT LIMIT THE PRESIDENT'S POWERS AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF ARMED FORCES. MR. WEINBERGER BELIEVES CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT ON UNITED NATIONS OPERATIONS IS NECESSARY BECAUSE U-N MANDATES OFTEN ARE AMBIGUOUS DUE TO POLITICAL PRESSURES. // WEINBERGER ACT // BEAR IN MIND THAT A SIMPLE RESOLUTION CONDEMNING ETHNIC CLEANSING BY THE SERBIANS COULD NOT PASS THE UNITED NATIONS BECAUSE THE RUSSIANS OBJECTED, AND THAT'S THE KIND OF COMMAND AND CONTROL THAT YOU HAVE OVER THESE FORCES UNDER U-N COMMAND, AND THIS IS PRECISELY WHY IT SEEMS TO BE NECESSARY TO HAVE THE KIND OF RESTRAINTS THAT ARE SET HERE. // END ACT // ANOTHER ONE-TIME HIGH-RANKING REPUBLICAN ADMINISTRATION FIGURE, FORMER U-N AMBASSADOR JEANNE KIRKPATRICK, CITED BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AS A REASON WHY AMERICAN FORCES SHOULD NEVER BE PUT UNDER U-N COMMAND AND CONTROL. SHE SAID THE U-N PEACEKEEPING ROLE IN BOSNIA IS A TOTAL FAILURE. // KIRKPATRICK ACT // IT HAS NOT SAVED ANY PEACE. IT HASN'T SAVED LIVES, IT HASN'T RELIEVED CIVILIAN POPULATIONS, AND THAT'S WHY I DON'T THINK WE SHOULD PARTICIPATE IN OR FUND IT, IN FACT, EXCEPT AS IT CHANGES. // END ACT // REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS AT THE FORUM AGREED THAT U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS WOULD BE MORE EFFECTIVE IF THEY WERE MORE CLEARLY DEFINED IN SCOPE AND HAD A SECURE ESCAPE PROCEDURE IN THE EVENT OF FAILURE. THEY ALSO AGREED CONGRESS AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE FRUSTRATED WITH THE INEFFECTIVENESS OF THE UNITED NATIONS. THE SENATE IS EXPECTED TO DILUTE SOME OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE HOUSE BILL BUT HOW THE TWO CHAMBERS WOULD COMPROMISE ON DIFFERENCES IS UNCLEAR. PRESIDENT CLINTON IS BEING URGED BY SOME OF HIS BACKERS TO VETO ANY BILL HE FINDS TOO RESTRICTIVE. (SIGNED) NEB/DOH/CF 18-Apr-95 2:49 PM EDT (1849 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4505 total bytes, 4505 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/19/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177269 TITLE=CLINTON / OKLAHOMA BOMBING (S) BYLINE=DEBORAH TATE DATELINE=WHITE HOUSE CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS STRONGLY CONDEMNED THE BOMBING IN THE U-S STATE OF OKLAHOMA. IN AN APPEARANCE ON NATIONAL TELEVISION, MR. CLINTON WARNED THAT THOSE RESPONSIBLE WOULD BE PUNISHED SEVERELY. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS. TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON -- WHO AIDES SAY HAS SEEN THE GRAPHIC TELEVISION PICTURES OF THE HUMAN CASUALTIES AND THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE BLAST -- APPEARED DEEPLY AFFECTED BY THE INCIDENT. CALLING THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEADLY BOMBING -- IN HIS WORDS -- "EVIL COWARDS," HE VOWED THEY WOULD BE SWIFTLY BROUGHT TO JUSTICE. // CLINTON ACT // LET THERE BE NO ROOM FOR DOUBT. WE WILL FIND THE PEOPLE WHO DID THIS. WHEN WE DO, JUSTICE WILL BE SWIFT, CERTAIN, AND SEVERE. THESE PEOPLE ARE KILLERS, AND THEY MUST BE TREATED LIKE KILLERS. // END ACT // THE PRESIDENT HAS DEPLOYED A HIGH-LEVEL TEAM OF INVESTIGATORS TO THE SCENE, ORDERED SECURITY TIGHTENED AT ALL FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDINGS, AND DECLARED OKLAHOMA CITY A DISASTER AREA, MAKING IT ELIGIBLE FOR FEDERAL FUNDS. ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO -- WHO DECLINED TO COMMENT ON EVIDENCE GATHERED BY AUTHORITIES -- SAYS THE UNITED STATES WOULD SEEK THE DEATH PENALTY AGAINST THOSE FOUND GUILTY OF CARRYING OUT THE INCIDENT. (SIGNED) NEB / DAT / BD/BG 19-Apr-95 7:01 PM EDT (2301 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1587 total bytes, 1587 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/19/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177268 TITLE=CLINTON-OKLAHOMA BOMBING (L) BYLINE=DAVID BORGIDA DATELINE=WHITE HOUSE CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS DESCRIBING THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEVASTATING BLAST AT AN OKLAHOMA CITY (OKLAHOMA) FEDERAL BUILDING WEDNESDAY AS EVIL COWARDS, AND HE IS PROMISING A FULL-SCALE FEDERAL EFFORT TO BRING THEM TO JUSTICE. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA REPORTS ON THE REACTION FROM AN OUTRAGED PRESIDENT. TEXT: AN ANGRY AND EMOTIONAL PRESIDENT CLINTON SEEMED ON THE VERGE OF TEARS AS HE DELIVERED A BRIEF STATEMENT TO REPORTERS AFTER SPENDING MUCH OF HIS DAY MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS IN OKLAHOMA CITY AND MANAGING A FEDERAL RESPONSE. ///CLINTON ACT/// THE BOMBING IN OKLAHOMA CITY WAS AN ATTACK ON INNOCENT CHILDREN AND DEFENSELESS CITIZENS. IT WAS AN ACT OF COWARDICE AND IT WAS EVIL. THE UNITED STATES WILL NOT TOLERATE IT, AND I WILL NOT ALLOW THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY TO BE INTIMIDATED BY EVIL COWARDS. ///END ACT/// THE PRESIDENT AUTHORIZED THE DEPLOYMENT OF A HIGH-LEVEL FEDERAL CRIME MANAGEMENT TEAM TO OKLAHOMA CITY, AS WELL AS TIGHTER SECURITY MEASURES AT FEDERAL FACILITIES AROUND THE NATION, AND DECLARED A FEDERAL EMERGENCY IN OKLAHOMA CITY. HE WAS ANGRY AFTER THE FEBRUARY, 1993, BOMBING OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER IN NEW YORK CITY, BUT MINDFUL THAT CHILDREN IN A DAY CARE CENTER WERE KILLED IN THIS INCIDENT, HE SEEMED EVEN MORE SHAKEN. HIS CHOICE OF WORDS REFLECTED THAT. ///CLINTON ACT/// LET THERE BE NO ROOM FOR DOUBT. WE WILL FIND THE PEOPLE WHO DID THIS. WHEN WE DO, JUSTICE WILL BE SWIFT, CERTAIN AND SEVERE. THESE PEOPLE ARE KILLERS, AND THEY MUST BE TREATED LIKE KILLERS. ///END ACT/// ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO REFUSED TO ANSWER DETAILED QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS INCIDENT, SAYING SHE WANTED TO PROTECT AN ONGOING INVESTIGATION. SHE DID SAY FEDERAL AUTHORITIES HAVE RECEIVED WHAT SHE CALLED SUPERB COOPERATION FROM LOCAL OKLAHOMA CITY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS. AND SHE PROMISED EVERY LEAD WOULD BE PURSUED IN THE EFFORT TO CAPTURE AND BRING TO JUSTICE THOSE RESPONSIBLE. USING LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE NATION'S TOP LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIAL, SHE LEFT NO DOUBT ABOUT WHAT WOULD HAPPEN NEXT. ///RENO ACT/// EIGHTEEN U-S-C SECTION 844 RELATES TO THOSE WHO MALICIOUSLY DAMAGE OR DESTROY A FEDERAL BUILDING. IF THERE IS DEATH, IF DEATH OCCURS, THE DEATH PENALTY IS AVAILABLE AND WE WILL SEEK IT. ///END ACT/// AT THE WHITE HOUSE, MEANWHILE, SECURITY WAS TIGHTENED IN THE WAKE OF THE TRAGEDY IN OKLAHOMA CITY, A STARK REMINDER THAT THE NIGHTMARE OF TERRORISM CAN HIT ANYWHERE, AT ANY TIME. (SIGNED) NEB/BORG/KK/BG 19-Apr-95 6:42 PM EDT (2242 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3001 total bytes, 3001 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/19/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177255 TITLE=BOSNIA VOTE (L ONLY) BYLINE=ELAINE JOHANSON DATELINE=UNITED NATIONS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL WEDNESDAY CALLED FOR TIGHTER SECURITY FOR U-N TROOPS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE COUNCIL UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTED A RESOLUTION AT THE URGING OF FRANCE. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS: TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL REMINDED THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA THAT THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SAFETY OF U-N TROOPS. IT DEMANDED AN END TO ALL ACTS OF VIOLENCE AND INTIMIDATION DIRECTED AT THE PEACEKEEPERS. THE COUNCIL RESOLUTION URGED SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI TO SUBMIT PROPOSALS FOR PROTECTING U-N PERSONNEL. THE ONLY REAL OPTION THE U-N HAS AT THIS POINT IS TO CALL FOR NATO AIR STRIKES. BUT IT HAS USED NATO SPARINGLY AND EVEN DISCOURAGED THE WESTERN ALLIANCE FROM UNDERTAKING ANY ROBUST AIR ACTION. THE COUNCIL ALSO CALLED ON THE BOSNIAN PARTIES TO RENEW THEIR SHAKEY CEASEFIRE WHICH EXPIRES AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. THE TRUCE HAS BEEN REPEATEDLY VIOLATED SINCE IT OFFICIALLY TOOK EFFECT JANUARY FIRST. FRANCE PRESSED FOR A SECURITY COUNCIL VOTE AFTER TWO FRENCH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED BY SNIPER FIRE IN SARAJEVO LAST WEEK. IT THREATENED TO WITHDRAW ITS 45-HUNDRED TROOPS IN BOSNIA IF THE SITUATION CONTINUES TO DETERIORATE. FRENCH AMBASSADOR JEAN-BERNARD MERIMEE TOLD REPORTERS FRANCE WOULD LIKE TO CONTINUE ITS PEACEKEEPING COMMITMENT. HE URGED THE COMBATANTS TO RESPOND POSITIVELY TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL'S CALL: ///MERIMEE ACT/// IF ALL THE PARTIES IMPLEMENT WHAT IS REQUESTED FROM THEM BY THE RESOLUTION, WE VERY MUCH HOPE THAT CONDITIONS WILL BE SUCH AGAIN AS IT ALLOWS THE U-N FORCES AND THE U-N CONTINGENTS TO STAY ON. ///END ACT/// MEANWHILE, THE SECURITY COUNCIL ONCE AGAIN URGED INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS AND THE WARRING PARTIES TO RESUME PEACE NEGOTIATIONS WITHOUT DELAY TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE POLITICAL SETTLEMENT. DIPLOMATS SAID A MILITARY SOLUTION TO THE BOSNIAN WAR REMAINS UNACCEPTABLE. (SIGNED) NEB/KBK 19-Apr-95 2:56 PM EDT (1856 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2230 total bytes, 2230 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/20/95 TYPE=REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK NUMBER=4-08267 TITLE=EARTH DAY AROUND THE GLOBE BYLINE=HAYES/WOOD/MURDOCK/HO/DRUDGE/WILKISON/FLAKUS TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PAMELA TAYLOR/PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM TAPE LIBRARY // CART: THEME ESTABLISH THEN UNDER HOST: WELCOME TO REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK, A REGULAR WEEKLY MAGAZINE SHOW FEATURING REPORTS BY, OR CONVERSATIONS WITH, VOA CORRESPONDENTS AROUND THE GLOBE ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD. CART: UP FULL AND UNDER HOST: I'M YOUR HOST, PAMELA TAYLOR. THIS WEEK WE FEATURE A SPECIAL REPORT COMMEMORATING THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY OF EARTH DAY (APRIL 22ND), WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM SEVEN VOA REPORTERS HIGHLIGHTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN THEIR PART OF THE WORLD. WE BEGIN WITH AN OVERVIEW FROM CORRESPONDENT EVANS HAYS ABOUT SOME OF THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES DISCUSSED AT A RECENT U-N CONFERENCE IN BERLIN ON WORLD CLIMATE CHANGE. AS OFTEN HAPPENS AT SUCH CONFERENCES, EVANS SAYS IMPORTANT ISSUES DON'T ALWAYS TRANSLATE INTO EXCITING NEWS: TEXT: THE BERLIN MEETING ATTRACTED SOME TWO-THOUSAND JOURNALISTS -- A FIGURE EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF DELEGATES AND OFFICIAL OBSERVERS. MOST OF US ARRIVED THINKING FOR THAT KIND OF MONEY SOME REAL NEWS WOULD BE MADE. WE KNEW -- AND TRIED TO EXPLAIN TO LISTENERS AND READERS AROUND THE WORLD -- THAT DECISIONS TAKEN IN BERLIN WOULDN'T CHANGE TOMORROW'S WEATHER. BUT THEY JUST MIGHT MAKE A WEIGHTY IMPACT ON HOW GOVERNMENTS TRY TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT. IT DIDN'T TAKE LONG TO REALIZE THAT THE DELEGATES THEMSELVES WERE LESS OPTIMISTIC. MUCH OF THE CONFERENCE DEALT LESS WITH POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE WORLD'S CLIMATE THAN WITH PROCEDURAL ISSUES, SUCH AS HOW TO VOTE AND WHERE TO PLACE THE HEADQUARTERS OF A NEW SECRETARIAT THAT WILL MAP OUT NEW PLANS TO PROTECT THE EARTH'S CLIMATE. IN THE MEANTIME, SOME DELEGATIONS WERE GETTING UPSET. THE ALLIANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES FEAR GLOBAL WARMING WILL BRING A RISE IN SEA LEVELS, SWAMPING THEIR COUNTRIES. I ASKED THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF THE DELEGATION FROM THE MALDIVES, WHICH IS AN ALLIANCE MEMBER, HOW THINGS WERE GOING. ABDULLAHI MAJEED WAS GLOOMY. HIS COUNTRY IS FACED WITH POSSIBLE EXTINCTION AND A 16-MILLION DOLLAR CONFERENCE IS DEBATING RULES AND REGULATIONS. TAPE: CUT # 1 RUNS [:29] "IF YOU ASK ME, I WOULD SAY THE CONFERENCE IS RATHER SLOW BECAUSE AS FAR AS I KNOW, AFTER ONE WEEK OF DELIBERATIONS, WE HAVE BEEN ONLY ABLE TO ADOPT THREE PAPERS, WHICH IS RATHER SLOW. AS FAR AS I KNOW, WE HAVE NOT EVEN ADOPTED THE RULES OF PROCEDURE. IN ANY CONFERENCE, THERE SHOULD BE RULES OF PROCEDURE. I THINK IF SMALL THINGS CAN BE HURDLES LIKE THIS, I DON'T KNOW THE BIG ISSUES, HOW LONG IT WILL TAKE AND HOW MUCH TIME WILL BE CONSUMED." TEXT: HE WAS BEING POLITE. THE CONFERENCE HAD ITS FAIR SHARE OF SO-CALLED NON-GOVERNMENTAL OBSERVERS, SUCH AS BUSINESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS WITH THEIR OWN AGENDA. ONE OF THESE WAS GREENPEACE. A GREENPEACE SPOKESMAN, FOUAD HAMDAN, TALKED TO ME AT ONE OF THE RECEPTIONS OBSERVER GROUPS WERE HOLDING AND HE, TOO, WAS ANGRY. TAPE: CUT # 2 HAMDAN RUNS [:20] "(HAYES): HOW DO YOU VIEW THE SITUATION HERE IN BERLIN AT THE CONFERENCE RIGHT NOW? (HAMDAN): DELEGATES HERE AT THE CLIMATE CONFERENCE IN BERLIN ARE WASTING THEIR TIME IN USELESS DEBATES INSTEAD OF TALKING ABOUT THE MAIN ISSUE; THAT IS, CUTTING C-O-2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) EMISSIONS DRASTICALLY OVER THE NEXT TWO YEARS. INSTEAD, THEY ARE JUST TALKING ABOUT RULES AND OTHER PROCEDURES THAT ARE ABSOLUTELY UNIMPORTANT." TEXT: THE CONFERENCE WAS MAKING SOME PROGRESS, BUT IT WAS SLOW-GOING. IN THE FINAL DAYS IT WAS NOT UNCOMMON TO SEE REPORTERS AND TECHNICIANS TAKING NAPS IN THEIR OFFICES OR SIMPLY SLUMPING OVER TABLES AT THE CAFES SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE HUGE PRESS CENTER. IN THE END, DELEGATES DID AGREE ON SOME RULES AND THEY SELECTED BONN, GERMANY, AS THE NEW HOME OF THE SECRETARIAT THAT WILL BECOME A FORMAL PART OF THE UNITED NATIONS STRUCTURE. AND THEY DECIDED -- YOU GUESSED IT -- TO HOLD ANOTHER CONFERENCE TWO YEARS FROM NOW. (SIGNED) HOST: NEXT LET'S GO TO BARRY WOOD IN PRAGUE FOR HIS OBSERVATIONS ON HOW THE COUNTRIES OF EAST AND CENTRAL EUROPE ARE DEALING WITH THE PROBLEMS CAUSED BY FIVE DECADES OF SOVIET-STYLE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND COMMUNIST ENVIRONMENTAL NEGLECT: TEXT: WHAT I NOTICE ABOUT PICTURES AND NEWSREELS BEING SHOWN MARKING 50 YEARS SINCE THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, IS THAT THE BUILDINGS ARE STILL THERE -- AND ARE OFTEN UNCHANGED EVEN TODAY. ONLY THE VEHICLES AND CLOTHING MAKE THE PICTURES LOOK OLD. THE TOWN CENTERS, EXCEPT WHERE DESTROYED BY WAR, ARE LARGELY UNCHANGED, REFLECTING JUST HOW LITTLE COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS INVESTED IN MODERNIZATION. RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES AND FACTORIES ALIKE WERE APPALLINGLY NEGLECTED. ANCIENT HEATING SYSTEMS RELIED ON HEAVILY POLLUTING BROWN COAL, WHOSE PUNGENT TRAILS OF BROWN SMOKE STILL RISE INTO THE SKY THROUGHOUT EASTERN EUROPE. HERE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, A DUTCH ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER SAYS THE WORST POLLUTION IS IN PRAGUE--WHERE TRUCKS, BUSES AND COAL FURNACES ARE THE PROBLEM--AND IN HEAVILY-INDUSTRIALIZED NORTH BOHEMIA. TAPE: CUT # 3 BLAST FURNACE NOISE RUNS [:25] TEXT: AROUND THE TOWNS OF USTI NA LABEM AND TEPLICE, THERE ARE SEVERAL COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, HUNDREDS OF FACTORIES AND MINES. THIS ENTIRE REGION, INCLUDING PARTS OF EASTERN GERMANY AND SOUTHERN POLAND, IS KNOWN AS THE BLACK TRIANGLE. HERE, LIFE EXPECTANCY IS BELOW THE NATIONAL AVERAGE. THERE ARE HIGH INCIDENCES OF CANCER, HEART ATTACK, AND RESPIRATORY ILLNESS. THE CZECHS ARE ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM. FACTORIES HAVE BEEN GIVEN INCENTIVES TO INSTALL ANTI-POLLUTION EQUIPMENT. POLLUTING POWER PLANTS ARE BEING PHASED OUT. BUT THE EXPERTS SAY AIR AND WATER QUALITY HAVE NOT YET SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED. FARTHER SOUTH AND EAST THERE ARE HORRIFIC PROBLEMS ALONG THE DANUBE RIVER, EUROPE'S SECOND BIGGEST WATERWAY. AFTER THE DANUBE FLOWS EAST FROM VIENNA, HUNGARIAN, YUGOSLAV, ROMANIAN, AND BULGARIAN TOWNS DUMP THEIR SEWAGE INTO THE RIVER, WHICH IS BADLY POLLUTED BY THE TIME IT REACHES ITS BLACK SEA DELTA. IN KRAKOW, POLAND, EXPERTS SAY TANGIBLE IMPROVEMENTS IN AIR QUALITY ARE BEING REGISTERED. SCRUBBERS HAVE BEEN PLACED ON THE GIANT SMOKESTAKS AT THE NOVA HUTA STEEL FACILITY JUST OUTSIDE THE CITY. DETERIORATION TO THE CITY'S ANCIENT BUILDINGS MAY HAVE BEEN SLOWED. AND THE WORLD BANK, WHICH IS HEAVILY INVOLVED IN ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP, SAYS THE AIR WILL START TO GET A LOT CLEANER OVER THE NEXT YEAR. BUT IT IS A HUGE JOB, WHICH WILL TAKE YEARS TO COMPLETE. (SIGNED?) HOST: WEST AFRICA DOES NOT FACE THE SAME KINDS OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PROBLEMS AS EAST OR CENTRAL EUROPE, BUT CORRESPONDENT PURNELL MURDOCK IN ABIDJAN, IVORY COAST, SAYS THE REGION IS NOT WITHOUT ITS OWN SET OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS: TAPE: CUT # 4 CITY STREET NOISES (UP AND UNDER, RUNS [:13] TEXT: ABIDJAN IS THE COMMERCIAL CAPITAL OF IVORY COAST, AND IS CALLED THE "PARIS OF WEST AFRICA." AND TRUE TO THAT DISTINCTION, ABIDJAN HAS JUST ABOUT EVERYTHING YOU WOULD EXPECT IN A THRIVING, COMMERCIAL CITY -- INCLUDING POLLUTION. [ *] STANDING HERE ON THE SIDEWALK OUTSIDE MY OFFICE I WATCH AS YOUNG MEN RUN UP AND DOWN THE STREET CALLING OUT TO ATTRACT PRIVATE CARS FOR HIRE. TAPE: CUT # 5 HORNS HONKING (SNEAK AT * ABOVE) RUNS [:23] TEXT: THERE ARE TAXIS AND BUSES HERE, OF COURSE, BUT THESE PRIVATE CARS -- KNOWN AS WARA-WARAS -- WILL LOAD UP WITH AS MANY PEOPLE AS CAN FIT INSIDE THEIR SMALL INTERIORS AND TAKE THEM TO THEIR DESTINATIONS. THESE CARS ARE OLD AND BROKEN DOWN. BUT LIKE IN MANY PLACES IN WEST AFRICA, IVORIANS FIX AND REPAIR THEIR VEHICLES AND KEEP THEM AS LONG AS THEY WILL RUN. AND AS YOU MIGHT IMAGINE, THESE OLD AND BATTERED CARS AND BUSES SPEW THICK AND UNHEALTHY EXHAUSTS, UNFILTERED BY CATALYTIC CONVERTERS. JUST UP THE SIDEWALK A BIT IS A LOCAL MAQUIS, OR OUTDOOR EATING PLACE. AS I WALK ALONG THE SIDEWALK I HAVE TO TAKE A DETOUR INTO THE STREET TO AVOID THE YOUNG WOMEN WHO SET UP THEIR GRILLS AND EATING TABLES ALONG THE SIDEWALK. DURING THE EARLY-MORNING HOURS THE AIR AROUND THE MAQUIS IS FILLED WITH THE DELICIOUS AROMA OF ALLOCO -- OR FRIED PLAINTAIN -- FRIED FISH AND BREAD. BUT BY THE END OF THE DAY THAT AROMA IS REPLACED BY THE SMELL OF GARBAGE LEFT BEHIND AFTER THE MAQUIS CLOSES. THIS IS ABIDJAN. BUT WHAT ABOUT OTHER COUNTRIES AND CITIES IN THE REGION? WHEN I VISITED LAGOS, THE CAPITAL OF NIGERIA, I NOTICED MANY OF THE SAME POLLUTION PROBLEMS COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT THERE ARE FAR MORE PEOPLE. WITH MILLIONS OF VEHICLES, VITUALLY NON-STOP TRAFFIC AND NO EMMISSION CONTROLS, LAGOS HAS ONE OF THE WORST POLLUTION PROBLEMS ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT. TRASH ACCUMULATES AROUND MANY STREET CORNERS AND THE MANY LAGOONS ARE STAGNANT POOLS OF POLLUTION. RECENTLY, I SPENT SEVERAL WEEKS IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE, AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT STRUCK ME WAS THE OPEN SEWERS. ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS I ALSO SAW HUGE BILLOWS OF SMOKE WHERE TRASH WAS BEING BURNED. THESE CITIES SHARE MANY OF THE SAME ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ALSO SHARE AN IDEA FOR DEALING WITH THEM. ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OF EVERY MONTH, NIGERIA AND SIERRA LEONE HAVE A "NATIONAL CLEAN-UP DAY." NO ONE IS ALLOWED ON THE STREETS UNTIL MID-DAY TO GIVE EACH CITIZEN A CHANCE TO CLEAN UP. TAPE: CUT 6 PEOPLE WASHING CLOTHING (UP AND UNDER TO CLOSE) RUNS [:54] TEXT: BACK IN ABIDJAN, I VISITED THE CITY'S LARGEST OPEN-WATER WASHING AREA. THERE ARE MORE THAN 100 PEOPLE HERE, SCRUBBING AND SLAPPING CLOTHING ON HUGE RUBBER TIRES AND BIG ROCKS. THERE ARE SOAP SUDS EVERYWHERE AND ONE CAN ONLY IMAGINE HOW THIS HAS AFFECTED THE WATER SUPPLY. JUST AS THESE PEOPLE HERE HAVE FOUND A WAY TO CLEAN THEIR CLOTHING, HOPEFULLY GOVERNMENTS WILL FIND BETTER WAYS TO CLEAN UP THE ENVIRONMENT. (SIGNED) HOST: HALF A WORLD AWAY, THE ASIAN PEOPLE AND THEIR CULTURES MAY BE VERY DIFFERENT FROM WEST AFRICA, BUT ENVIRONMENTALLY, THERE ARE MANY OF THE SAME PROBLEMS. OUR NEXT REPORT IS FROM CORRESPONDENT STEPHANIE HO IN ONE OF THE MOST POPULOUS CAPITALS OF THE WORLD: BEIJING: TEXT: SHORTLY AFTER I ARRIVED IN BEIJING, I READ THAT THE FIVE WORST CITIES IN THE WORLD IN TERMS OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS -- THE CONCENTRATION OF PARTICLES IN THE AIR -- ARE IN CHINA. AS THE COUNTRY CONTINUES TO MODERNIZE AND AS THE ONE-POINT-TWO BILLION POPULATION CONTINUES TO GROW, THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ARE SURE TO WORSEN. I FOUND BEIJING A VERY DUSTY CITY. FEROCIOUS WINDS FROM THE NORTH BLOW FINE YELLOW PARTICLES FROM MONGOLIA'S GOBI DESERT SWIRLING DOWN INTO THE CHINESE CAPITAL. ANYTHING LEFT OUTSIDE IS INSTANTLY COVERED WITH A LAYER OF DUST. THE DUST IS SO FINE, IT COMES IN THROUGH CLOSED WINDOWS AND COATS ALL EXPOSED SURFACES INSIDE TOO. ON PARTICULARLY SEVERE DAYS, A YELLOW MIST OBSCURES THE SKY AND TURNS THE SUN A WHITISH-BLUE COLOR. FURTHER ADDING TO THE EERIE SCENE, LOCALS PROTECT THEMSELVES BY WEARING SHEER MESH SCARVES AROUND THEIR HEADS. IN RECENT YEARS, THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT HAS HELD ANNUAL CAMPAIGNS TO PLANT MORE TREES IN AND AROUND BEIJING AS A BUFFER FROM THE WIND AND DUST. HOWEVER, JUST AS QUICKLY AS TREES ARE PLANTED IN SOME PLACES, TREES IN OTHER PARTS OF TOWN ARE REMOVED -- TO MAKE ROOM FOR MORE BUILDINGS OR WIDER ROADS. TAPE: CUT # 7 CONSTRUCTION SOUNDS/HAMMERING RUNS [:20] TEXT: CONSTRUCTION IN EVERY PART OF TOWN FURTHER EXACERBATES THE DUST PROBLEM. AT NIGHT I ALWAYS SEE TRUCKS FULL OF DIRT RUMBLE BY, CRISS-CROSSING THE CITY. I WONDER WHERE IS ALL THIS DIRT COMING FROM AND WHERE ARE THEY TAKING IT? EVEN AT MIDNIGHT I CAN LOOK OUT THE WINDOW AND SEE THE FLOODLIGHTS OF AN ALL-NIGHT CONSTRUCTION SITE. TAPE: CUT # 8 TRUCKS (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:19] TEXT: ON TOP OF ALL THIS, BEIJING THIS YEAR IS EXPERIENCING THE WORST DROUGHT IN 100 YEARS, ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL REPORTS. LESS WATER MEANS LESS GREENERY, WHICH MEANS OF COURSE, MORE DUST. BUT COAL SMOKE IS THE MOST SERIOUS THREAT TO HEALTH IN BEIJING, WHERE THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF SMOKESTACKS. HIGH-SULFUR COAL IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF HEAT FOR MOST PEOPLE IN CHINA AND IN THE CAPITAL, WHERE THE WINTERS ARE BITTERLY COLD, THE COAL STOVES AND HEATERS TEND TO BURN AROUND THE CLOCK. I HEAR PEOPLE HACKING AND WHEEZING, CHRONICALLY SICK FROM BREATHING COAL SMOKE FOR SO LONG. I WAS THOROUGHLY AMAZED AND DISTRESSED WHEN I WATCHED A FRIEND OF MINE RECENTLY DISMANTLE THE SMALL COAL STOVE HE USES IN HIS HOME FOR HEAT DURING THE WINTER. THE INSIDE OF THE STOVE PIPE WAS ENCRUSTED WITH A BRIGHT AND SICKLY YELLOW COLORED COAT OF GUNK (MATTER) - THE SULFUR RESIDUE. IF IT LEAVES THAT KIND OF A MESS ON PIPES, I COULD ONLY IMAGINE WHAT IT DOES TO PEOPLE'S LUNGS. (SIGNED) HOST: GOING NOW TO NEW DELHI, I ASKED CORRESPONDENT MICHAEL DRUDGE TO TELL US ABOUT SOME OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS FACING THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT: TEXT: IT LOOKS LIKE WE ARE HEADED FOR ANOTHER LONG, HOT SUMMER IN NEW DELHI. AND TEMPERS ARE FRAYING ALREADY. POLICE OPENED FIRED ON A STONE-THROWING MOB IN NORTHWEST DELHI JUST THE OTHER DAY. THE MELEE LEFT FOUR DEMONSTRATORS SHOT AND FOUR POLICEMEN INJURED. THE CROWD WAS PROTESTING WATER AND POWER CUTS. NEW DELHI RESIDENTS COMPLAIN THAT INDIA'S ONCE GRACEFUL CAPITAL OF TREE-LINED AVENUES AND RED SANDSTONE MONUMENTS IS BECOMING AN UNLIVABLE HELLHOLE. IN THE SUMMER, THE OVER-STRAINED POWER GRID COLLAPSES FOR HOURS AS TEMPERATURES SOAR PAST 40 DEGREES CELSIUS. IN THE WINTER, A CHOKING SMOG BLANKETS THE CITY AS THE POOR BURN COW DUNG FIRES FOR WARMTH. THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION LISTS NEW DELHI AS ONE THE WORLD'S TEN MOST POLLUTED CITIES. THE CAPITAL IS HOME TO MORE THAN 10-MILLION RESIDENTS AND NEARLY TWO-AND-ONE-HALF MILLION VEHICLES. TAPE: CUT # 9 AUTO-RICKSHAW SOUND RUNS [:33] TEXT: AMONG THE CHEAPEST FORMS OF TRANSPORT IS THE UBIQUITOUS AUTO-RICKSHAW. LIKE MECHANICAL WATER-BUGS DARTING AROUND TO ALL CORNERS OF THE CITY, THEY RUN ON TWO-STROKE ENGINES THAT BELCH A NOXIOUS EXHAUST. AFTER A CROSS-TOWN RIDE, PASSENGERS OFTEN COMPLAIN OF HEADACHE AND DROWSINESS FROM INHALING TOO MUCH CARBON MONOXIDE. BUT IF THE POLLUTION DOES NOT KILL YOU, MAYBE A CRASH WILL. ROAD ACCIDENTS CLAIM MORE THAN 17-HUNDRED LIVES EVERY YEAR IN NEW DELHI. ANOTHER TOXIC BREW IS CONCOCTED IN THE YAMUNA RIVER, A DUMP FOR RAW SEWAGE BUT ALSO THE CITY'S SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER. MILLIONS MUST DRINK UNTREATED WATER AND EVERY YEAR TENS OF THOUSANDS OF THEM COME DOWN WITH PARASITES, CHOLERA OR A HOST OF OTHER WATER-BORNE DISEASES. SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IS DONE HAPHAZARDLY. THERE IS NO ORGANIZED MUNICIPAL GARBAGE COLLECTION, THOUGH THE CITY WENT ON A BRIEF CLEANUP BINGE AFTER LAST YEAR'S PLAGUE OUTBREAK. BUT THINGS ARE BACK TO NORMAL NOW. COWS MUNCH UP THE BIODEGRADABLE STUFF AFTER PEOPLE CALLED RAG-PICKERS SIFT OUT THE RECYCLABLE TIDBITS. FACING ALL THESE PROBLEMS, THE OFFICIAL RESPONSE APPEARS FEEBLE. DECADES BEHIND OTHER COUNTRIES, THE GOVERNMENT HAS ORDERED NEW VEHICLES SOLD AFTER APRIL FIRST TO BE FITTED WITH POLLUTION-CONTROL DEVICES AND EQUIPPED TO RUN ON LEAD-FREE GASOLINE (PETROL). BUT THE REGULATIONS DO NOT APPLY TO BUSES AND AUTO-RICKSHAWS, WHICH ARE AMONG THE WORST POLLUTERS. (SIGNED). HOST: IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE, THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA HAVE THEIR OWN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, AS WE HEAR FROM CORRESPONDENT ROGER WILKISON IN RIO DE JANEIRO: TAPE: CUT # 10 FORREST SOUNDS W/BIRDS (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:25] TEXT: I AM SITTING AT THE EMPEROR'S TABLE HIGH IN THE TIJUCA FOREST OVERLOOKING RIO DE JANEIRO. IT IS CALLED THE EMPEROR'S TABLE BECAUSE, IN THE LAST CENTURY, BRAZIL'S IMPERIAL FAMILY USED TO COME UP HERE TO GET AWAY FROM MUGGY WEATHER IN THE CITY AND HAVE PICNICS. TAPE: CUT # 11 RAIN SOUNDS (UP, UNDER AND SNEAK UP AT *) RUNS [:33] TEXT: TIJUCA IS A PROTECTED FOREST, AND CITY-DWELLERS COME UP HERE ON THE WEEKENDS TO HIKE OR JOG OR SIMPLY TAKE A COLD SHOWER IN ONE OF THE MANY WATERFALLS. [PAUSE * ] BUT NOT ALL OF BRAZIL'S FORESTS HAVE BEEN SO LUCKY. EVERYBODY HAS HEARD ABOUT THE PLIGHT OF THE AMAZON RAIN FOREST AND HOW TREES HAVE BEEN CUT DOWN AND HOW THAT ENDANGERS SPECIES OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. BRAZIL, LIKE MUCH OF LATIN AMERICA, HAS TO WALK A FINE LINE BETWEEN THE NEED TO PROTECT ITS ENVIRONMENT AND THE NEED TO EXPLOIT ITS NATURAL RESOURCES AND DEVELOP ITS ECONOMY. IT IS NOT ONLY DEFORESTATION FOR AGRICULTURE THAT HAS CAUSED ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION BUT ALSO LOGGING AND MINING AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND AIRFIELDS. LEGIONS OF GOLD PROSPECTORS HAVE DUMPED MERCURY INTO THE STREAMS AND RIVERS OF AMAZONIA, KILLING FISH AND ENDANGERING THE ECOSYSTEM AND THE HEALTH OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES. I TRACKED DOWN JOSE [JOE-ZAY] LUTZENBERGER, ONE OF BRAZIL'S FOREMOST ENVIRONMENTALISTS, IN A CROWDED RESTAURANT. HE BLAMES MUCH OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN BRAZIL ON SOCIAL INJUSTICE. TAPE: CUT # 12 LUTZENBERGER RUNS [:29] "WHY IS IT THAT MIGRANT FARMERS INVADE THE LAST REMAINING WILDERNESS IN AMAZONIA AND OTHER REGIONS IN BRAZIL? WHY IS IT THAT WE HAVE ALL THE GOLD MINERS IN AMAZONIA INVADING INDIAN TERRITORIES AND SO ON? BECAUSE THESE PEOPLE WERE MARGINALIZED. THEY WERE UPROOTED IN THEIR HOME REGIONS BY THE GREEN REVOLUTION. AND WHEN WE SAY THAT MODERN AGRICULTURE IS SO EFFICIENT, (BUT) NOBODY ACCOUNTS FOR THIS INCREDIBLE (SOCIAL) COST. TAPE: CUT # 13 SOUND OF RAIN (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:30] TEXT: A LIGHT RAIN HAS BEGUN TO FALL UP HERE AT THE EMPEROR'S TABLE. DOWN BELOW AND IN CITIES ALL OVER BRAZIL AND SOUTH AMERICA, THE RUSH HOUR IS BEGINNING, WITH MOTOR VEHICLES CLOGGING THE STREETS. THE AIR IS OFTEN UNBREATHABLE, AND NOT JUST BECAUSE OF THE TRAFFIC BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF THE NOXIOUS FUMES EMITTED BY INDUSTRIAL PLANTS. BUT SOLUTIONS CAN BE FOUND IF THERE IS A WILL. CUBATAO, AN INDUSTRIAL CITY NEAR SAO PAULO, WAS KNOWN TEN YEARS AGO AS THE VALLEY OF DEATH. IT WAS THE MOST POLLUTED PLACE IN SOUTH AMERICA. A GIGANTIC EFFORT BY GOVERNMENT, BUSINESS AND LABOR, AND LOTS OF MONEY, TURNED THE PLACE AROUND. IT HAS NOT BEEN TOTALLY CLEANED UP, BUT BLUE SKIES ARE BACK, THE AIR QUALITY HAS IMPROVED AND GREEN HAS RETURNED TO THE SURROUNDING HILLSIDES. (SIGNED) HOST: FINALLY WE GO TO CALIFORNIA AND CORRESPONDENT GREG FLAKUS IN LOS ANGELES -- A PLACE ONE MIGHT CHARACTERIZE AS ON THE OPPOSITE END OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL SPECTRUM. MANY OF THE INNOVATIONS FOR CLEANING UP THE AIR, WATER AND NATURE ADOPTED IN THE UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE HAD THEIR BEGINNINGS IN CALIFORNIA: TAPE: CUT # 14 RESTAURANT NOISE RUNS [:30] TEXT: WHEN PEOPLE SIT DOWN TO EAT IN LOS ANGELES THESE DAYS, THEY DO NOT HAVE TO SPECIFY THAT THEY WANT A NO-SMOKING AREA, BECAUSE SMOKING IS NOW PROHIBITED IN ALL RESTAURANTS. THIS IDEA IS NOW SPREADING TO OTHER AREAS OF THE COUNTRY, DRIVEN BY CONCERNS OVER HEALTH RISKS POSED BY SO-CALLED "SECOND-HAND SMOKE". A RECENT STUDY HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-LOS ANGELES REVEALED THAT SUCH SMOKE IS ACTUALLY MORE HARMFUL TO NON-SMOKERS THAN IT IS TO THE PEOPLE WHO ARE ACTUALLY DOING THE SMOKING. THE VAST FREEWAY SYSTEM HERE ALSO REPRESENTS A CHALLENGE BECAUSE OF ALL THE AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST THAT CONTAMINATES THE AIR, BUT, ON THE OTHER HAND, THERE IS SUPPORT HERE FOR EFFORTS AIMED AT IMPROVING ENGINE EFFICIENCY AND AT GETTING OLDER, POLLUTION-BELCHING VEHICLES OFF THE ROAD. AS A RESULT OF THESE EFFORTS, THE AIR QUALITY IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN HAS ACTUALLY IMPROVED OVER THE LAST DECADE, EVEN AS THE POPULATION HAS GROWN. WHERE I LIVE, IN THE BEAUTIFUL SUBURBAN CITY OF THOUSAND OAKS, GREAT CARE HAS BEEN TAKEN TO CONSERVE OPEN SPACES FOR WILDLIFE. I OFTEN SEE COYOTES, HAWKS AND WILD CATS IN THE HILLS NEAR MY HOUSE. BUT HAVING NATURE NEAR CAN POSE PROBLEMS -- COYOTES HAVE KILLED SOME PEOPLE'S PETS AND HAVE EVEN ATTACKED SMALL CHILDREN IN SOME PARTS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. ANOTHER PROBLEM HAS ARISEN WITH MOUNTAIN LIONS, LARGE PREDATORS THAT CAN WEIGH AS MUCH AS 70 KILOGRAMS. A LAW PASSED HERE IN CALIFORNIA A FEW YEARS AGO OUTLAWED HUNTING OF THESE MAGNIFICENT BEASTS, BUT INCIDENTS OF MOUNTAIN LIONS ATTACKING HUMANS AND THEIR PETS ARE NOW ON THE INCREASE. WITHIN THE PAST YEAR, THE BIG CATS KILLED TWO PEOPLE. STILL, MOST CALIFORNIANS BLAME HUMANKIND'S ENCROACHMENT ON THE NATURAL RANGE OF THESE ANIMALS AND STILL SUPPORT EFFORTS TO PROTECT THEM FROM HUNTING. WHAT PEOPLE HERE, AND IN OTHER PARTS OF THE UNITED STATES, ARE TRYING TO DO IS COME UP WITH A WAY TO ACCOMMODATE THE EVER-INCREASING NEEDS OF CIVILIZED SOCIETY AND A GROWING POPULATION WHILE, AT THE SAME TIME, MAINTAINING THE NATURAL WORLD THAT WE NOT ONLY ENJOY, BUT NEED FOR OUR VERY SURVIVAL. (SIGNED) HOST: TODAY, REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK HAS CIRCLED THE GLOBE TO HEAR FROM SEVEN OF OUR CORRESPONDENTS ABOUT SOME OF THE MORE PRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS AS WE MARK THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY OF INTERNATIONAL EARTH DAY. I'M PAMELA TAYLOR, INVITING YOU TO JOIN US AT THIS TIME EACH WEEK WHEN ONE OR MORE VOA REPORTERS TAKE US BEHIND THE SCENES OF COVERING THE NEWS FOR VOA. REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK WAS PRODUCED BY ___________________ AND DIRECTED BY __________________. PROMO: NEXT WEEK, REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK WILL FEATURE A REPORT FROM WHITE HOUSE CORRSPONDENT DEBORAH TATE ON EFFORTS TO MAKE THE PRESIDENT'S HOME MORE SECURE YET ACCESSABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THEN WE WILL HEAR FROM PENTAGON CORRESPONDENT DAVID SWANN ON WHAT IT'S LIKE TO TRAVEL WITH THE U-S SECRETARY OF STATE. NEB/PAM/PCH 19-Apr-95 4:30 PM EDT (2030 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 25301 total bytes, 25301 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/19/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP NUMBER=4-08268 TITLE=THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING BYLINE=DEBORAH COOPER/ADAM PHILLIPS TELEPHONE=619-1874 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT=(VOICER & INSERTS AVAILABLE IN ENGLISH BUBBLE WEDNESDAY. ON S-O-D THURSDAY) INTRO: AN ANGRY PRESIDENT CLINTON CALLED THE PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR WEDNESDAY'S BOMB ATTACK ON A FEDERAL BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA, "EVIL COWARDS" AND PROMISED SWIFT AND SEVERE JUSTICE. MORE THAN 500 U-S GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES WERE ASSIGNED TO THE BUILDING WHICH WAS TORN APART IN THE WEDNESDAY MORNING EXPLOSION THAT KILLED _________AND WOUNDED ____________. VOA'S __________ REPORTS THAT MR. CLINTON IS DEPLOYING A CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION (FBI) TO FIND THE PERPETRATORS AND TO ASSIST THE VICTIMS OF THE BOMB ATTACK. TEXT: THE PRESIDENT OUTLINED THE EXTRAORDINARY STEPS THE CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM IS TAKING TO HELP THE PEOPLE OF OKLAHOMA CITY AND TRACK DOWN, WHAT HE CALLED, THE "KILLERS" OF "INNOCENT CHILDREN AND DEFENSELESS CITIZENS." TAPE: CUT ONE - CLINTON "THE UNITED STATES WILL NOT TOLERATE AND I WILL NOT ALLOW THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY TO BE INTIMIDATED BY EVIL COWARDS. I HAVE MET WITH OUR TEAM WHICH WE ASSEMBLED TO DEAL WITH THIS BOMBING AND I AM DETERMINED TO TAKE THE FOLLOWING STEPS: FIRST, I HAVE DEPLOYED A CRISIS MANAGEMENT TEAM UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF THE F-B-I, WORKING WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS, MILITARY AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES. WE ARE SENDING THE WORLD'S FINEST INVESTIGATORS TO SOLVE THESE MURDERS. SECOND, I HAVE DECLARED AN EMERGENCY IN OKLAHOMA CITY. THIRD, WE ARE TAKING EVERY PRECAUTION TO REASSURE AND PROTECT PEOPLE WHO WORK IN OR LIVE NEAR OTHER FEDERAL FACILITIES." TEXT: SHORTLY AFTER THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING, BOMB THREATS FORCED EVACUATIONS OF FEDERAL BUILDINGS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. BUT U-S ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO INDICATED NO BOMBS WERE FOUND AT THE OTHER GOVERNMENT FACILITIES. MS. RENO SAID THE F-B-I HAS ESTABLISHED A 24-HOUR COMMAND POST IN OKLAHOMA CITY AND WILL, ALONG WITH THE REST OF THE LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNITY, PURSUE EVERY LEAD IN AN EFFORT TO BRING THOSE RESPONSIBLE TO JUSTICE. TAPE: CUT TWO - RENO "WE CANNOT TELL HOW LONG IT WILL BE BEFORE WE CAN SAY WITH CERTAINTY WHAT OCCURRED AND WHO IS RESPONSIBLE. BUT WE WILL FIND THE PERPETRATORS AND WE WILL BRING THEM TO JUSTICE." TEXT: THE ATTORNEY GENERAL WOULD NOT COMMENT ON ANY ACTION BEING TAKEN BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS, BUT SHE SAID EVERY LEAD AND EVERY SHRED OF EVIDENCE IS BEING PURSUED. MS. RENO CONFIRMED THAT THE GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL HAS OFFERED ITS HELP IN TRACKING DOWN THE PERPETRATORS BECAUSE OF ITS VAST EXPERIENCE WITH THIS SORT OF ATTACK. SHE INDICATED THAT HELP MIGHT BE USED. TAPE: CUT THREE - RENO "WE WILL, OF COURSE, RELY ON ANY ADDITIONAL RESOURCE THAT CAN POSSIBLY BE INVOLVED AND UTILIZED APPROPRIATELY IN BRINGING THESE PEOPLE TO JUSTICE." TEXT: THE ATTORNEY GENERAL REFUSED TO CHARACTERIZE THE BOMB EXPLOSION AS TERRORISM, ALTHOUGH MOST OBSERVERS BELIEVE THE ATTACK WAS THE WORK OF TERRORISTS. BRIAN JENKINS, OF THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATIVE AND SECURITY FIRM, KROLL ASSOCIATES, IS AN EXPERT ON WORLD TERRORISM. TAPE: CUT FOUR - JENKINS "TERRORISM IS BASICALLY THE USE OF VIOLENCE OR THREAT OF VIOLENCE IN ORDER TO CREATE AN ATMOSPHERE OF FEAR AND ALARM. IT'S OFTEN WHERE THERE IS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ACTUAL VICTIM AND THE TARGET OF THE TERRORIST ACTIONS. THAT IS, BLOWING UP INNOCENT BYSTANDERS IN ORDER TO PUT PRESSURE ON ANOTHER PARTY, A GOVERNMENT OR SOMEONE ELSE." TEXT: MR. JENKINS SAYS THAT THERE IS SOMETIMES AN APPARENT SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE INDISCRIMINATE VIOLENCE THAT KILLS CIVILIANS IN WARS BETWEEN STATES, AND TERRORIST VIOLENCE COMMITTED BY PERSONS OR GROUPS. TAPE: CUT FIVE -JENKINS "THAT'S WHY IT HAS BEEN DIFFICULT, IN SOME CASES, TO GET UNIVERSAL AGREEMENT ON COMBATTING TERRORISM ITSELF, PARTICULARLY WHEN WE'RE TALKING ABOUT THE USE OF BOMBS. BUT EVEN IN WAR, THERE ARE RULES. THERE ARE RULES THAT PROHIBIT THE TAKING OF HOSTAGES, THERE ARE RULES THAT, AT LEAST THEORETICALLY, PROHIBIT VIOLENCE AGAINST CIVILIAN NONCOMBATANTS. THESE ARE SOMETIMES VIOLATED IN THE COURSE OF WAR. BUT GENERALLY, WITH TERRORISTS, THOSE ARE THE SPECIFIC TARGETS. AND I THINK IT IS POSSIBLE TO MAKE A DISTINCTION BETWEEN SAY, A BOMB HITTING WHAT IS A LEGITIMATE MILITARY TARGET, AND A BOMB BLOWING UP A CAFE OR A SCHOOL BUS." TEXT: THE OKLAHOMA CITY ATTACK IS BEING COMPARED TO THE BOMBING OF NEW YORK'S WORLD TRADE CENTER TWO YEARS AGO. TAPE: CUT SIX - SIMON "WHEN WE HAD THE WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING, IT SHOWED THAT AMERICA CANNOT REMAIN INVULNERABLE TO TERRORISM." TEXT: JEFFREY SIMON IS THE AUTHOR OF THE "TERRORIST TRAP." TAPE: CUT SEVEN - SIMON "BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE, AS TIME WENT ON, TENDED TO DISMISS THAT ATTACK AS A HIGHLY SYMBOLIC ATTACK A FINANCIAL INSTITUTION, AGAINST NEW YORK CITY, AGAINST BASIC GOVERNMENT TYPE OF TARGETS. AND NOW WE'RE SEEING IT GO INTO THE HEARTLAND OF AMERICA." TEXT: THE HEARTLAND OF AMERICA, SAYS JEFFREY SIMON, IS VERY VULNERABLE TO THIS KIND OF ATTACK. TAPE: CUT EIGHT - SIMON "WE DIDN'T HAVE THE SAME TYPE AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL SECURITY THAT YOU WOULD HAVE IN OTHER BUILDINGS. AND FOR THE TERRORISTS, IT CREATES THE REACTION THAT WE'RE SEEING RIGHT NOW OF A NATIONAL EMERGENCY THROUGH A SINGLE BOMB. BUT THE PROBLEM IS, YOU CAN'T HAVE ONE HUNDRED PERCENT SECURITY AGAINST TERRORISTS. THAT'S ALWAYS BEEN ONE OF THE TERRORISTS' ADVANTAGES. SO UNFORTUNATELY, THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING IS NOT GOING TO BE THE LAST OF THAT TYPE THAT WE SEE IN THIS COUNTRY." TEXT: FOR THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING, ATTORNEY GENERAL RENO WANTED TO ASSURE THE AMERICAN PUBLIC THAT THE PUNISHMENT FOR THOSE FOUND GUILTY WOULD BE SEVERE. TAPE: CUT NINE - RENO "THOSE WHO MALICIOUSLY DAMAGE OR DESTROY A FEDERAL BUILDING, IF DEATH OCCURS, THE DEATH PENALTY IS AVAILABLE AND WE WILL SEEK IT." TEXT: AND PRESIDENT CLINTON CALLED UPON THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TO PRAY. TAPE: CUT TEN - CLINTON "TO PRAY FOR THE PEOPLE WHO LOST THEIR LIVES, FAMILIES AND FRIENDS, FOR THE DEAD AND WOUNDED, FOR THE PEOPLE OF OKLAHOMA CITY. MAY GOD'S GRACE BE WITH THEM. MEANWHILE, WE WILL BE ABOUT OUR WORK." TEXT: THAT WAS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON. (SIGNED) NEB/DC/AP/PCH 19-Apr-95 8:12 PM EDT (0012 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 7498 total bytes, 7498 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE= APRIL 20, 1995 TYPE= EDITORIAL NUMBER= 0-06340 TITLE= PEN AWARDS CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST APRIL 20, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. VOICE: THIS MONTH, THE AMERICAN BRANCH OF THE WRITERS' GROUP PEN INTERNATIONAL HONORED TWO IMPRISONED WRITERS FOR THEIR COMMITMENT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION. SAN SAN NWEH [SAN SAN WHERE] IS A BURMESE WOMAN WHO HAS WRITTEN MORE THAN FIVE-HUNDRED SHORT STORIES. SHE IS ALSO THE AUTHOR OF THE ACCLAIMED NOVEL, PRISON OF DARKNESS, WHICH IS CRITICAL OF MANY ASPECTS OF BURMESE SOCIETY. SAN SAN NWEH WAS ARRESTED LAST AUGUST FOR HER ALLEGED ANTI-GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES AND HER SUPPORT OF JAILED 1990 NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER AUNG SAN SUU KYI. MAUREEN AUNG-THWIN [AUN-TWIN] ACCEPTED THE PEN AWARD ON BEHALF OF SAN SAN NWEH. SHE SAYS SHE HOPES THE AWARD WILL FOCUS ATTENTION ON THE PLIGHT OF SAN SAN NWEH. SHE SAYS, "THE PEOPLE INSIDE [BURMA] NEED TO KNOW ABOUT WHAT IS GOING ON IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY." ANOTHER PEN AWARD RECIPIENT IS THE DISTINGUISHED CUBAN JOURNALIST AND POET INDAMIRO RESTANO. IN 1992, HE WAS SENTENCED TO TEN YEARS IN PRISON. THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM STEM FROM HIS ACTIVITIES AS FOUNDER AND PRESIDENT OF THE MOVEMENT FOR HARMONY, AN OPPOSITION GROUP THAT HAS CALLED FOR THE RELEASE OF ALL POLITICAL PRISONERS AND AN END TO CUBA'S ONE-PARTY RULE. PEN HAS MADE MANY ATTEMPTS TO GET MR. RESTANO FREED FROM PRISON. THE ORGANIZATION HAS SENT SEVERAL LETTERS TO THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT BUT HAS NEVER RECEIVED A REPLY. PEN HOPES THAT ITS AWARD WILL BRING ADDITIONAL PRESSURE ON THE CASTRO REGIME TO RELEASE MR. RESTANO. THROUGH ITS AWARDS, PEN SEEKS TO BRING WORLDWIDE ATTENTION TO POETS, PLAYWRIGHTS, ESSAYISTS, EDITORS AND NOVELISTS WHO ARE FIGHTING FOR THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION. BOTH SAN SAN NWEH OF BURMA AND INDAMIRO RESTANO OF CUBA EXEMPLIFY THE COURAGEOUS SPIRIT OF WOMEN AND MEN EVERYWHERE WHO REFUSE TO LET THEIR VOICES BE SILENCED BY OPPRESSION. ANNCR: THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 19-Apr-95 3:06 PM EDT (1906 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2509 total bytes, 2509 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/19/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177228 TITLE= U-N/YUGO (L ONLY) BYLINE= DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE= GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A U-N MONITORING GROUP HAS AGAIN CERTIFIED THAT YUGOSLAVIA IS HONORING ITS PLEDGE TO SEVER POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC LINKS WITH THE SERBS OF NEIGHBORING BOSNIA. VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN GENEVA REPORTS QUESTIONS REMAIN ABOUT SOME UNEXPLAINED HELICOPTER FLIGHTS ACROSS THE BORDER EARLIER THIS MONTH. TEXT: THE APPARENT HELICOPTER FLIGHTS WERE OBSERVED BY U-N MONITORS MANNING RADAR SCREENS AT AN AIRPORT NEAR BELGRADE DURING THE FIRST WEEK IN APRIL. THE MONITORS REPORTED 25 SLOW MOVING AIRCRAFT TRAVELLING FROM BOSNIA INTO YUGOSLAV AIRSPACE. BUT THE LATEST REPORT FROM THE U-N MISSION ACKNOWLEDGES THAT NO HELICOPTERS WERE SEEN FROM THE GROUND. YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS TOLD THE U-N THEY WERE AWARE OF ONLY TWO HELICOPTER FLIGHTS DURING THE PERIOD IN QUESTION. THEY SAID BOTH WERE MEDICAL EVACUATIONS. AND BELGRADE CATEGORICALLY DENIED ANY INVOLVEMENT IN THE ALLEGED BORDER CROSSINGS. U-N AND YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS HAVE AGREED TO CALL IN EXPERTS TO REVIEW TAPES OF THE RADAR CONTACTS IN AN ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THE CONTROVERSY. IN THE MEANTIME, THE U-N MONITORS HAVE AGAIN CERTIFIED THAT BELGRADE IS HONORING ITS COMMITMENT TO SEAL OFF ITS LAND BORDER WITH TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES. BELGRADE ANNOUNCED THE BLOCKADE LAST AUGUST AFTER THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP REJECTED A PEACE PLAN PUT FORWARD BY THE FIVE POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA. BELGRADE SAID IT WAS BREAKING OFF ALL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC RELATIONS WITH THE SELF STYLED SERB REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA, AND BANNING ITS LEADERS FROM TRAVELING TO YUGOSLAVIA. BELGRADE ALSO ANNOUNCED THAT ONLY HUMANITARIAN AID WOULD BE ALLOWED TO ENTER BOSNIA FROM YUGOSLAV TERRITORY. BELGRADE LATER ALLOWED THE U-N TO MONITOR THE BLOCKADE, A MOVE THAT CLEARED THE WAY FOR A PARTIAL EASING OF THE SANCTIONS IMPOSED ON YUGOSLAVIA SOON AFTER THE OUTSET OF THE BOSNIAN WAR. ONE HUNDRED FIFTY TWO MONITORS FROM 18 NATIONS ARE NOW PATROLLING THE YUGOSLAV-BOSNIAN BORDER. THEY INSPECT AND SEAL ALL TRUCKS TRAVELLING FROM YUGOSLAV TO BOSNIAN TERRITORY TO ENSURE THAT ONLY AUTHORIZED SUPPLIES ARE GETTING THROUGH. THEY ALSO MONITOR BORDER CROSSING POINTS ALONG THE DRINA RIVER. THE MONITORS ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE BLOCKADE IS NOT FOOLPROOF. SMUGGLING IS AN ANCIENT TRADITION IN THE BALKANS, AND THERE IS VIRTUALLY NO WAY TO MONITOR THE ENTIRE FRONTIER, PARTICULARLY IN THE ISOLATED MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BORDER REGION. BUT THE U-N REPORT SAYS THE VIOLATIONS ARE IN MOST CASES ISOLATED INCIDENTS. AND OVERALL, THE U-N SAYS IT IS SATISFIED THAT BELGRADE IS HONORING ITS COMMITMENT. THE LATEST REPORT FROM THE MONITORING MISSION SAYS COOPERATION WITH THE BELGRADE GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO BE GOOD. IT SAYS THE MONITORS ARE ALLOWED FULL FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT THROUGHOUT YUGOSLAVIA. AND IT NOTES THAT BELGRADE CONTINUES TO TAKE LEGAL ACTION AGAINST THOSE WHO ATTEMPT TO SMUGGLE GOODS ACROSS THE BORDER. YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES GAVE THE MONITORS A LIST OF THE GOODS THEY SAID THEY CONFISCATED AT THE BORDER DURING THE MONTH OF MARCH. IT INCLUDES CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, AUTOMOBILES AND NEARLY 320 TONS OF FUEL AND MOTOR OIL. NEWS REPORTS SAY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES ARE FACING A GROWING FUEL SHORTAGE THAT IS HAMPERING THEIR EFFORTS TO FEND OFF GROUND ATTACKS LAUNCHED BY BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS DURING THE PAST FEW WEEKS. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/CF 19-Apr-95 10:44 AM EDT (1444 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3592 total bytes, 3592 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4-21-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17113 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT REPORT - EARTH DAY BYLINE=JERI WATSON TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=MARILYN CHRISTIANO CONTENT= THIS IS _____________ WITH THE SPECIAL ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT REPORT. PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN MANY OTHER COUNTRIES WILL HOLD A HUGE CELEBRATION TOMORROW FOR PLANET EARTH. THE CELEBRATION IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF EARTH DAY. NATIONAL POLITICIANS, ACTORS AND MUSICIANS WILL APPEAR AT SOME OF THE BIG CITY CELEBRATIONS. OTHER COMMUNITY CELEBRATIONS WILL INCLUDE FESTIVALS, PROJECTS TO CLEAN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT AND SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. REPRESENTATIVES FROM MANY NATIONS WILL ATTEND A CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK CITY ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMICS. PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN THE CITY WILL MARCH TO CENTRAL PARK. THEN THEY WILL EAT IN THE OPEN AIR AND LISTEN TO SPEECHES AND MUSIC. IN CALIFORNIA, THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WILL TAKE PART IN A CAMPAIGN TO CLEAN THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES. THEY WILL REMOVE WASTE MATERIAL FROM PUBLIC PLACES. THEY ALSO WILL PLANT TREES AND FLOWERS. AND THEY WILL GATHER USED MATERIALS LIKE PAPER AND PLASTIC FOR TREATMENT SO THEY CAN BE RE-USED. IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, CITIZENS IN SAN FRANCISCO WILL CELEBRATE THE CREATION OF A NATIONAL PARK INSIDE THEIR CITY. THE PARK ONCE WAS A MILITARY BASE. NOW IT IS A PLACE FOR PEOPLE TO RIDE BICYCLES, RUN OR WATCH BIRDS. THE FIRST EARTH DAY WAS HELD IN THE SPRING OF NINETEEN-SEVENTY. IT BEGAN BECAUSE SCIENTISTS HAD BEGUN TO WARN THAT OUR PLANET WAS IN TROUBLE. THE LAND AND WATERS WERE DIRTY. SOME KINDS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS WERE IN DANGER OF DISAPPEARING. ONE OF THE PEOPLE CONCERNED ABOUT THE FUTURE OF THE EARTH WAS UNITED STATES SENATOR GAYLORD NELSON. HE WAS KNOWN FOR HIS INTEREST IN CLEAN WATER. HE DID NOT THINK THAT ENOUGH AMERICANS WERE INTERESTED IN THE CONDITION OF THE PLANET. BUT WHEN HE ANNOUNCED THAT HE WOULD LEAD A DEMONSTRATION TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENT, HE RECEIVED THOUSANDS OF CALLS OF SUPPORT. AFTER THE FIRST EARTH DAY, THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS APPROVED SEVERAL LAWS TO CLEAN THE AIR AND THE WATER. CONGRESS ALSO APPROVED MEASURES TO PROTECT ANIMALS THAT WERE THREATENED. AND IT APPROVED MORE CONTROLS ON POISONOUS SUBSTANCES. MORE PEOPLE HAVE JOINED IN EARTH DAY CELEBRATIONS EACH YEAR. COUNTRIES TAKING PART IN CELEBRATIONS THIS YEAR INCLUDE BANGLADESH, CANADA, CHINA, CROATIA, FRANCE, JAPAN, RUSSIA, AND THE AFRICAN NATION, SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE. THIS SPECIAL ENGLISH ENVIRONMENT REPORT WAS WRITTEN BY JERI WATSON. THIS IS _________________. 20-Apr-95 2:48 PM EDT (1848 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2713 total bytes, 2713 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177289 TITLE=U-N / BOSNIA (S) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI FLEW TO SARAJEVO THURSDAY IN A BID TO PERSUADE BOSNIA'S WARRING FACTIONS TO EXTEND THE COUNTRY'S INCREASINGLY PRECARIOUS CEASEFIRE. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS, MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS FROM OUR GENEVA BUREAU, REPORTS PROSPECTS FOR THE SUCCESS OF THIS LATEST U-N INITIATIVE LOOK DIM AT BEST. TEXT: THE NEW YEAR'S TRUCE IS DUE TO EXPIRE IN TEN DAYS. AND BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-DOMINATED GOVERNMENT HAS STATED REPEATEDLY THAT IT WILL NOT AGREE TO AN EXTENSION UNLESS THERE IS SUBSTANTIAL PROGRESS TOWARD AN OVERALL PEACE SETTLEMENT. BOSNIAN LEADERS CONTEND THAT THE TRUCE MERELY CEMENTS SERB TERRITORIAL GAINS. THEY ALSO POINT OUT THE SERB LEADERSHIP HAS REPEATEDLY REJECTED A PEACE PLAN PUT FORWARD BY THE FIVE POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA THAT WOULD REQUIRE SERBS TO GIVE UP SOME OF THE TERRITORY THEY HAVE SEIZED DURING THE THREE YEARS OF WARFARE. THE TRUCE HAS FRAYED BADLY DURING THE PAST FEW WEEKS. BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS HAVE LAUNCHED OFFENSIVES, AND GAINED SOME GROUND, BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH OF THE CAPITAL. FIGHTING HAS CONTINUED IN THE NORTHWEST ENCLAVE OF BIHAC. AND THERE HAS BEEN INCREASED SNIPER FIRE AND SOME PITCHED BATTLES IN AND AROUND SARAJEVO, ITSELF. BUT MR. AKASHI IS NONETHELESS URGING THE WARRING SIDES TO HEED THE LATEST APPEAL FROM THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL FOR AN EXTENSION OF THE TRUCE. FRANCE HAS WARNED IT MAY PULL ITS PEACEKEEPING TROOPS OUT OF BOSNIA IF THE CEASEFIRE IS NOT FORMALLY RENEWED. AND ANALYSTS FEAR THAT COULD LEAD TO THE COLLAPSE OF THE ENTIRE U-N OPERATION IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/SKH/JWH 20-Apr-95 9:20 AM EDT (1320 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1807 total bytes, 1807 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/20/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20259 TITLE=INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM BYLINE=ANDRE DE NESNERA DATELINE=LONDON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A LEADING EUROPEAN EXPERT ON TERRORISM SAYS IT IS STILL TOO EARLY TO TELL WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE BOMBING OF A GOVERNMENT OFFICE BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY. VOA CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA SPOKE WITH BRUCE HOFFMAN, DIRECTOR OF THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF TERRORISM AT SAINT ANDREW'S UNIVERSITY IN GLASGOW, ABOUT WEDNESDAY'S DEVASTATING ATTACK. TEXT: PROFESSOR HOFFMAN SAYS THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING AS WELL AS THE CHEMICAL GAS ATTACK IN TOKYO LAST MONTH ARE VIVID REMINDERS OF HOW EASY IT IS TO CARRY OUT A TERRORIST ATTACK. HE SAYS ALL YOU NEED IS A RUDIMENTARY KNOWLEDGE OF CHEMISTRY AND BASIC ELECTRONICS -- AND YOU CAN BUILD A BOMB. // HOFFMAN ACT // ALL THE MATERIALS THAT YOU NEED TO MAKE UP THE KIND OF WEAPONS ARE READILY AVAILABLE, COMMERCIALLY OBTAINABLE AND LEGAL TO POSSESS. THERE IS ONLY ONE COUNTRY IN THE WORLD THAT OUTLAWS THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS NEEDED TO FABRICATE SARIN -- AND THAT IS AUSTRALIA. AND THE BOMB YESTERDAY IN OKLAHOMA CITY IS BELIEVED TO BE PRIMARILY CONSTRUCTED OF AMMONIUM NITRATE, WHICH IS LAWN FERTILIZER. // END ACT // PROFESSOR HOFFMAN SAYS THERE IS NOT ENOUGH INFORMATION YET TO DETERMINE WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR WEDNESDAY'S DEVASTATING BLAST THAT PARTLY DEMOLISHED THE OFFICE BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY. BUT HE SAYS THERE CERTAINLY MAY BE A MIDDLE EASTERN CONNECTION. // 2ND HOFFMAN ACT // I THINK, CERTAINLY, GIVEN PAST MODUS OPERANDI, THE FACT THAT SIMILAR TYPES OF BOMBS HAVE BEEN USED, FOR INSTANCE, BY ISLAMIC EXTREMISTS IN BUENOS AIRES TO TARGET THE ISRAELI EMBASSY AND THE JEWISH COMMUNITY CENTER JUST LAST JULY. SIMILARITIES WITH THE WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMB, THE FACT THAT 13 ISLAMIC MILITANTS ARE CURRENTLY ON TRIAL IN NEW YORK RIGHT NOW, INCLUDING THE SPIRITUAL LEADER OF THE GROUP JAMAL AT ISLAMIYA -- THE ISLAMIC ORGANIZATION -- AN AGED BLIND CLERIC SHEIKH RAHMAN. THE FACT THAT THE ALLEGED MASTERMIND BEHIND THE WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING, RAMSAY AHMED YUSSEF, WAS RECENTLY EXTRADITED TO THE UNITED STATES FROM PAKISTAN STRONGLY SUGGEST SOME MIDDLE EASTERN ELEMENT. // END ACT // HOWEVER, PROFESSOR HOFFMAN DOES NOT DISCOUNT THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE ATTACK WAS CARRIED OUT EITHER BY A RELIGIOUS SECT OR BY A LONE FANATIC. // 3RD HOFFMAN ACT // FOUR YEARS AGO, FOR EXAMPLE, ONE SUCH PERSON WHO NURSED A FAIRLY SERIOUS GRUDGE AGAINST THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE PACKED A TRUCK SIMILARLY FILLED WITH EXPLOSIVES, PARKED IT OUTSIDE THE I-R-S OFFICE IN WEST LOS ANGELES AND MIRACULOUSLY THE TRUCK WAS DISCOVERED BEFORE IT COULD EXPLODE. BUT IT WOULD HAVE DECIMATED A CITY BLOCK. SO, YOU CAN SEE -- FROM PROFESSIONAL TERRORISTS, AMATEUR TERRORISTS, RELIGIOUS CULTS, LONE INDIVIDUALS -- IT COULD BE REALLY ANYONE. // END ACT // PROFESSOR HOFFMAN SAYS WHOEVER WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING, THE INDIVIDUAL -- OR GROUP -- WANTED TO STRESS THEY CAN STRIKE ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES. THE TERRORISM EXPERT SAYS DEMOCRACIES MUST GIVE THEIR LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES THE NECESSARY TOOLS TO FIGHT TERRORISM WHILE AT THE SAME TIME MAINTAIN CIVIL LIBERTIES SO ESSENTIAL TO THOSE SOCIETIES. (SIGNED) NEB/ADEN/SKH/CF 20-Apr-95 9:47 AM EDT (1347 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3787 total bytes, 3787 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/19/95 TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES 95-366 NUMBER=3-21631 TITLE=M-I-T'S MEDIA LAB BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=KLEINFELDT CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: ONE OF THE PIONEERING CENTERS FOR COMPUTER RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES IS THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY'S MEDIA LABORATORY. THE LAB, SUPPORTED BY FEDERAL CONTRACTS, AS WELL AS BY MORE THAN 75-CORPORATIONS, FOCUSES ON STUDYING AND EXPERIMENTING WITH FUTURE FORMS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATIONS -- EVERYTHING FROM ENTERTAINMENT TO EDUCATION. DAN NOBLE HAS DETAILS: TEXT: GUESS WHAT? IN ABOUT TEN YEARS AMERICANS CAN EXPECT TO HAVE THEIR MORNING NEWSPAPER DELIVERED NOT TO THEIR FRONT DOOR, BUT TO THEIR HOME COMPUTER. AND, THE PAPER WILL BE PERSONALIZED: CONTAINING ONLY THE STORIES THAT INTEREST YOU. THIS IS ONE OF THE DEVELOPMENTS PREDICTED BY NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE (PRON.: - NEGRO-PON-TEH), THE MEDIA LAB'S FOUNDING DIRECTOR. HE BRINGS WITH HIM A UNIQUE BACKGROUND: TAPE: CUT ONE -- NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE (PHONE QUALITY) (0:02) "I WAS ACTUALLY TRAINED AS AN ARCHITECT..." TEXT: ...THAT WAS IN 1965. A FEW YEARS LATER, PROFESSOR NEGROPONTE BECAME INTERESTED IN THE GROWING FIELD OF COMPUTER AID DESIGN... TAPE: CUT TWO -- NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE (0:10) "ONE THING LED TO THE NEXT AND THE GENERAL COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN TURNED INTO A GENERAL INTEREST IN HOW PEOPLE INTERACTED WITH COMPUTERS." TEXT: AND FROM THAT INTEREST CAME THE M-I-T MEDIA LAB. NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE REMEMBERS EXACTLY HOW THE IDEA GREW INTO A REALITY: TAPE: CUT THREE -- NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE (1:02) "MEDIA LAB STARTED AS AN IDEA IN 1978, AUGUST TO BE PRECISE, AS A COUNTER CULTURE TO COMPUTER SCIENCE BECAUSE COMPUTER SCIENCE, AT THE TIME, WAS VERY FOCUSED ON OPERATING SYSTEMS, AND NETWORKS, AND COMPILERS. LET ME JUST CALL IT THE PLUMBING OF THE COMPUTER. WE FELT THAT THERE WERE TWO AREAS MISSING. THE FIRST WAS THE HUMAN - COMPUTER INTERFACE [OPT] THAT PEOPLE WEREN'T ADDRESSING: THE SENSORY RICHNESS, THE DISPLAY, THE SOUND, SPEECH RECOGNITION AND PRODUCTION. [END OPT] AND, SECONDLY, WE FELT THAT THE CONTENT, BE IT MOVIES, BE IT MUSIC, BE IT AUDIO, OR TEXT, WAS NOT PART OF THE BITSTREAMS IN THOSE DAYS AND THAT THE MERGER OF THOSE THINGS WHEN BITS BECAME BITS AND EVERYTHING BECAME DIGITAL WOULD BE WHAT WE CALL MULTIMEDIA." TEXT: ALONG THE WAY THE WHOLE CONCEPT OF WHO WOULD USE A COMPUTER BEGAN TO CHANGE. PROFESSOR NEGROPONTE SAYS THAT, ORIGINALLY, THE HIGH-TECH DEVICES WERE NOT INTENDED FOR HOME USERS: TAPE: CUT FOUR -- NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE (1:01) "THEY ARE NOT MADE FOR THE MAN IN THE STREET. YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE PHENOMENON THAT IS UPON US, NAMELY ANYWHERE FROM 50 TO 80% OF ALL PERSONAL COMPUTERS NOW GO INTO THE HOME. THAT IS A NUMBER THAT IS DEBATABLE AND COMPLEX TO MEASURE BUT THIS IS NOT WHAT MANUFACTURERS HAD THOUGHT. IT WAS EASIER FOR THEM TO BE SELLING THEIR EQUIPMENT INTO COMPANIES WHERE THE EMPLOYEES WERE MORE OR LESS TOLD TO US THEM. THE PURPOSE OF THE COMPANY, MORE OR LESS, COULD NOT BE ACHIEVED WITHOUT USING THEM. SO, YOU WOULD HAVE A SITUATION WHERE, LO AND BEHOLD, COMPUTERS WERE USED IN SPITE OF THEIR BEING DIFFICULT. IN FACT, PEOPLE TOOK COURSES AND FELT LIKE: WHY NOT? LET'S LEARN ABOUT THIS. NOW, WHEN YOU BRING IT TO THE HOME, YOUR HOME, SOMEONE ELSE'S HOME, MY HOME, WE USE IT BECAUSE WE WANT TO. IT'S FUN. IT'S AMUSING. BECAUSE IT INTERESTS US." TEXT: AND IN TURN, THE MANUFACTURERS -- THANKS TO THE WORK DONE AT FACILITIES LIKE THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEDIA LAB -- ARE NOW MAKING COMPUTERS EASIER TO USE. COMPUTERS, SAYS NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE, WILL SOON EVEN BE ABLE TO ANTICIPATE OUR NEEDS: TAPE: CUT FIVE -- NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE (0:40) "THAT IS AN IDEA WHICH HAS EMERGED OVER THE PAST EIGHT YEARS THAT PEOPLE THOUGHT WAS COMPLETELY CRAZY BUT NOW THINK IS ABSOLUTELY LOGICAL. THAT IS THE IDEA OF USING COMPUTER PROGRAMS THAT WOULD WORK ON YOUR BEHALF, BECAUSE THEY KNOW YOU, THEY KNOW YOUR TASTES, THEY KNOW THE SORTS OF THINGS YOU ARE LOOKING FOR, AND THESE COMPUTER PROGRAMS LITERALLY LIVE OUT ON THIS COMPUTER NETWORK. YOU CAN THINK OF IT AS A GIANT GOLDFISH TANK. YOUR OWN FISH ARE OUT THERE SWIMMING, LOOKING FOR STUFF. THEY COME BACK AND REPORT WHAT THEY FOUND. THAT IS A SIMPLE CONCEPT AND SOMETHING THAT WILL, IN FACT, EMERGE IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS." TEXT: THAT'S ACCORDING TO NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE, FOUNDING DIRECTOR OF M-I-T'S MEDIA LAB, DEDICATED TO THE STUDY OF HOW COMPUTERS ARE USED IN OUR LIVES. IN FACT, PROFESSOR NEGROPONTE SAYS "COMPUTING IS NOT ABOUT COMPUTERS ANY MORE. IT IS ABOUT LIVING." 20-Apr-95 7:43 AM EDT (1143 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5481 total bytes, 5481 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue DATE=4-21-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17115 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGLISH AMERICAN MOSAIC #505-MICROSOFT/BILL GATES BYLINE=PAUL THOMPSON TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=MARILYN CHRISTIANO CONTENT= HOST: OUR QUESTION THIS WEEK COMES FROM QINLIANG REN IN TURKU, FINLAND. SHE ASKS ABOUT AMERICAN BUSINESSMAN BILL GATES AND HIS COMPANY, THE MICROSOFT CORPORATION. IN THE PAST FEW YEARS, HUNDREDS OF MAGAZINE AND NEWSPAPER STORIES HAVE BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT BILL GATES AND HIS COMPANY. THE REASON? THE MICROSOFT COMPANY IS EXTREMELY SUCCESSFUL. IT HAS MADE BILL GATES ONE OF THE RICHEST MEN IN THE WORLD. WILLIAM GATES THE THIRD WAS BORN IN NINETEEN-FIFTY-FIVE IN THE WESTERN CITY OF SEATTLE, WASHINGTON. HE BECAME INTERESTED IN COMPUTERS WHEN HE WAS THIRTEEN YEARS OLD.. WHEN MOST YOUNG BOYS HIS AGE WERE PLAYING BASEBALL OR FOOTBALL, YOUNG BILL GATES WAS LEARNING TO WRITE COMPUTER PROGRAMS. THESE PROGRAMS TELL COMPUTERS HOW TO PERFORM USEFUL TASKS. BILL GATES ATTENDED HARVARD UNIVERSITY AFTER HIGH SCHOOL. AT HARVARD, HE BEGAN DEVELOPING THE COMPUTER LANGUAGE CALLED BASIC. HE BEGAN TO THINK THAT THE COMPUTER WOULD SOMEDAY BECOME A VALUABLE TOOL THAT COULD BE USED IN EVERY OFFICE AND HOME. BILL GATES RETURNED TO SEATTLE WHERE HE ESTABLISHED THE MICROSOFT COMPANY IN NINETEEN-SEVENTY-FIVE. IT EMPLOYED ONLY THREE WORKERS. MISCROSOFT DEVELOPED COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR ESTABLISHED AMERICAN COMPANIES, LIKE GENERAL ELECTRIC AND CITIBANK. SOON, MICROSOFT WAS WORKING WITH THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES COMPANY, KNOWN AS I-B-M. IN NINETEEN-EIGHTY-ONE, I-B-M BEGAN SELLING A PERSONAL COMPUTER THAT USED MICROSOFT PRODUCTS AS PART OF ITS OPERATING SYSTEM. BY THEN, MICROSOFT HAD ONE-HUNDRED-TWENTY-NINE WORKERS. TODAY, I-B-M STILL USES MICROSOFT'S COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM. SO DO MANY OTHER COMPUTER COMPANIES. ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS MICROSOFT PRODUCTS IS A PROGRAM CALLED "WINDOWS". "WINDOWS" MAKES IT MUCH EASIER TO USE A COMPUTER. COMPANY OFFICIALS SAY MICROSOFT HAS SOLD ABOUT FORTY-MILLION COPIES OF THE "WINDOWS" PROGRAM AROUND THE WORLD. MICROSOFT DOES THOUSANDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN BUSINESS EACH YEAR. IT NOW HAS MORE THAN SIXTEEN-THOUSAND WORKERS IN MORE THAN FORTY-EIGHT COUNTRIES. MICROSOFT TODAY PRODUCES COMPUTER PROGRAMS IN THIRTY LANGUAGES AND SELLS THEM IN MORE THAN ONE-HUNDRED COUNTRIES. 20-Apr-95 2:49 PM EDT (1849 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2481 total bytes, 2481 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/21/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20266 TITLE=OKLAHOMA AFTERMATH BYLINE=PAUL FRANCUCH DATELINE=CHICAGO CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AS RESCUE WORKERS CONTINUE TO CAREFULLY SIFT THROUGH THE DEBRIS LEFT BEHIND BY THE BOMBING OF A FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING WEDNESDAY IN OKLAHOMA CITY, PEOPLE LIVING AND WORKING NEAR THE SCENE ARE TRYING TO GET THEIR LIVES BACK TO NORMAL. V-O-A'S PAUL FRANCUCH SURVEYED THE NEIGHBORHOOD THURSDAY AND FOUND SIGNS OF BOTH DEVASTATION AND TRANQUILITY. TEXT: POLICE AND NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS HAVE CLOSED THE BOMB SITE TO EVERYONE BUT EMERGENCY OFFICIALS. YET MANY FROM THIS CITY OF ONE-HALF-MILLION PEOPLE CAME OUT OF CURIOSITY TO VIEW THE SITE. PRACTICALLY EVERYONE IN OKLAHOMA CITY HEARD OR FELT THE BLAST WEDNESDAY. MOST WERE AWE-STRUCK AFTER VIEWING WHAT IS LEFT OF THE ALFRED MURRAH FEDERAL BUILDING. CALIFORNIA FIREFIGHTER RICK MARTINEZ LED ONE OF THE RESCUE TEAMS. HE SAYS HE HAD TO CRAWL THROUGH WHAT REMAINS OF THE BUILDING, LOOKING FOR SURVIVORS. BUT HE FOUND NONE, AND HE IS NOT OPTIMISTIC. YET, MR. MARTINEZ CONTINUES THE SEARCH. /// MARTINEZ ACT /// WE HAVE FOUND VOIDS WHERE THERE COULD HAVE BEEN PEOPLE, AND WHEN WE HAVE GOTTEN IN THE VOIDS, THERE HAVE NOT (BEEN PEOPLE). BUT WE KNOW THERE ARE MORE VOIDS AND WE ARE CHECKING ALL OF THOSE. /// END ACT /// RICK MARTINEZ SAYS HE FEARS HE AND HIS FELLOW WORKERS WILL SUFFER LINGERING PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS FROM REMOVING VICTIM'S BODIES. BUT, HE SAYS THEY CANNOT THINK ABOUT THAT NOW. MEANWHILE, THE RESCUE WORKERS RELY ON THE SUPPORT OF VOLUNTEERS LIKE DEBBIE MOORE OF THE RED CROSS. /// MOORE ACT /// REALLY I GOT THE WORD YESTERDAY (WEDNESDAY) WHEN I WAS IN MY CAR AND IT HIT, IT BLEW-UP. BUT WE HAVE JUST BEEN OUT HERE TRYING TO PASS OUT FOOD, GET IT OUT TO WHERE PEOPLE CAN SEE IT SO THEY CAN GET IT QUICK, AND THEN GET BACK TO WORK. /// END ACT /// SALVATION ARMY OKLAHOMA DIVISION COMMANDER, MAJOR ROBERT TRITTON (SHORT "I" VOWEL), SAYS HIS VOLUNTEERS AND PERSONNEL HAVE BEEN HELPING IN THE EMERGENCY RELIEF FROM THE TIME THE TRAGEDY STRUCK. BUT, MAJOR TRITTON SAYS THE AROUND-THE-CLOCK OPERATION HAS BEEN TIRING. /// TRITTON ACT /// IT IS GOING VERY WELL, UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES. OBVIOUSLY THERE ARE A LOT OF TEARS BEING SHED. A LOT OF OUR VOLUNTEER WORKERS -- WE HAVE HAD HUNDREDS OF VOLUNTEER WORKERS -- AS WELL AS SALVATION ARMY PERSONNEL, THEY HAVE TO TAKE A FEW MINUTES TO GET BY THEMSELVES, TO JUST RE-GROUP THEMSELVES IN ORDER TO GO BACK TO WORK. /// END ACT /// ALL AROUND THE BOMB SITE IN OKLAHOMA CITY ARE SIGNS OF THE DESTRUCTIVE POWER OF THE MASSIVE EXPLOSION. ABOUT FOUR BLOCKS AWAY AT "ALAN'S RESTAURANT," THE PROPRIETOR, NAMED -- TONY -- LED ME THROUGH HIS GLASS-STREWN KITCHEN. /// TONY ACT /// LOOK AT IT, THE BACK OF THE ROOM. WE WERE HERE AT NINE-THIRTY (THE TIME, SHORTLY AFTER THE BLAST) YESTERDAY AND IT WAS ALL GLASS, EVERYWHERE. /// END ACT /// HE POINTED TO A BEAM THAT SPLIT AND OTHER SIGNS OF DAMAGE. /// TONY ACT /// GLASS EVERYWHERE, BUILDING APART HERE, KNOCKED-OUT THE TWO FRONT DOORS, ALL THE WINDOWS UPSTAIRS. HOWEVER, IT DID NOT SHAKE ONE PICTURE OFF THE WALL. /// END ACT /// THE DINING ROOM WALLS ARE FILLED WITH FRAMED PICTURES, PAINTINGS AND OTHER DECORATIONS. /// TONY ACT /// AND THEY STAYED FINE, EVERY ONE OF THEM. /// END ACT /// TONY SAYS HE CANNOT COOK FOOD AT HIS RESTAURANT. THE COOKING GAS LINE WAS CUT. BUT HE IS STILL SERVING COLD SANDWICHES, DRINKS AND SALADS AMID THE SHATTERED GLASS -- AND PERFECTLY-PLACED WALL PICTURES. (SIGNED) NEB/PCF/TMS/RAE 21-Apr-95 1:02 AM EDT (0502 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4152 total bytes, 4152 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/20/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20261 TITLE=SEARCH FOR SECURITY IN EUROPE BYLINE=ED WARNER DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (THE OSCE, FORMERLY THE CSCE) IS A SMALL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION WITH LARGE AMBITIONS. SINCE ITS MEMBERS INCLUDE THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA ALONG WITH EUROPEAN NATIONS, IT HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF INCLUSIVENESS. BUT LACKING ENFORCEMENT POWERS, IT MUST SEEK CONSENSUS, AND THAT MEANS OVERRIDING SOME NATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS -- A FORMIDIBLE TASK. IN AN ADDRESS AT THE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK, HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LASZLO KOVACS, CURRENT CHAIRMAN OF THE O-S-C-E, NOTED SOME OF THE PROJECTS AND PROBLEMS OF HIS ORGANIZATION. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS. TEXT: NEXT WEEK, THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE IS SCHEDULED TO OPEN AN OFFICE IN CHECHNYA IN AN EFFORT TO BRING PEACE TO THE REGION. ONLY SIX PEOPLE WILL BE STATIONED THERE, BUT LASZLO KOVACS, CHAIRMAN OF THE O-S-C-E, SAYS IT'S A START: // KOVACS ACTUALITY // FIRST IT WILL TRY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE TALKS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE CHECHNYAN POPULATION, WHICH IS CERTAINLY NOT EASY AS THE RUSSIANS OBVIOUSLY DECLINED TO ACCEPT THE ONLY POLITICAL GROUP IN CHECHNYA; THAT IS, THE SUPPORTERS OF GENERAL DUDAYEV, WHO HAS GOT LEGITIMATE SUPPORT FROM THE POPULATION. AND THE RUSSIANS FINALLY AGREED THAT THE O-S-C-E COULD PARTICIPATE IN THE TALKS, NOT TO MEDIATE BETWEEN THE CHECHNYANS AND THE RUSSIANS BECAUSE WE CAREFULLY AVOIDED TO USE THE WORD OF "MEDIATION" BUT TO USE THE WORD OF "CONTRIBUTION." // END ACT // MR. KOVACS TOLD THE AUDIENCE AT CARNEGIE THAT O-S-C-E WILL PUSH FOR A CEASE-FIRE, THEN OFFER HUMANITARIAN AID AND HELP ARRANGE FOR FREE ELECTIONS WHICH IT WILL MONITOR. THAT AT LEAST IS THE PLAN, BUT MR. KOVACS CONCEDED THERE ARE FURTHER OBSTACLES: // KOVACS ACTUALITY // ON THE POLITICAL LEVEL, THE RUSSIAN AUTHORITIES ARE RATHER COOPERATIVE, AND THEY ACCEPTED THE IDEA, THEY APPROVED THE IDEA TO ESTABLISH A PERMANENT MISSION THERE, AND PRESIDENT YELTSIN EVEN ISSUED A DECREE WHICH PROVIDES ALL THE NECESSARY POSSIBILITIES FOR THE MISSION. BUT IN THE MEANTIME, THE MILITARY ACTIONS ARE GOING ON, AND WE HAVE THE FEELING THAT THE POLITICAL LEADERS HAVE GOT VERY, VERY MINOR CONTROL OVER THE MILITARY AND THE MILITARY ACTIONS. // END ACT // OTHER ANALYSTS WOULD ARGUE THAT MOSCOW'S CONTROL IS LARGER THAN THAT, THOUGH IT MAY NOT WANT TO ADVERTISE THE FACT. MR. KOVACS WENT ON TO DISCUSS THE O-S-C-E'S ROLE IN TRYING TO END THE WAR BETWEEN AZERBAIJANIS AND ARMENIANS IN NAGORNO-KARABAKH. A TENTATIVE CEASE-FIRE IS IN PLACE, BUT HE FOUND IT DIFFICULT TO ACHIEVE A COMPROMISE. HE ALSO SAID HE DOES NOT EXPECT A GENEROUS RESPONSE FROM O-S-C-E MEMBERS WHEN HE ASKS FOR FINANCIAL AID AND MANPOWER FOR A PEACE-KEEPING MISSION. MR. KOVACS EMPHASIZED THE VITAL IMPORTANCE OF CREATING AN ARCHITECTURE OF SECURITY IN EUROPE. WITHOUT IT, HE SAID, THE PROPSEROUS WEST MAY WELL BE HURT BY CRISES IN THE UNSTABLE EAST: // KOVACS ACTUALITY // THERE IS NO SECURITY ARCHITECTURE THAT COULD COPE WITH THESE CHALLENGES. THOSE SECURITY STRUCTURES WHICH EXIST IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE CONTINENT LIKE NATO OR THE EUROPEAN UNION WERE ESTABLISHED IN THE PERIOD OF THE COLD WAR TO DEFEND WESTERN VALUES, THE VALUES OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACIES, AND ALSO THE WESTERN STRATEGIC INTERESTS. AND THEY DID IT PERFECTLY WELL. BUT THEY ARE NOT ABLE TO MEET THIS NEW SECURITY RISK, AS THE TRAGIC EVENTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA OBVIOUSLY SHOW. // END ACT // HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LASZLO KOVACS SAID O-S-C-E IS ONE OF SEVERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANZATIONS NOW ATTEMPTING TO BRING SECURITY TO EUROPE. THEY MUST NOT OVERLAP, HE ADDED, BUT INTERLOCK TO COMBAT THE DISRUPTIVE FORCES OF RADICAL NATIONALISM. (SIGNED) NEB/EW/CF 20-Apr-95 1:03 PM EDT (1703 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4394 total bytes, 4394 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/20/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177325 TITLE=SERBIA/SANCTIONS (S ONLY) BYLINE=ELAINE JOHANSON DATELINE=UNITED NATIONS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES, GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE HAVE REACHED AGREEMENT ON A RESOLUTION FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL THAT WOULD CONTINUE TO EASE U-N SANCTIONS ON BELGRADE -- BUT UNDER STRICTER CONDITIONS. RUSSIA -- THE FIFTH MEMBER OF THE SO-CALLED CONTACT GROUP FOR YUGOSLAVIA -- MAY NOT SUPPORT IT WHEN IT COMES TO A VOTE FRIDAY. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS: TEXT: SANCTIONS WOULD BE SUSPENDED FOR ONLY 75 DAYS, RATHER THAN THE 100-DAY PERIODS THE COUNCIL AUTHORIZED TWICE BEFORE . ALSO, AIR SURVEILLANCE WOULD BE ADDED TO THE MONITORING MISSION ON SERBIA'S BORDERS. A U-S DIPLOMAT SAYS THE RESOLUTION SHOULD SEND BELGRADE A STRONG MESSAGE THAT THIS IS NO LONGER BUSINESS AS USUAL. THE SECURITY COUNCIL IS SPLIT ON WHETHER SERBIA IS DOING ENOUGH TO KEEP MILITARY SUPPLIES FROM THE BOSNIAN SERBS. THE U-N REPORTS THAT BELGRADE IS MEETING ITS COMMITMENT. BUT OTHER OBSERVERS IN THE REGION SAY ARMS ARE STILL GOING THROUGH. RUSSIA -- SERBIA'S TRADITIONAL ALLY -- WANTS THE SANCTIONS EASED INDEFINITELY. BUT THE WESTERN ALLIES EXPECT RUSSIA WILL SIMPLY ABSTAIN ON THE RESOLUTION BECAUSE TO VETO IT WOULD MEAN ALL THE SANCTIONS WOULD BE REINSTATED. THE COUNCIL ALLOWED YUGOSLAVIA LAST OCTOBER TO RESUME LIMITED AIR AND SEA TRAFFIC AND PARTICIPATE IN INTERNATIONAL SPORTING AND CULTURAL EVENTS.(SIGNED) NEB/PT 20-Apr-95 7:15 PM EDT (2315 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1593 total bytes, 1593 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP NUMBER=4-08284 TITLE=BOSNIAN P-O-W REMEMBERS SERB COMMANDER BYLINE=PAMELA TAYLOR TELEPHONE=619-1101 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM S-O-D // INTRO: THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE (NETHERLANDS) HAS NAMED THREE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS AS WAR CRIMINALS, INCLUDING RADOVAN KARADZIC. THE INDICTMENTS WHICH ARE EXPECTED TO FOLLOW WOULD BE THE FIRST AGAINST HIGH-LEVEL OFFICIALS SUSPECTED OF WAR CRIMES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE TRIBUNAL MEANWHILE HAS TAKEN CUSTODY OF A LOWER LEVEL SUSPECT, A BOSNIAN SERB ACCUSED OF RAPING, TORTURING AND MURDERING MUSLIMS AND CROATS WHEN HE WAS COMMANDER OF A SERB INTERNMENT CAMP IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. DUSAN TADIC [DOO-SHAN TAH-DITCH] IS EXPECTED TO APPEAR BEFORE THE U-N TRIBUNAL IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED WITH A YOUNG BOSNIAN MUSLIM, NOW LIVING IN THE UNITED STATES, WHO REMEMBERS DUSAN TADIC WELL: TEXT: ALMIN HADZIC [ALL-MEEN HAD-JITCH] WAS 15 YEARS OLD WHEN SERB FIGHTERS CAME TO HIS HOUSE IN THE NORTHWESTERN BOSNIAN TOWN OF PRIJEDOR [PREE-YEH-DOOR] IN 1992. HE WAS TAKEN TO THE NEARBY SERB INTERNMENT CAMP OF TRNOPOLJE [TURN-OH-POLE-YEH], THE ONE FILMED BY A BRITISH TELEVISION CREW IN 1992. THE NOW FAMOUS IMAGES OF SKELETAL PRISONERS BEHIND BARBED WIRE -- UNCOMFORTABLE REMINDERS OF WORLD WAR TWO CONCENTRATION CAMPS -- SPARKED INTERNATIONAL OUTRAGE. ALMIN REMEMBERS THE DAY HE FIRST SAW DUSAN TADIC, HIS FORMER KARATE INSTRUCTOR AT TRNOPOLJE: TAPE: CUT # 1 HADZIC RUNS [:60] "I SAW HIM ONCE AT THE CONCENTRATION CAMP WHEN I WAS THERE. I AM NOT SURE IF HE WAS DRUNK OR NOT BUT HE CAME TO TRNOPOLJE AND HE WAS LOOKING FOR SOMEONE. HE WANTED TO KILL HIM BUT HE COULDN'T FIND HIM. [OPT] WHAT USUALLY HAPPENED, THEY CAME, TOOK SOME GUYS, ASKED SOME QUESTIONS -- YOU KNOW, LIKE, 'WHERE DID YOU LEAVE YOUR GUNS?'. YOU KNOW, STUPID QUESTIONS. AND IF YOU DIDN'T HAVE ANSWERS, THEY BEAT YOU. IF YOU START TO CRY, THEY START TO SWEAR AND THEY BEAT YOU MORE. SOMETIMES THEY CAME AND TOOK A GUY AND HE NEVER CAME BACK. [END OPT] DURING THE NIGHT, THEY CAME AND TOOK THE PEOPLE AWAY; YOU HEARD LATER, 'BANG!' AND THEY NEVER CAME BACK. THAT'S HOW I KNOW THEY KILLED THEM. BECAUSE YOU KNOW DURING THE NIGHT THEY WOULD USUALLY GET DRUNK OR IF THEY WERE NOT HAPPY WITH WHAT WAS GOING ON AT THE FRONT, IN ANOTHER PART OF BOSNIA WHERE THEY ARE LOSING. AND IF THEY ARE NOT HAPPY WITH THAT, THEY WOULD GET ANGRY AND JUST COME AND KILL PEOPLE." TEXT: ALMIN SAYS HE HID BEHIND A GROUP OF MEN, FEARING DUSAN TADIC WOULD RECOGNIZE HIM. HE RECALLED HIS FORMER KARATE COACH BEFORE THE WAR AS A GOOD ATHLETE AND INSTRUCTOR, BUT HE ALSO REMEMBERED A CONVERSATION HE OVERHEARD SEVERAL MONTHS BEFORE THE WAR BROKE OUT: TAPE: CUT # 2 HADZIC RUNS [:24] "HE WAS AN EXCELLENT, EXCELLENT ATHLETE. HE WAS THE BEST KARATE (INSTRUCTOR) IN MY TOWN, IN MY COUNTRY. HE WAS STRONG; HE WAS A GREAT ATHLETE. THE FIRST TIME I NOTICED SOMETHING, WAS AT MY KARATE CLUB. THERE WERE A COUPLE OF MORE SERBS AND THEY WERE TALKING TOGETHER AND WHEN I REALLY STARTED TO THINK ABOUT HIM (WAS) WHEN HE SAID, 'YOU KNOW, WE SHOULD DESTROY SARAJEVO'." TEXT: ALMIN IS OUTRAGED THAT THE TRIBUNAL CANNOT IMPOSE THE DEATH PENALTY FOR CRIMES SUCH AS THOSE COMMITTED BY DUSAN TADIC. HE SAYS A U-S ATTORNEY ADVISING THE TRIBUNAL TOLD HIM THE MOST SEVERE SENTENCE THE TRIBUNAL COULD IMPOSE WOULD BE LIFE IMPRISONMENT: TAPE: CUT # 3 HADZIC RUNS [:34] "I REMEMBER I ASKED THE QUESTION, IF THE DEATH PENALTY WAS POSSIBLE AND THEY SAID 'NO, THEY WILL ONLY GET LIFE IMPRISONMENT'. IT'S NOT FAIR. IT'S NOT FAIR. YOU KNOW, THOSE PEOPLE KILLED SO MANY PEOPLE, THEY DESERVE THE DEATH PENALTY, THOSE PEOPLE LIKE DUSAN TADIC. I KNOW THAT MY NEIGHBOR ACROSS THE STREET, HE LOST FOUR SONS. DO YOU THINK EVEN IF THEY PUT DUSAN TADIC IN JAIL AND HE'S GOING TO BE HAPPY WITH THAT? NO WAY. I DON'T THINK HE (TADIC) IS GOING TO WALK ON THE STREETS ACTUALLY. I'M PRETTY SURE THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE ARE GOING TO KILL HIM SOMEWHERE ON THE STREET." TEXT: ALMIN IS ALSO ANGRY THAT CAMP COMMANDERS WHO MAY HAVE COMMITTED EVEN WORSE CRIMES THAN DUSAN TADIC MAY NEVER BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE. HE CITED THE CASE OF THE COMMANDERS AT THE NEARBY CAMP OF KERETERM, WHICH WAS LATER CALLED A 'DEATH CAMP' BY MANY BECAUSE THOUSANDS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE DIED THERE. ALMIN'S FATHER WAS TAKEN TO KERETERM BUT MANAGED TO SURVIVE: TAPE: CUT # 4 HADZIC RUNS [:35] "THE SERBS, THEY BEAT HIM. HE LOST HIS TEETH; HIS RIBS ARE IN BAD CONDITION NOW. THEY HAD BASEBALL BATS, THEY HAD MANY KINDS OF DIFFERENT TOOLS TO BEAT PEOPLE. IT WAS HORRIBLE. IN THAT SITUATION, YOU THINK THEY'RE JUST GOING TO COME AND THEY'RE GOING TO KILL YOU. MY MOM, SHE WAS NOT RAPED, THANK GOD. SHE WAS VERY LUCKY. BUT TWO OF MY RELATIVES, THEY WERE RAPED AT THE CONCENTRATION CAMP, VERY BADLY ACTUALLY." TEXT: ALMIN SAID IT WAS THANKS TO A "GOOD SERB" THAT HIS FAMILY SURVIVED AND WAS EVENTUALLY REUNITED. HE RECALLED HOW THIS SERB SAVED HIS FAMILY FROM BEING SHOT ON THE SPOT THAT DAY IN 1992. SERB SOLDIERS HAD COME TO THE HOUSE WHERE SEVERAL HADZIC FAMILY MEMBERS HAD GATHERED THINKING THERE WAS SAFETY IN NUMBERS: TAPE: CUT # 5 HADZIC RUNS [:48] "ONE GUY WANTED TO KILL US. THERE WERE LIKE 30 PEOPLE IN MY HOUSE, MY NEIGHBORS AND MY UNCLE AND ONE OF THE SOLDIERS CAME AND HE WANTED TO KILL US. WE HAD TO SING THE SERBIAN ANTHEM AND HE WAS SAYING, 'LOUDER, LOUDER!' AND WE HAD TO SING LIKE CRAZY PEOPLE. AND THEN MY COACH SAID, 'NO, NO, NO! GO AHEAD, I'LL TAKE CARE OF THEM.' BUT HE HAD A MASK AND ACTUALLY I DIDN'T RECOGNIZE HIM. AND THEN HE TOOK THE MASK FROM HIS FACE AND HE SAID, 'ALMIN, LISTEN, YOU TAKE YOUR FAMILY AND YOUR RELATIVES AND GO TO THE CONCENTRATION CAMP. THAT'S REALLY THE BEST WAY TO SAVE YOUR LIFE.' TRNOPOLJE WAS ONE OF THE CAMPS WHERE YOU HAD A PRETTY GOOD CHANCE OF STAYING ALIVE; ONLY ABOUT 400 PEOPLE WERE KILLED THERE." TEXT: ALL IN ALL, ALMIN CONSIDERS THAT HIS WHOLE FAMILY WAS LUCKY DESPITE THE BRUTAL RAPES OF SEVERAL COUSINS AND THE FACT THREE UNCLES WERE KILLED ALONG WITH OTHER RELATIVES AND MANY OF THE NEIGHBORS ON HIS STREET. HE, LIKE MANY OTHER CAMP SURVIVORS, IS CAREFULLY WATCHING THE SLOW AND METICULOUS WORK OF THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. (SIGNED) NEB/PAM/PCH 24-Apr-95 3:23 PM EDT (1923 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 7514 total bytes, 7514 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20286 TITLE=BOSNIA AID BYLINE=JENNIFER GLASSE DATELINE=MOSTARCONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS AND DOZENS OF OTHER GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS DELIVER SUPPLIES TO THE REFUGEES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THERE ALSO ARE MANY SMALLER, MORE PERSONAL, EFFORTS TO HELP THE PEOPLE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA DISPLACED BY THE WAR. JENNIFER GLASSE HAS THIS REPORT AFTER TRAVELING WITH ONE PRIVATELY FUNDED AID CONVOY FROM ENGLAND TO BOSNIA. TEXT: MORE THAN A YEAR AGO, SOME PEOPLE IN THE SMALL TOWN OF HEREFORD, IN ENGLAND'S WEST MIDLANDS, DECIDED THEY WANTED TO HELP PEOPLE IN WAR-TORN BOSNIA. THEY LOADED UP A COUPLE OF TRUCKS AND DROVE NEARLY TWO THOUSAND KILOMETERS TO DELIVER FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES THAT THEY AND THEIR FELLOW TOWNSPEOPLE HAD THEMSELVES PURCHASED OR COLLECTED. THE AID MISSION MEANT LONG DAYS OF DRIVING ALONG THE SNOWY ROADS OF AUSTRIA AND THE WINDING COASTLINE OF CROATIA. RICHARD WARR, WHO WAS ON THAT TRIP, SAYS IT INSPIRED THE CREATION OF AN ORGANIZATION CALLED HEREFORD HUMANITARIAN AID, WHICH NOW SENDS A CONVOY OF SUPPLIES TO REFUGEE CAMPS IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA EVERY TWO MONTHS. // WARR ACT // WHEN PEOPLE THINK OF REFUGEES, SOME PEOPLE TEND TO THINK, WELL THEY'VE ALWAYS BEEN POOR. AND THAT'S SO UNTRUE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THERE'S A COMPLETE CROSS SECTION OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE LOST EVERYTHING. WE'VE MET PEOPLE WHO'VE WORKED IN SHOPS, LAWYERS, FACTORY OWNERS, FARMERS, WHO HAVE LOST EVERYTHING. // END ACT // DAVID WATKINS LS THE COORDINATOR OF THE HEREFORD GROUP. HE SAYS IT HAS NOT BEEN EASY MANAGING THE PAPERWORK TO ENABLE THE CONVOY AND TONS OF FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES, TO PASS THROUGH THE NUMEROUS BORDERS TO REFUGEE CAMPS. // WATKINS ACT // WE HIT RESISTANCE FROM THE AUTHORITIES, SOMETIMES, TO HELPING THE REFUGEES AND THAT IS SOMETHING WE FIND QUITE DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND BECAUSE WE ARE TRYING TO LOOK PAST ALL THE NATIONAL POLITICS AND THE STRIFE BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS AND WE'RE FOCUSING PURELY ON THE HUMANITARIAN NEED OF THE INDIVIDUALS. // END ACT // RESTRICTIONS ON THE CONVOYS APPEAR TO BE INCREASING. THE DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR THE CONVOY CHANGE WITH EVERY TRIP. IT IS NOT UNCOMMON TO BE DELAYED AT A BORDER CROSSING FOR HOURS OR DAYS. AUTHORITIES IN BOTH SLOVENIA AND CROATIA DO NOT WANT THE AID UNLOADED WITHIN THEIR COUNTRIES BECAUSE, THEY FEEL, IT WOULD LIKELY END UP ON THE BLACK MARKET. JENNIFER HICKEY DROVE WITH HEREFORD'S APRIL CONVOY TO MOSTAR IN BOSNIA. THE WAITING AND BUREAUCRACY, SHE SAYS, WERE THE WORST PART OF THE TRIP. // HICKEY ACT // I AM VERY GLAD I CAME. IF YOU HAD ASKED ME 24 HOURS AGO, AND I WAS SITTING AT A GODFORSAKEN FRONTIER LINE WITH NO LOOS (TOILETS) AND NO DRINKS AND NOTHING AND WE WERE THERE FOR 23 HOURS. I THINK IF SOMEONE HAD OFFERED ME A LIFT HOME, I THINK I WOULD HAVE TAKEN IT. BUT I'M GLAD NOBODY OFFERED ME A LIFT HOME AND I'M GLAD I CAME. IT'S GREAT NOW I'M HERE AND IT WAS WELL WORTH THE AWFUL HASSLE WE HAD. // END ACT // THE HEREFORD AID ORGANIZERS SAY THERE IS A LOT OF BUREAUCRATIC RED TAPE, AND THAT THEIR PRIVATE CHARITY EFFORT TAKES MUCH OF THEIR FREE TIME -- EVENINGS, WEEKENDS AND VACATIONS -- TO COLLECT THE AID AND SET UP THE PERIODIC CONVOYS. BUT THEY SAY THEY WILL NOT BE DETERRED. INCREASED BUREAUCRACY MEANS THEY WILL HAVE TO BE ORGANIZED AND BETTER PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE DELAYS AS THEY MOVE THEIR TRUCK CONVOYS INTO CROATIA AND BOSNIA. THEIR PURPOSE THEY SAY IS TO TAKE AID DIRECTLY TO THE PEOPLE -- TO BE ABLE TO HAND THE FOOD THAT THEY'VE COLLECTED TO THE REFUGEES IN BOSNIA WHO ARE HUNGRY. (SIGNED) NEB/JG/MH/CF 24-Apr-95 9:12 AM EDT (1312 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4108 total bytes, 4108 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/22/95 TYPE=MUSIC PROGRAMS FEATURE NUMBER=3-21675 TITLE=EARTH DAY CONCERT BYLINE=DOUG LEVINE TELEPHONE=619-2799 DATELINE=WASHINGTON, D.C. EDITOR=SD CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE IN MUSIC LIBRARY & AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: IN HONOR OF THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY OF EARTH DAY ON APRIL 22, STARS FROM ROCK, JAZZ, RHYTHM-AND-BLUES AND COUNTRY MUSIC CAME TO THE NATION'S CAPITAL TO PERFORM AT A SIX-HOUR CONCERT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. VOA'S DOUG LEVINE HAS MORE ON THIS ALL-DAY EVENT WHICH DREW THOUSANDS IN SUPPORT OF A CLEANER, GREENER EARTH. TAPE B: (CUT ONE) BOYZ II MEN "YESTERDAY" (P. MCCARTNEY, J. LENNON) (NORTHERN SONGS LTD., MACLEN MUSIC, INC., BMI) (IN FULL TO :25 THE FADE UNDER TEXT) TEXT: BOYZ II (TO) MEN TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE FREE, OPEN-AIR EARTH DAY CONCERT TO TRY OUT A SOULFUL TWIST OF THE BEATLES' CLASSIC "YESTERDAY." THE QUARTET WAS ONE OF MANY FROM A DIVERSE CONCERT LINEUP TO RALLY BEHIND EARTH DAY '95. FOR YEARS, WORLD-FAMOUS MUSICIANS HAVE SUPPORTED HUMANITARIAN CAUSES. IN THE 1980'S THERE WAS NO NUKES, LIVE AID, AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, USA FOR AFRICA AND FARM AID. THESE ALL-STAR BENEFITS RAISED MILLIONS OF DOLLARS FOR NUCLEAR SAFETY, HUNGER AND FARM RELIEF. WHILE RAISING MONEY WAS NOT ITS MAIN FOCUS, THE MESSAGE OF EARTH DAY '95 WAS CLEAR -- SAVE THE PLANET. CONCERTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT PRODUCER MICHAEL MARTIN EXPLAINS WHY SO MANY MUSICIANS TOOK TIME OUT TO CELEBRATE THIS SPECIAL ANNIVERSARY. TAPE A: (CUT ONE) MICHAEL MARTIN (:28) "THESE MUSICIANS THAT ARE PARTICIPATING AND DONATING THEIR TIME ARE PARTICIPATING BECAUSE THEY BELIEVE IN THE ISSUE (AND) THEY BELIEVE IN THE CAUSE. THESE WERE SELECTED BECAUSE IT REPRESENTS A DIVERSITY OF MUSIC (AND THEY ARE) REPRESENTING A DIVERSITY OF OUR COUNTRY THAT REALLY NEEDS TO BE AWARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. SO, THAT'S WHY WE GO FROM URBAN MUSIC TO COUNTRY TO POP. IT'S ACROSS THE BOARD AND THAT'S WHO'S OUT THERE TODAY. IT'S ALL OF AMERICA SPEAKING OUT ON BEHALF OF THE ENVIRONMENT." TEXT: COUNTRY FAVORITES MARY CHAPIN CARPENTER, SAWYER BOWN, KATHY MATTEA AND THE MAVERICKS BLENDED IN WITH THE STEADY STREAM OF JAZZ, ROCK AND RHYTHM-AND-BLUES. MAVERICKS' BASS PLAYER ROBERT REYNOLDS BELIEVES MUSIC ITSELF CAN SEND A POWERFUL MESSAGE. TAPE A: (CUT TWO) ROBERT REYNOLDS (:23) "IF THERE'S A PUBLIC THAT'S TUNED IN TO A PARTICULAR TYPE OF MUSIC, IT CREATES A GROUP OF PEOPLE THAT CAN BE REACHED SOMETIMES VERY SIMPLY, (WITH) JUST SOME SIMPLE WORDS, A PROJECT OR A CONCERT. WE'VE HAD SOME (BENEFITS) IN COUNTRY MUSIC, THERE'S BEEN LOTS OF THEM IN ROCK 'N' ROLL, AND NOW THERE SEEMS TO BE A GROWING TREND OF BRINGING ALL MUSIC TOGETHER." TAPE B: (CUT TWO) THE MAVERICKS "ALL THAT HEAVEN WILL ALLOW" (R. MALO) (TREE PUB. CO, MALO MUSIC INC, BMI) (IN FULL TO :21 THEN FADE UNDER TEXT) TEXT: THE JAZZ AND ROCK WORLD HAD A FINE SHOWING OF ARTISTS REPRESENTING SEVERAL GENERATIONS OF MUSIC -- JAZZ SAXOPHONISTS BRANFORD MARSALIS AND PAUL WINTER, FOLK-ROCKERS NATALIE MERCHANT, SHAWN COLVIN AND TOAD THE WET SPROCKET, AND ROCK SINGERS BRUCE HORNSBY AND KENNY LOGGINS. A LONGTIME SUPPORTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, LOGGINS BELIEVES AMERICA HAS FALLEN BEHIND OTHER NATIONS IN CONSERVATION AWARENESS. TAPE A: (CUT THREE) KENNY LOGGINS (:12) "'DO WE SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT OR DO WE SAVE THE PEOPLE' IS A SMOKESCREEN FOR THE POLITICS OF WHAT'S GOING ON AND I THINK IT WILL ONLY BE A MATTER OF EDUCATION FOR THE AMERICAN PUBLIC TO CATCH UP WITH THE REST OF THE WORLD." TEXT: //OPT// YOUNGER MEMBERS OF THE AUDIENCE WERE FIRST TO RECOGNIZE THE SOULFUL VOICES OF MAXEE, NICCI (NICKY) AND MIMI OF THE NEW RHYTHM-AND-BLUES SENSATION BROWNSTONE. MIMI SAYS THE TRIO WAS THRILLED TO SING AT EARTH DAY'S 25TH BIRTHDAY PARTY. TAPE A: (CUT FOUR) MIMI (:14) "IT'S A BIG HONOR FOR US ACTUALLY TO BE INVOLVED IN THIS. THERE'S SO MANY PEOPLE THAT COME OUT, AND REALLY GREAT PEOPLE COME OUT AND SUPPORT THE CAUSE. BASICALLY, WE JUST FEEL PRIVILEGED TO BE ABLE TO COME OUT AND SHOW OUR SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE EARTH." //END OPT// TEXT: THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY NATIONAL EARTH DAY RALLY AND CAMPAIGNS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT ALSO FEATURED SPEAKERS FROM A WIDE VARIETY OF CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS, AS WELL AS EXHIBITS, ECO-FAIRS, TREE PLANTINGS, NATIVE AMERICAN CEREMONIES AND TRADITIONAL FOLK DANCING. THE EARTH DAY CONCERT FINALE FEATURED KENNY LOGGINS, MARY CHAPIN CARPENTER, SHAWN COLVIN, TOAD THE WET SPROCKET, KATHY MATTEA AND THE DUKE ELLINGTON SCHOOL OF THE ARTS CHOIR PERFORMING THE KENNY LOGGINS TUNE "CONVICTION OF THE HEART." (SIGNED) TAPE B: (CUT THREE) KENNY LOGGINS "CONVICTION OF THE HEART" (K. LOGGINS, G. THOMAS) (GNOSSOS MUSIC, ALBEDO MUSIC, ASCAP) (ENDS WITH APPLAUSE AT 5:17) ACTUALITIES: DOUG LEVINE INTERVIEWS ALL MATERIAL MUST CREDIT THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY NATIONAL EARTH DAY RALLY AND CAMPAIGNS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT 24-Apr-95 8:28 AM EDT (1228 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5728 total bytes, 5728 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20287 TITLE=CROATIAN REFUGEE CAMP BYLINE=JENNIFER GLASSE DATELINE=MOSTAR CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: TENS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES HAVE BEEN CREATED BY THE CONFLICT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, HOMES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED AND ETHNIC TENSIONS MEAN THAT MANY PEOPLE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO RETURN TO THE VILLAGES THEY FLED WHEN THE WARS BEGAN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. JENNIFER GLASSE MET A REFUGEE FAMILY LIVING IN ONE OF THE MANY CAMPS THAT HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED IN THE REGION AND HEARD WHY LIFE THERE IS SO DIFFICULT. TEXT: ANNA, HER HUSBAND, AND THREE CHILDREN LEFT THEIR HOME IN NOVY TRAVNIK MORE THAN TWO YEARS AGO WHEN THE SERBS ATTACKED. HER FATHER DIED DURING THE ESCAPE. THEY CAME TO POSOUJE, A CROATION POPULATED AREA OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, WHERE THEY SHARE A CRAMPED CORNER IN A HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASIUM WITH ANOTHER FAMILY OF FIVE. SHE SAYS THROUGH A TRANSLATOR THAT SHE HOPES TO GO HOME. // ANNA ACT // WE CANNOT FORGET WHERE WE COME FROM BECAUSE IT IS BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY. HERE IT IS JUST STONE AND WE ARE NOT USED TO LIVING HERE. EVEN IF WE HAD A HOUSE WE WOULDN'T WANT TO STAY. HERE AT THE CAMP THE CONDITIONS ARE VERY BAD. FOR EXAMPLE, MY DAUGHTER GOT A SORE THROAT BUT THE CAMP DIDN'T HAVE MEDICINE TO TREAT IT. I HAD TO BUY SOME FROM A DOCTOR. // END ACT // ANNA'S HUSBAND MAKES MONEY BY OCCASIONALLY WORKING AS A DAY LABORER. A FEW DAYS A MONTH HE HELPS LOAD OR UNLOAD TRUCKS AT A DEPOT FAR FROM THE CAMP. THIS CAMP, MORE THAN 50 KILOMETERS OUTSIDE OF THE CITY OF MOSTAR, HAS NO PRIVATE RUNNING WATER AND A CENTRAL KITCHEN WHICH FEEDS THE 270 MAINLY CROATIAN REFUGEES. THE UNITED NATIONS' REFUGEE AGENCY, U-N-H-C-R, IS THE CAMP'S MAIN SOURCE OF FOOD. PRIVATE AID CONVOYS ALSO COME TO THE CAMP, BUT ANNA SAYS THE MEALS SHE AND HER FAMILY GET ARE NOT HEALTHY. // ANNA ACT // WELL, I DON'T KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO ALL THE FOOD OR IF THEY'RE SENDING ENOUGH, BUT THERE ARE NOT ENOUGH VITAMINS IN WHAT WE GET. ON SUNDAYS WE GET ONE TIN OF CANNED MEAT PER PERSON. HALF FOR MORNING AND HALF FOR THE EVENING. // END ACT // ABOUT 50 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM ANNA AND HER FAMILY, IN EAST MOSTAR, 13-YEAR OLD ADNAN, A MUSLIM, ECHOES THE WEARINESS OF WAR COMMON TO ANNA AND HER FAMILY AND SO MANY OTHER REFUGEES. ADNAN AND MOST CHILDREN IN EAST MOSTAR HAVE NOT BEEN TO SCHOOL IN MONTHS. THE SCHOOL BUILDING WAS DESTROYED IN FIGHTING BETWEEN THE MUSLIMS AND THE CROATS OVER CONTROL OF THE CITY. EAST MOSTAR, MAINLY MUSLIM, HAS SUSTAINED MUCH OF THE DAMAGE. THE LOCAL RADIO STATION HAS OPENED ITS AIRWAVES TO THE CHILDREN, ALLOWING THEM TO ACT AS REPORTERS FOR THEIR OWN SHOW CALLED "CHILDREN FIRST." ADNAN SAYS IT IS NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR SCHOOL BUT HE ENJOYS IT. // ADNAN ACT // THIS IS FUN. WE CAN'T GO TO SCHOOL. IT'S WAR. WE CAN'T GO FAR AWAY. RADIO IS FUN. WE WORK HERE, FIND WHAT WE CAN FIND -- READING, WRITING, LAUGHING AND THINGS LIKE THAT. // END ACT // ADNAN AND THE OTHER CHILDREN SAY THEY REMEMBER THE BOMBS AND SHOOTING THAT FOR THE MOST PART ENDED WITH A CEASE-FIRE IN MARCH OF 1994. DESPITE THE TENTATIVE PEACE, THERE ARE STILL TENSIONS BETWEEN THE CROATS AND THE MUSLIMS WHO SHARE THE CITY. MOSTAR IS ESSENTIALLY SEGREGATED. JUST OVER A YEAR AGO, ADNAN WENT TO WEST MOSTAR TO VISIT HIS GRANDPARENTS. CROATIAN AUTHORITIES WOULD NOT GIVE HIM A PASS TO RETURN HOME TO HIS PARENTS AND SISTER, LIVING JUST ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE RIVER. IT TOOK MONTHS BEFORE HE COULD RETURN TO THEM. HIS GRANDPARENTS STAYED BEHIND. DOZENS OF OTHER FAMILIES IN MOSTAR ARE PERMANENTLY SEPARATED BECAUSE OF PRESSURE AGAINST ALLOWING CROATS AND MUSLIMS TO LIVE TOGETHER. (SIGNED) NEB/JG/MH/CF 24-Apr-95 9:24 AM EDT (1324 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4058 total bytes, 4058 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177485 TITLE=U-S-BOSNIA (L) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENT CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS CALLING ON THE UNITED NATIONS TO ENFORCE SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS OPENING SARAJEVO AIRPORT TO FOREIGN DIPLOMATS. AS RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THREATENED INDICTMENTS OF BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS AS WAR CRIMINALS COMPLICATES THE EFFORT. TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER HAS DIRECTED THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS, MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, TO SEEK UNITED NATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF FREE ACCESS FOR DIPLOMATS TO VISIT BOSNIA WITHOUT CONDITIONS IMPOSED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS. AT THE SAME TIME, STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTS THE ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE THAT IT HAS NAMED THREE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS AS SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. ///BURNS ACT/// THE UNITED STATES STRONGLY SUPPORTS VIGOROUS ACTION BY THE PROSECUTOR AND THE TRIBUNAL TO INVESTIGATE AND PROSECUTE THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR GENOCIDE, WAR CRIMES, AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY THAT OCCURRED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. WE BELIEVE THE TRIBUNAL SHOULD FOLLOW WHEREVER THE EVIDENCE OF SUCH CRIMES LEADS, REGARDLESS OF THE POSITION OR THE ETHNIC IDENITY OF THE PERPETRATORS. ///END ACT/// THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN SAYS INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS WILL STILL TRY TO ARRANGE PEACE WITH BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC UNTIL HE IS FORMALLY CHARGED BY THE TRIBUNAL. HOWEVER, THE DIFFICULTY OF DOING THAT WAS HIGHLIGHTED FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, WHEN THE AMERICAN AND GERMAN REPRESENTATIVES ON THE FIVE-NATION CONTACT GROUP COULD NOT ENTER SARAJEVO BECAUSE THEY REFUSED TO ACCEPT BOSNIAN SERB CONDITIONS ABOUT WHICH PERSONS THEY COULD MEET OR HOW LONG THEY COULD STAY. IN THEIR EFFORT TO ASSERT POWER OVER UNITED NATIONS CONTROLLED SARAJEVO AIRPORT, THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE DEMANDED THE RIGHT TO CONTROL CIVILIANS USING THE AIRPORT. MR. BURNS SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL TRY TO CONVINCE THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TO ENFORCE ITS RESOLUTIONS WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS. ///BURNS ACT/// WE'RE NOT PREPARED TO GIVE IN TO BOSNIAN SERB DEMANDS TO CHANGE THE PROCEDURES AT SARAJEVO AIRPORT. THESE DEMANDS REPRESENT AN ATTEMPT BY THE SERBS UNILATERALLY TO REDEFINE THE AIRPORT STATUS AND THEIR ATTEMPT TO DICTATE THE GROUND RULES FOR THE CONDUCT OF LEGITIMATE DIPLOMATIC BUSINESS IS A SERIOUS BREACH OF U-N AGREEMENTS. ///END ACT/// THE UNITED NATIONS HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT THE ACTIVITIES OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WILL ONLY ENRAGE THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP FURTHER, ENDANGERING RELIEF SHIPMENTS AS THE CURRENT CEASE-FIRE BREAKS DOWN. AMERICAN OFFICIALS COUNTER THAT THE SERBS SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO THUMB THEIR NOSES AT (DISREGARD) THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND SERBIA HAVE REJECTED THE AUTHORITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. THE UNITED STATES IS WARNING SERBIA THAT ITS CHANCES FOR SEEING AN END TO U-N ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST IT MAY DEPEND ON ITS COOPERATION WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL, AS WELL AS ITS WILLINGNESS TO AGREE TO RECOGNIZE THE INDEPENDENCE OF BOSNIA AND CROATIA. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/KK/BG 24-Apr-95 4:32 PM EDT (2032 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3547 total bytes, 3547 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177489 TITLE=U-S-BOSNIA (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENT CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS ASKING THE UNITED NATIONS TO ENFORCE SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS REGARDING FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AT U-N CONTROLLED SARAJEVO AIRPORT. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT. TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER HAS DIRECTED THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS TO SEEK THE ENFORCEMENT OF U-N AUTHORITY OVER SARAJEVO AIRPORT AFTER INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE RATHER THAN TO ACCEPT BOSNIAN SERB CONDITIONS ON THEIR ENTRY. THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE DEMANDED THE RIGHT TO CONTROL CIVILIAN ACCESS TO THE U-N CONTROLLED AIRPORT WITH THE IMPLIED THREAT OF A SECURITY RISK IF THEY ARE DEFIED. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS SHOULD ENFORCE SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS. ///BURNS ACT/// WE'RE NOT PREPARED TO GIVE IN TO BOSNIAN SERB DEMANDS TO CHANGE THE PROCEDURES AT SARAJEVO AIRPORT. THESE DEMANDS REPRESENT AN ATTEMPT BY THE SERBS UNILATERALLY TO REDEFINE THE AIRPORT STATUS. ///END ACT/// AT THE SAME TIME, THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN STRONGLY SUPPORTS THE ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE THAT NAMES THREE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS AS SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. MR. BURNS SAYS NEGOTIATIONS WITH RADOVAN KARADZIC WILL BE CONDUCTED UNTIL HE IS FORMALLY CHARGED. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/CB/BG 24-Apr-95 4:41 PM EDT (2041 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1609 total bytes, 1609 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/23/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177447 TITLE=U-S/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BYLINE=VICTOR BEATTIE DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY HAS REAFFIRMED HIS OPPOSITION TO A UNILATERAL U-S LIFTING OF THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGO ON THE MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS MR. PERRY SAYS DESPITE CONTINUED FIGHTING THE PRESENT POLICY INCLUDING A LARGE U-N PEACEKEEPING PRESENCE HAS REDUCED CIVILIAN CASUALTIES IN THE LAST YEARS: TEXT: SECRETARY PERRY WARNS A LIFTING OF THE EMBARGO WOULD CREATE A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE RESULTING IN A PULLOUT OF U-N PEACEKEEPERS. HE SAYS THE BEST ALTERNATIVE IS A STRENGTHENING OF UNPROFOR FORCES. WHILE ACKNOWLEDGING THERE IS NO IMMEDIATE END IN SIGHT TO THE WAR THE PRESENT POLICY HAS REDUCED THE SUFFERING OF BOSNIA'S CIVILIANS: /// PERRY ACTUALITY /// IN 1992 THERE WERE 130-THOUSAND CIVILIAN CASUALTIES IN THAT WAR. OUR GOAL FROM THE BEGINNING HAS BEEN TO REDUCE THOSE CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. AND FOR ALL OF THE FAILURES OF THE PEACE AGREEMENTS WE HAVE BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL IN REDUCING THOSE CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. IN 1993 THEY WENT FROM 130-THOUSAND TO 12-THOUSAND. LAST YEAR IT WAS TWO-THOUSAND-500. /// END ACTUALITY /// MR. PERRY SAYS A LIFTING OF THE ARMS EMBARGO MIGHT NOT ONLY LEAD TO A WIDENING OF THE WAR BUT AMERICANIZE IT AS WELL. SENATE MAJORITY LEADER AND REPUBLICAN PARTY PRESIDENTIAL HOPEFUL ROBERT DOLE, LONG A SUPPORTER OF LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO, HAS PROMISED TO BRING THE MATTER UP IN THE SENATE SOON. SENATOR DOLE SAYS ONCE THE CURRENT CEASE-FIRE EXPIRES APRIL 30TH HE EXPECTS SUCH BIPARTISAN LEGISLATION TO BE INTRODUCED. PRESIDENT CLINTON SUPPORTS A UNIVERSAL END TO THE ARMS EMBARGO ALTHOUGH MEMBERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL BOSNIAN CONTACT GROUP WITH PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA STRONGLY OPPOSE SUCH A MOVE. (SIGNED) NEB/VB/LWM 23-Apr-95 8:36 PM EDT (0036 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2085 total bytes, 2085 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE= APRIL 25, 1995 TYPE= EDITORIAL NUMBER= 0-06345 TITLE= UNITED NATIONS AT 50 CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST APRIL 25, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. VOICE: TODAY MARKS THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF A MILESTONE IN WORLD HISTORY. ON APRIL 25TH, 1945, REPRESENTATIVES FROM FIFTY NATIONS MET IN SAN FRANCISCO TO ORGANIZE THE UNITED NATIONS. THE CONFERENCE DELEGATES HOPED TO FORGE AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF PROMOTING PEACE, SECURITY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. THEY ALSO HOPED TO REMEDY THE WEAKNESSES OF THE U-N'S PREDECESSOR ORGANIZATION, THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. ORGANIZED IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR, THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS SOUGHT TO PROMOTE PEACE THROUGH DISARMAMENT AND ARBITRATION OF CONFLICTS BETWEEN NATIONS. THE LEAGUE WAS COMPROMISED BY THE RIVALRIES OF ITS MEMBERS AND BY THE ISOLATIONIST POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES. WEARY OF WAR AND THE BURDEN OF WORLD AFFAIRS, THE AMERICAN PEOPLE OPPOSED U.S. PARTICIPATION IN THE LEAGUE. THE WEAKNESS OF THE LEAGUE ENCOURAGED AGGRESSION BY IMPERIAL JAPAN, NAZI GERMANY, AND FASCIST ITALY, WHICH LED DIRECTLY TO THE SECOND WORLD WAR. DURING THE WAR, REPRESENTATIVES OF BRITAIN AND THE COMMONWEALTH NATIONS MET IN LONDON WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENTS-IN-EXILE OF NINE COUNTRIES OCCUPIED BY NAZI GERMANY. THEY DRAFTED THE INTER-ALLIED DECLARATION, PLEDGING TO WORK FOR A PEACEFUL, SECURE, AND FREE POST-WAR WORLD. THESE PRINCIPLES WERE LATER REAFFIRMED IN A DECLARATION ISSUED JOINTLY BY THE U.S. AND BRITAIN CALLED THE ATLANTIC CHARTER. ON JANUARY 1ST, 1942, REPRESENTATIVES OF TWENTY-SIX NATIONS SIGNED A DECLARATION APPROVING THE AIMS OF THE ATLANTIC CHARTER. THIS DOCUMENT WAS LATER SIGNED BY AN ADDITIONAL TWENTY-ONE COUNTRIES AND BECAME THE BASIS OF THE U-N CHARTER. ON JUNE 26TH, 1945, THE FIFTY NATIONS PRESENT AT THE SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE VOTED TO ACCEPT THE CHARTER, WHICH TOOK EFFECT ON OCTOBER 24TH, 1945. TO UNDERSCORE ITS COMMITMENT TO THE U-N, THE U.S. AGREED TO BE THE SITE OF ITS PERMANENT HEADQUARTERS. SIGNING THE CHARTER ON BEHALF OF THE U.S., PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN CALLED IT A DECLARATION "OF FAITH THAT WAR IS NOT INEVITABLE." AND, HE WARNED, "THE WORLD MUST NOW USE IT." ANNCR: THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 24-Apr-95 2:33 PM EDT (1833 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2785 total bytes, 2785 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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B00000000000000 DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177457* TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S ) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// ED: RE-ISSUING, ADDS NAME OF THIRD SUSPECT, IN SECOND GRAPH OF TEXT /// INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS NAMED THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS AS SUSPECTS IN ITS INVESTIGATION OF WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS FEAR THE SERBS MAY REACT BY COOPERATING EVEN LESS WITH U-N OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE ANNOUNCED THAT BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND THE SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, ARE BEING INVESTIGATED AS SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. THE TRIBUNAL ALSO NAMED A FORMER SERB OFFICIAL, MICO STANISIC. HOWEVER, THE TRIBUNAL HAS NOT FORMALLY INDICTED THE THREE MEN AND HAS NOT ISSUED ANY INTERNATIONAL WARRANTS FOR THEIR ARREST. BUT, UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY THE TRIBUNAL'S STATEMENT THAT THE THREE MEN ARE SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS COULD SET BACK THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS AND COULD HINDER U-N HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. U-N OFFICIALS HAD WANTED THE TRIBUNAL TO DELAY ITS STATEMENT UNTIL THE WARRING FORCES AGREED TO EXTEND THE OFFICIAL CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA. BUT THE SERBS AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAVE SAID FOR WEEKS THAT THEY WOULD NOT EXTEND THE LARGELY-IGNORED TRUCE WHICH EXPIRES AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. THE SERBS AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAVE BOTH SET CONDITIONS FOR AN EXTENDED CEASEFIRE THAT EACH SIDE HAS ALREADY REJECTED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/JWH 24-Apr-95 8:20 AM EDT (1220 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1721 total bytes, 1721 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/24/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177457 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS NAMED THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS AS SUSPECTS IN ITS INVESTIGATION OF WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS FEAR THE SERBS MAY REACT BY COOPERATING EVEN LESS WITH U-N OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE ANNOUNCED THAT BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND THE SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, ARE BEING INVESTIGATED AS SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. THE TRIBUNAL HAS NOT FORMALLY INDICTED THE TWO MEN AND HAS NOT ISSUED ANY INTERNATIONAL WARRANTS FOR THEIR ARREST. BUT, UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY THE TRIBUNAL'S STATEMENT THAT THE TWO MEN ARE SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS COULD SET BACK THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS AND COULD HINDER U-N HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. U-N OFFICIALS HAD WANTED THE TRIBUNAL TO DELAY ITS STATEMENT UNTIL THE WARRING FORCES AGREED TO EXTEND THE OFFICIAL CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA. BUT THE SERBS AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAVE SAID FOR WEEKS THAT THEY WOULD NOT EXTEND THE LARGELY-IGNORED TRUCE WHICH EXPIRES AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. THE SERBS AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAVE BOTH SET CONDITIONS FOR AN EXTENDED CEASEFIRE THAT EACH SIDE HAS ALREADY REJECTED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH 24-Apr-95 7:55 AM EDT (1155 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1567 total bytes, 1567 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/25/95 TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP NUMBER=6-08950 TITLE=EARTH DAY 25 YEARS LATER BYLINE=NAZANIN LAHIJANI/GUTHRIE TELEPHONE=(MON-TUE) 205-0754 (WED-THUR) 619-0414 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= INTRO: AMERICA'S NEWSPAPERS FOCUSED THEIR EDITORIAL SPOTLIGHT ON THE CONDITION OF THE PLANET IN RECENT DAYS AS THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY OF "EARTH DAY" WAS MARKED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD (4/22). MANY DAILIES NOTED THAT FEWER PEOPLE SEEM AS CONCERNED ABOUT THE PLANET'S WELL-BEING NOW, THAN WHEN EARTH DAY WAS FIRST OBSERVED IN THE ENVIRONMENTALLY-CONSCIOUS ATMOSPHERE OF THE 1970S. SOME PAPERS CONTEND THE REASON IS THAT THE PUBLIC IS SATISFIED WITH ITS ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE, AND NO LONGER FEARS IMMINENT HARM FROM ENVIRONMENTAL DEGREGATION. OTHERS BELIEVE THIS COMPLACENCY IS DUE TO A DIVERSION OF INTEREST IN SEEMINGLY MORE PRESSING CONCERNS, SUCH AS CRIME, JOBS, AND EDUCATION. SOME PAPERS FEEL PEOPLE ARE SIMPLY TIRED OF PAYING THE INCREASING COSTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUPS. WE GET A FULL RANGE OF EDITORIAL OPINION ON THE ISSUE NOW FROM _____________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP. TEXT: GAYLORD NELSON, AN ENVIRONMENTALLY-CONSCIOUS FORMER WISCONSIN GOVERNOR AND U-S SENATOR, LAUNCHED EARTH DAY A QUARTER-CENTURY AGO AS AN ANNUAL TAKING STOCK [INVENTORY] OF THE PLANET'S GENERAL HEALTH. FOR SOME, THE EVENT JUST DOESN'T ELICIT THE EXCITEMENT IT DID IN ITS EARLIER DAYS, OR EVEN IN ITS RECENT PAST. "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" SAYS THAT SINCE THE PUBLIC'S FEARS ABOUT VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHES PROPHESIED BY THE NEWS MEDIA AND OTHERS HAVE FAILED TO MATERIALIZE, THEY HAVE BECOME SOMEWHAT INURED TO THE MAN-MADE DANGERS FORMALLY ASSOCIATED WITH EARTH DAY CELEBRATIONS. VOICE: "IN 1990, THE ENVIRONMENT WAS AT OR NEAR THE TOP OF THE PUBLIC AGENDA BECAUSE OF SOME DRAMATIC INCIDENTS. THE SCORCHING SUMMER OF 1988 HAD REVIVED FEARS THAT INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS WERE SHROUDING THE PLANET IN A HEAT-RETAINING BLANKET THAT WOULD TURN THE (U-S) MIDWEST INTO A DESERT AND SUBMERGE THE COASTAL METROPOLISES IN THE WATERS OF THE MELTED POLAR ICE CAPS. AND THE QUIXOTIC, NEAR-COMIC ODYSSEY OF A BARGE FILLED WITH GARBAGE FROM [NEW YORK CITY] SEEMED TO PROVE THAT THE COUNTRY'S THROWAWAY MENTALITY WAS FINALLY CATCHING UP WITH IT. ...BUT THE DISASTERS DID NOT COME. THE GARBAGE CRISIS TURNED OUT NOT TO BE SUCH A CRISIS AFTER ALL, AND SCIENTISTS ARE STILL ARGUING OVER WHETHER THE GLOBAL CLIMATE IS WARMING UP." TEXT: "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" IN BOSTON OBSERVES A SIMILAR PATTERN BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS AND PUBLIC INTEREST AND MOUNTING FERVOR: VOICE: "IN 1970, EARTH DAY WAS A WORLDWIDE WAKE-UP CALL. TWO EVENTS THE YEAR BEFORE -- THE OIL SPILL OFF OF SANTA BARBARA, CALIF., AND THE FIRE ON THE POLLUTED CUYAHOGA RIVER IN OHIO -- BECAME ICONS OF A NATURAL WORLD SORELY ABUSED. A QUARTER-CENTURY OF PROGRESS HAS LIFTED THAT DARK MOOD." TEXT: ACROSS TOWN, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" IS WARNING THAT THE PRESENT PHILOSOPHY OF CONGRESS TOWARD A SMALLER, LESS OBTRUSIVE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, MAY HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OF THE NATION AND THE PLANET. VOICE: "IT IS IRONIC THAT THIS MILESTONE IN THE MARCH TOWARD A CLEANER, SAFER, MORE SUSTAINABLE PLANET SHOULD BE MARKED BY SHRILL ATTEMPTS AT UNDOING THE IMPORTANT WORK THAT HAS BEEN DONE TO ENCOURAGE PARTICIPATION AND ENSURE FURTHER GAINS." TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" QUOTES PAUL PORTNEY, OF RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE, A, PRIVATE, NON-PROFIT PUBLIC POLICY AGENCY IN WASHINGTON. HE BLAMES GROWING COSTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS FOR THE PUBLIC'S INCREASING RESISTANCE TO THE EFFORT, COMMENTING: "WE ARE PAST THE POINT WHERE THE PUBLIC WILL UNCRITICALLY ASSUME ANY ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS SHOULD BE FUNDED." "THE L-A TIMES" GOES ON TO SAY: VOICE: "THE 25 YEARS HAVE SEEN HUGE IMPROVEMENTS IN AIR AND WATER, BUT FURTHER PROGRESS NOW BECOMES ENORMOUSLY COSTLY AND A POLITICAL BACKLASH AGAINST THE GREEN MOVEMENT THREATENS TO REVERSE YEARS OF HEROIC WORK. .... IN WASHINGTON, THE NEW CONSERVATIVE G-O-P MAJORITY ATTEMPTS TO GUT THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT, THE CLEAN WATER ACT AND THE CLEAN AIR ACT BY IMPOSING IMPOSSIBLE COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS IN THE NAME OF PRESERVING LOGGING AND OTHER JOBS." TEXT: JESSICA MATHEWS, A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, WRITING IN "THE WASHINGTON POST", ARGUES THAT A "DECLARATION OF VICTORY IS WAY TOO PREMATURE" AND -- IN HER WORDS -- AN ECOLOGICALLY UTOPIAN EARTH IS ONLY FEASIBLE IF POLICIES ARE REVISED AND AN ACTIVE DRIVE AND DETERMINATION PERSISTS AMONG THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD. VOICE: "IT WILL NOT BE BEYOND OUR REACH TO DEVELOP AN AGRICULTURE THAT PRODUCES HIGHER YIELDS THAN TODAY'S BEST WITHOUT CHEMICAL OVERLOAD, SOIL DEGRADATION, WATER POLLUTION AND GENETIC IMPOVERISHMENT, AND THAT CAN DO SO NOT JUST IN THE BEST FARMING AREAS BUT IN EVERY GEOLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC NICHE. ABOVE ALL, ENERGY USE CAN BE CUT TO A FRACTION OF TODAY'S. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS A SOURCE THAT HAS BARELY BEEN TAPPED. BEFORE ANY OF THIS HAPPENS DOZENS OF POLICIES WILL HAVE TO CHANGE. GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT WILL BE REVISED TO INCLUDE NATURAL RESOURCE CONSUMPTION. PRICES OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES WILL REFLECT THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS." TEXT: A MORE CONCISE APPRAISAL OF THE SITUATION IS OFFERED BY U-S TODAY, WHICH PUBLISHED RESULTS OF A GALLUP POLL TOGETHER WITH THE CABLE NEWS NETWORK AND FOUND: VOICE: "... ONLY 63-PERCENT OF US CONSIDER OURSELVES ENVIRONMENTALISTS, DOWN FROM 78 PERCENT IN 1991. MAYBE AFTER 25 EARTH DAYS, WE'VE COME TO FEEL SECURE, OR TOO POOR, TO GO FARTHER. BUT THE STAKES REMAIN HIGH. THEY ARE NOT JUST A FEW ACRES OF WETLAND OR A SQUIGGLY LITTLE FISH, BUT THE HEALTH OF OUR ECONOMY, OUR FUTURE, OUR EARTH, OURSELVES." TEXT: WITH THOSE THOUGHTS FROM "USA TODAY" WE CONCLUDE THIS U-S OPINION ROUNDUP ON EARTH DAY AND THE WORLD'S ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS -- PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. NEB/NL/ANG/PCH 25-Apr-95 3:33 PM EDT (1933 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6972 total bytes, 6972 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/25/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177547 TITLE=GINGER ROGERS DIES (L-O) BYLINE=ALAN SILVERMAN DATELINE=LOS ANGELES CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: HOLLYWOOD AND MOVIE FANS EVERYWHERE ARE MOURNING THE DEATH OF GINGER ROGERS. THE SINGER AND ACTRESS DIED OF NATURAL CAUSES TUESDAY AT HER HOME IN THE CALIFORNIA DESERT RESORT COMMUNITY OF RANCHO MIRAGE. V-O-A'S ALAN SILVERMAN HAS THIS LOOK BACK AT HER MORE THAN 60 YEAR STAGE AND SCREEN CAREER. TEXT: /// "SHUFFLE OFF TO BUFFALO" MUSIC /// IN MOVIE MUSICALS FROM THE 1933 FAVORITE "42ND STREET" TO THE SONG-AND-DANCE FILM CLASSICS WITH FRED ASTAIRE, BLONDE, SASSY GINGER ROGERS CAUGHT THE EYE AND WON THE HEART OF FANS WORLDWIDE. THIRTY YEARS AGO, WHEN ROGERS RETURNED TO WHERE HER ACTING CAREER BEGAN -- THE BROADWAY STAGE -- SHE SAID THE APPLAUSE ON OPENING NIGHT WAS HER GREATEST JOY. /// ROGERS ACTUALITY /// IT WAS VERY MUCH LIKE HAVING A DREAM WHEN.. YOU ARE FLOATING UP IN BLUE AND PINK CLOUDS . YOU'RE ON MARSHMALLOWS AND SUGAR CANDY AND PERFUME AND EVERYTHING THAT'S LOVELY AND YOU ENJOY. /// END ACTUALITY /// BORN VIRGINIA KATHERINE MCMATH IN 1911 AT INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI (PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN'S HOME TOWN), SHE GREW UP IN TEXAS WHERE HER THEATER CRITIC MOTHER BROUGHT LITTLE "GINGER" TO THE ATTENTION OF TOURING VAUDEVILLE STARS. SHE WAS N-O-T YET 20 WHEN SHE MADE HER BROADWAY DEBUT. AFTER STAGE SUCCESS, HOLLYWOOD CAME CALLING. IN A SCREEN CAREER THAT BEGAN IN 1930, GINGER ROGERS MADE MORE THAN 70 FILMS AND WAS ALREADY A STAR WHEN R-K-O PICTURES TEAMED HER WITH DEBONAIR ASTAIRE. IT WAS SAID "HE GAVE HER CLASS; SHE GAVE HIM SEX APPEAL." /// "SHALL WE DANCE" ACTUALITY /// ROGERS: "I DON'T KNOW WHAT TO DO." ASTAIRE: "I DON'T EITHER." [AYE'-THER] ROGERS: "THE WORD IS E I T H E R." [EE'-THER] /// OPT /// ASTAIRE: "ALL RIGHT. THE WORD IS EITHER. NO USE SQUABBLING. THAT WILL GET NEITHER [NYE'-THER] OF US ANYPLACE." ROGERS: "THE WORD IS N E I T H E R." [NEE'-THER] /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// /// MILLER ACTUALITY /// THERE WILL NEVER BE ANOTHER GINGER ROGERS AND THERE WILL NEVER BE ANOTHER FRED ASTAIRE. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// END OPT /// LONGTIME FRIEND AND FELLOW PERFORMER ANN MILLER SAYS THE PAIR WORKED HARD TO ENTERTAIN A GENERATION OF MOVIE-GOERS. /// MILLER ACTUALITY /// SHE WAS SOPHISTICATED WITHOUT BEING JADED. SHE HAD A SWEETNESS ABOUT HER .. A CHARM ABOUT HER .. AND WHEN SHE WORKED WITH FRED ASTAIRE, THEY WERE JUST LIKE COFFEE AND CREAM TOGETHER. /// END ACTUALITY /// /// OPT /// ROGERS OCCASIONALLY COMPLAINED ABOUT ALL THE ATTENTION FOCUSED ON HER CO-STAR; SHE DIDN'T MIND AT ALL WHEN A POLITICIAN QUIPPED THAT GINGER ROGERS DID THE SAME DANCE STEPS AS FRED ASTAIRE; BUT SHE DID THEM BACKWARDS, WEARING HIGH HEELS. /// END OPT /// ANN MILLER SAYS SHE GOT HER FIRST MAJOR FILM ROLE .. IN THE 1937 MUSICAL "STAGE DOOR" .. THANKS TO HER FRIEND WHO WANTED TO BE RECOGNIZED FOR HER MORE THAN JUST HER DANCING: /// MILLER ACTUALITY /// SHE WAS ONE GOOD ACTRESS .. BUT NOBODY EVER GAVE HER CREDIT FOR ACTING BECAUSE HER DANCING WITH FRED (ASTAIRE) OVERSHADOWED EVERYTHING. BUT WHEN SHE WON AN ACADEMY AWARD, I THINK THAT PROVED IT. /// END ACTUALITY /// ROGERS WON THE BEST ACTRESS OSCAR FOR HER 1940 STARRING ROLE AS ACCUSED MURDERER "KITTY FOYLE." A KENNEDY CENTER HONOREE IN 1992, MS. ROGERS WAS FORCED BY ILL HEALTH TO USE A WHEELCHAIR, BUT SHE CONTINUED TO DELIGHT FANS WITH PERSONAL APPEARANCES; ONE OF HER LAST CAME AT A LONDON TRIBUTE LAST DECEMBER. A HAPPY HOME SEEMED TO ELUDE GINGER ROGERS. SHE MARRIED AND DIVORCED FIVE TIMES AND HAD NO CHILDREN, BUT SHE SAID HER LIFE WAS BLESSED IN SO MANY OTHER WAYS BY THE "UNBOUNDED APPRECIATION AND LOYALTY" OF HER MANY FANS.(SIGNED) NEB/PT NEB / AS / BD 25-Apr-95 5:05 PM EDT (2105 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4406 total bytes, 4406 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/25/95 TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES 95-367 NUMBER=3-21691 TITLE=SOFTWARE FOR CONSERVATION (S) BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=SWANEY CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: A MAJOR AMERICAN SOFTWARE MANUFACTURER HAS MADE A HIGH-TECH CONTRIBUTION DESIGNED TO HELP WORLDWIDE CONSERVATION EFFORTS. ________________________ HAS DETAILS. TEXT: A WORLD WILDLIFE FUND SCIENTIST, STUDYING BELUGA WHALES IN THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER, IN NORTH AMERICA, WILL NOW BE ABLE TO TRANSMIT FINDINGS, ALMOST SIMULTANEOUSLY, TO COLLEAGUES IN MANY DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. A DONATION, MADE BY NOVELL, A UTAH-BASED COMPANY -- AND ANNOUNCED AT A RECENT CEREMONY (FYI - APRIL 21) -- WILL ENABLE RESEARCHERS TO SEND ELECTRONIC MAIL BETWEEN THE FUND'S WORLDWIDE OFFICES. KATHRYN FULLER IS THE FUND'S PRESIDENT: TAPE: CUT ONE -- KATHRYN FULLER (0:19) "WE WILL BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE FROM THE FOREST IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA, TO THE FORESTS OF BRAZIL, TO ABOUT 40-DIFFERENT WWF OFFICES AROUND THE WORLD, WITH ACCESS TO ONLINE INFORMATION, WITH A TERRIFIC NEW E-MAIL SYSTEM. WE REALLY COULDN'T BE MORE PLEASED." SEGUES TO: TAPE: RICHARD CARLSON (0:04) "IT IS REALLY NOVELL'S HONOR TO HAVE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO WORK WITH THE WORLD WILDLIFE FUND." TEXT: NOVELL EXECUTIVE RICHARD CARLSON SAYS THAT HIS COMPANY MADE THE DONATION -- VALUED AT $250,000 -- BECAUSE IT'S IMPORTANT THAT HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS BE MADE AVAILABLE TO NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS. TAPE: CUT TWO -- RICHARD CARLSON (0:11) "AS AN INTERNATIONAL COMPANY, NOVELL HAS A RESPONSIBILITY TO ALSO BE A RESPONSIBLE LEADER IN THE WORLD COMMUNITY, THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY, AND WE KNOW THAT THAT GLOBAL COMMUNITY IS SHRINKING." TEXT: ...NOW, THOSE WORKING TO ENSURE THE PRESERVATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES WILL HAVE A WAY TO COMMUNICATE FAST AND EFFICIENTLY. WORLD WILDLIFE OFFICIALS BELIEVE THAT NOVELL'S CONTRIBUTION WILL PROVE TO BE AN INVALUABLE TOOL IN THEIR WORLDWIDE EFFORT. 25-Apr-95 4:13 PM EDT (2013 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2350 total bytes, 2350 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/25/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177519 TITLE= U-N/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BYLINE= DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE= GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A U-N INVESTIGATOR SAYS BOSNIAN SERB FORCES HAVE NEARLY COMPLETED A CAMPAIGN TO EXPEL ALL MUSLIMS AND CROATS FROM THE NORTHERN PART OF THE COUNTRY. FORMER POLISH PRIME MINISTER TADEUSZ MAZOWIECKI HAS SUBMITTED THE 12TH IN A SERIES OF REPORTS ON THE PHENOMENON KNOWN AS ETHNIC CLEANSING IN BOSNIA. WE HAVE DETAILS FROM DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN GENEVA. TEXT: BEFORE THE WAR BEGAN THREE YEARS AGO, THERE WERE MORE THAN HALF A MILLION MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. MR. MAZOWIECKI CONCLUDES THAT FEWER THAN 70-THOUSAND ARE LEFT. IN HIS LATEST REPORT, THE U-N INVESTIGATOR SAYS NON-SERBS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED TO RELENTLESS TERROR AND DISCRIMINATION. AND IT NOW APPEARS, HE ADDS, THAT VIRTUALLY NONE WISHES TO REMAIN IN THE REGION. HE SAYS MORE THAN THREE THOUSAND REFUGEES CROSSED THE NORTHERN BORDER INTO CROATIA DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS OF THIS YEAR. HUNDREDS OF OTHERS FLED OR WERE EXPELLED TO OTHER PARTS OF BOSNIA CONTROLLED BY GOVERNMENT FORCES. MR. MAZOWIECKI SAYS SERB PARAMILITARY GANGS HAVE BEEN ATTACKING AND HARASSING MUSLIMS AND CROATS THROUGHOUT THE REGION. HE SAYS THE OBJECTIVE APPEARS TO BE TO CONTINUE THE ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN WITHOUT DIRECTLY IMPLICATING THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP. BUT, HE ADDS, THERE IS A LARGE AMOUNT OF EVIDENCE SUGGESTING THAT SERB LEADERS ARE DIRECTLY AND PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MASSIVE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE IN THE AREA. HE SAYS THE SERB LEADERSHIP HAS FAILED TO TAKE EVEN MINIMAL STEPS TO CURTAIL THE ABUSE. THE U-N INVESTIGATOR SAYS MANY MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA REMAIN HIDDEN IN THEIR HOMES FOR WEEKS, EVEN MONTHS AT A TIME -- NOT DARING TO VENTURE OUTSIDE, WHERE THEY SUBJECT TO RANDOM BEATINGS AND WHAT HE TERMS ROUTINE HUMILIATIONS. MR. MAZOWIECKI SAYS TELEPHONE LINES TO NON-SERB HOUSEHOLDS HAVE BEEN DISCONNECTED, INCREASING THEIR SENSE OF ISOLATION. HE SAYS MUSLIMS AND CROATS LIVING AROUND THE TOWN OF BANJA LUKA HAVE BEEN ORDERED TO LEAVE THE FRONT DOORS OF THEIR HOMES UNLOCKED AT ALL TIMES, MAKING THEM EASY PREY FOR THE ROVING BANDS OF SERB MILITIAMEN. THE INVESTIGATOR SAYS MOST MUSLIMS AND CROATS HAVE LONG SINCE BEEN DISMISSED FROM THEIR JOBS. THEIR PENSIONS HAVE BEEN CANCELLED, AND ACCESS TO MEDICAL CARE IS INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT. HE SAYS GROWING NUMBERS HAVE BEEN ROUNDED UP FOR WHAT ARE KNOWN AS FORCED LABOR BRIGADES, FREQUENTLY WORKING ON THE FRONT LINES OF THE WARZONE, AND SOMETIMES SERVING AS HUMAN SHIELDS FOR SERB FORCES. THOSE LEAVING NORTHERN BOSNIA, SAYS MR. MAZOWIECKI, ARE FORCED TO PAY HUNDREDS OF DOLLARS FOR SPECIAL PERMITS FROM SERB AUTHORITIES AND ARE OBLIGED TO RELINQUISH THEIR HOMES AND PROPERTY. RECENT REPORTS, HE SAYS, INDICATE THAT PERMISSION FROM SERB MILITARY AUTHORITIES MUST NOW ALSO BE OBTAINED. HE SAYS THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP HAS REPORTEDLY DECIDED TO FORBID ALL DRAFT AGE CROAT AND MUSLIM MEN FROM LEAVING NORTHERN BOSNIA, IN A BID TO ENSURE THAT SUFFICIENT NUMBERS REMAIN FOR THE FORCED LABOR BRIGADES. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 25-Apr-95 10:17 AM EDT (1417 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3267 total bytes, 3267 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/27/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177645 TITLE=U-N / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS: THIS CAN BE USED THROUGHOUT THE NIGHT, BEFORE CONTACT GROUP MEETING FRIDAY IN PARIS /// INTRO: THE IMMINENT EXPIRATION OF THE CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA IS PROMPTING A FLURRY OF LAST-MINUTE DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS AIMED AT PREVENTING A RETURN TO FULL-SCALE WAR. BUT BOTH SERB LEADERS AND BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-DOMINATED GOVERNMENT ARE REJECTING CALLS TO RENEW THE TRUCE. AND AS V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM GENEVA, THE DETERIORATING SITUATION IS PROMPTING FRESH CONCERN AMONG U-N RELIEF AGENCY OFFICIALS. TEXT: SENIOR OFFICIALS FROM THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA MEET FRIDAY IN PARIS, SEEKING WAYS TO SALVAGE THE TRUCE WHICH IS DUE TO EXPIRE NEXT MONDAY. BUT DIPLOMATS FROM THE FIVE NATIONS ARE OPENLY ACKNOWLEDGING THEIR DIFFERENCES OVER THE BOSNIAN CRISIS, AND IT IS FAR FROM CERTAIN THAT ANY NEW INITIATIVE WILL EMERGE FROM THE PARIS MEETING. WHILE THOSE TALKS ARE UNDERWAY, THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF BOSNIA, GREECE, AND IRAN WILL BE HOLDING A SEPARATE MEETING IN TEHRAN, ALSO FOCUSSING ON THE PROSPECTS FOR PEACE IN BOSNIA. AFTER AN INITIAL ROUND OF TALKS LAST MONTH, THE THREE FOREIGN MINISTERS AGREED TO WORK TOGETHER FOR A PERMANENT END TO THE BLOODSHED. BUT NO DETAILS OF THEIR INITIATIVE HAVE EMERGED. GREECE HAS MAINTAINED CLOSE TIES WITH THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT, AND IRAN IS ONE OF THE STRONGEST SUPPORTERS OF THE MUSLIM LEADERSHIP IN BOSNIA. IRAN IS ONE OF SEVERAL NATIONS WIDELY SUSPECTED OF SUPPLYING ARMS TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IN DEFIANCE OF A U-N EMBARGO. DIPLOMATS AND U-N OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS NOW MUCH BETTER EQUIPPED AND TRAINED THAN AT ANY POINT SINCE THE WAR BEGAN THREE YEARS AGO. AND OVER THE PAST MONTH, SARAJEVO GOVERNMENT FORCES HAVE LAUNCHED A SERIES OF GROUND ATTACKS, CAPTURING STRATEGIC HIGH GROUND FROM SERB FORCES BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH OF THE CAPITAL. U-N OFFICIALS REPORT CONTINUED FIGHTING IN SEVERAL PARTS OF BOSNIA. AND THERE ARE FEARS SERB FORCES MAY SOON LAUNCH A MAJOR COUNTER-OFFENSIVE. THE ESCALATING WARFARE AND THE CONTINUED REJECTION BY BOTH SIDES OF APPEALS TO RENEW THE TRUCE ARE PROMPTING FRESH CONCERN AMONG RELIEF AGENCY OFFICIALS. THE VITAL HUMANITARIAN AIRLIFT TO SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SUSPENDED FOR ALMOST THREE WEEKS BECAUSE SERB COMMANDERS ARE REFUSING TO PROVIDE SECURITY GUARANTEES FOR INCOMING CARGO PLANES. RON REDMOND, SPOKESMAN FOR THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SAYS FOOD SUPPLIES IN THE BESEIGED CAPITAL ARE BEGINNING TO RUN OUT. /// REDMOND ACT /// U-N-H-C-R HAS ABOUT TEN TO TWELVE DAYS OF FOOD LEFT IN ITS WAREHOUSE IN SARAJEVO. AND WE EXPECT THAT THE SITUATION WILL GET PROGRESSIVELY WORSE AS LONG AS WE CAN ONLY GET OVERLAND CONVOYS INTO SARAJEVO. IN THE BEST OF TIMES, THESE LAND CONVOYS CAN ONLY PROVIDE ABOUT FIFTY TO SIXTY PERCENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR SARAJEVO. /// END ACT /// MR. REDMOND ALSO VOICED ALARM OVER FAST DWINDLING FOOD SUPPLIES IN THE NORTHWESTERN ENCLAVE OF BIHAC, WHERE ABOUT 150-THOUSAND MUSLIM CIVILIANS REMAIN UNDER SIEGE BY AN ALLIANCE OF BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERBS AND A REBEL MUSLIM GROUP. HE SAID U-N-H-C-R IS NOW DISTRIBUTING THE LAST OF ITS FOOD STOCKS IN BIHAC. AND THE SUPPLY, HE ADDED, WILL LAST ONLY FOR ABOUT A WEEK. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/SKH/JWH 27-Apr-95 1:31 PM EDT (1731 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3586 total bytes, 3586 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/26/95 TYPE=MAKING DEMOCRACY WORK #607 NUMBER=3-21705 TITLE=THE RIGHT TO OPPOSE THE GOVERNMENT (L) BYLINE=MARILYN SILVEY TELEPHONE=619-1173 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=SWANEY CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN SOUND ON DEMAND) INTRO: SINCE THE RECENT BOMBING OF A GOVERNMENT BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY, SOME PEOPLE - BOTH WITHIN AND OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES - ARE WONDERING WHY THE U-S GOVERNMENT ALLOWS SO MUCH CRITICISM OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM, AND AT WHAT POINT THE RIGHT TO OPPOSE THE GOVERNMENT ENDS. MARILYN SILVEY REPORTS THAT THE ANSWERS ARE BASED IN THE U-S CONSTITUTION. TAPE: (OPT. CUT ONE :05, FADE UNDER AND OUT BEHIND... (CROWD PROTEST NOISE END OPT.) TEXT: VOICING OPPOSITION TO THE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN ALLOWED SINCE THE UNITED STATES BEGAN. IN 1789, THE NEW NATION'S VERY FIRST CONGRESS PROPOSED, AND THE STATES RATIFIED, TEN AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION TO CLARIFY CERTAIN INDIVIDUAL AND STATE RIGHTS. THE FIRST AMENDMENT STATES, "CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, OR PROHIBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOF; OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH, OR OF THE PRESS; OR THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE PEACEABLY TO ASSEMBLE, AND TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES." THE PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION, GEORGE BUSHNELL (PRON. BUSH-NEL) SAYS THAT "FREE SPEECH" IS LIBERALLY INTERPRETED FOR BOTH INDIVIDUALS AND ORGANIZATIONS: TAPE: CUT TWO -- GEORGE BUSHNELL :44 "FREE SPEECH NOT ONLY MEANS TO (THAT YOU CAN) SAY WHAT YOU BELIEVE OR WANT TO SAY ABOUT YOUR GOVERNMENT, WHETHER IT'S IN SUPPORT OF OR IN OPPOSITION TO YOUR GOVERNMENT, IT ALSO MEANS THAT YOU CAN ACT OUT YOUR POSITION WITH RESPECT TO GOVERNMENT. I CAN MARCH AND PROTEST, I CAN CREATE PLACARDS (SIGNS) AND SHOW THOSE AROUND THE COUNTRY, I CAN BURN GOVERNMENT LEADERS IN EFFIGY, I CAN EVEN BURN OUR FLAG AS A MATTER OF POLITICAL PROTEST." TEXT: BUT MR. BUSHNELL EMPHASIZES THAT THE RIGHT TO CRITICIZE AND VERBALLY ATTACK THE GOVERNMENT DOES NOT EXTEND TO ACTS OF VIOLENCE: TAPE: CUT THREE -- GEORGE BUSHNELL :27 OR :50 "THE LINE THAT IS CROSSED IS WHEN THE EXERCISE OF FREE SPEECH - THE EXPRESSION GOES - 'INCITES TO RIOT OR INSURRECTION.' AND WHAT THAT REALLY MEANS IS, WHEN THE EXERCISE OF FREE SPEECH BRINGS PHYSICAL HARM TO OTHER PEOPLE. THAT IS PROHIBITED. (OPT. IT'S A LEGITIMATE LINE TO DRAW (DISTINCTION), BECAUSE SO LONG AS I AM NOT PHYSICALLY HARMING SOMEONE ELSE, I HAVE AN ABSOLUTE RIGHT TO SAY WHAT I PLEASE, TO ACT OUT WHAT I BELIEVE. BUT WHEN I BEGIN TO BRING HARM TO SOMEONE ELSE, THEN THAT MUST BE PROHIBITED. END OPT.)" TEXT: SIMILIARLY, IN A TELEVISION INTERVIEW FOLLOWING THE BOMBING, PRESIDENT CLINTON DREW THE SHARP DISTINCTION BETWEEN LEGAL PROTESTS - HOWEVER UNORTHODOX - AND TERRORIST VIOLENCE BY CITIZENS' PARAMILITARY GROUPS: TAPE: CUT FOUR -- BILL CLINTON :23 "THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO BELIEVE WHATEVER THEY WANT, THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO SAY WHATEVER THEY WANT, THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS, THEY HAVE A RIGHT TO PUT ON UNIFORMS AND GO OUT ON THE WEEK-ENDS. THEY DO NOT HAVE THE RIGHT TO KILL INNOCENT AMERICANS. THEY DO NOT HAVE THE RIGHT TO VIOLATE THE LAW. AND THEY DO NOT HAVE THE RIGHT TO TAKE THE POSITION THAT IF SOMEBODY COMES TO ARREST THEM FOR VIOLATING THE LAW, THEY'RE PERFECTLY JUSTIFIED IN KILLING THEM. THEY ARE WRONG IN THAT." TEXT: TWO CENTURIES AGO, A MOVE TO RESTRICT THE FREEDOMS GUARANTEED BY THE FIRST CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT OCCURRED ALMOST AS SOON AS THE AMENDMENT WAS PASSED. THE SECOND PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, JOHN ADAMS, SIGNED FOUR LAWS PASSED BY CONGRESS REDUCING THE FREEDOMS OF ALIEN RESIDENTS IN THE COUNTRY AND MAKING IT ILLEGAL FOR ANYONE TO CONSPIRE - INTERPRETED AS PUBLISHING OR SPEAKING - AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT. HOWEVER, THE NATION'S THIRD PRESIDENT, THOMAS JEFFERSON, WHO BELIEVED STRONGLY IN FREE SPEECH, REPEALED THE LAWS, AND PARDONED ANYONE WHO HAD BEEN CONVICTED UNDER THEM. OVER THE YEARS, THE SUPREME COURT HAS MADE OTHER INTERPRETATIONS OF FREE SPEECH PROTECTION. JOHN KILLIAN, AN ANALYST WITH THE CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, SAYS THE CURRENT INTERPRETATION OF THE FIRST AMENDMENT IS BASED ON WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE "CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER" TEST: TAPE: CUT FIVE -- JOHN KILLIAN :40 "THAT YOU COULD NOT PUNISH OR PREVENT OR INHIBIT GOVERNMENTALLY ANY SPEECH -- EVEN THAT SPEECH THAT ADVOCATED VIOLENCE OR THE OVERTHROW OF THE GOVERNMENT -- UNLESS THERE WAS A 'CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER' THAT THE SPEECH WOULD BE ACTED ON. SO LONG AS THERE WAS TIME TO COMBAT THIS SPEECH WITH OTHER SPEECH, THE GOVERNMENT COULD NOT INTERFERE WITH IT. WHAT THE FIRST AMENDMENT PROTECTS IS ADVOCACY (OF VIOLENCE) AND VERY STRONG, EVEN VERY VIOLENT, SPEECH WHICH IS NOT CLOSE TO PRODUCING A RESULT." TEXT: MR. KILLIAN POINTS OUT THAT FEDERAL COURTS CAN ALWAYS CHANGE HOW THE THE FIRST AMENDMENT IS INTERPRETED IF THEY SEE FIT, AS CAN BODIES OF ELECTED OFFICIALS. USUALLY, HE SAYS, THE COURTS ARE MORE APT TO RESTRICT LIBERTIES THAN ARE STATE OR NATIONAL LEGISLATURES. TAPE: (OPT. CUT SIX -- JOHN KILLIAN :59 "FEDERAL COURTS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO CURRENTS FLOWING IN SOCIETY, AND IF THERE IS A VERY SEVERE FEAR, IF THERE IS FELT TO BE A VERY STRONG DANGER EMANATING FROM TERRORISM, THE COURTS MAY VERY WELL WATER DOWN (DILUTE) DOCTRINE. IT'S BEEN DEMONSTRATED THROUGHOUT OUR HISTORY THAT THE COURTS ARE VERY STRONG IN PROTECTING CIVIL LIBERTIES, CIVIL RIGHTS, SPEECH AND THE LIKE, AFTER THE DANGERS ARE PAST. DURING THE CIVIL WAR, WORLD WAR ONE, WORLD WAR TWO, DURING THE COMMUNIST EPISODES IN THE (19)50S, THE COURTS DEFERRED, TO A GREAT DEAL. IT'S A GREAT DEMONSTRATION THAT IF AMERICANS REALLY BELIEVE IN CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS, AND BELIEVE IN (FREE) SPEECH, THAT THE BEST PROTECTION OF THEM LIE IN THE POLITICAL ARENA. IF YOU RELY TOO MUCH ON THE COURTS, IT'S A VAIN HOPE MUCH OF THE TIME." END OPT.) TEXT: IT CAN BE DIFFICULT FOR THE GOVERNMENT AND THE COURTS TO STRIKE A BALANCE BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE NEEDS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT, AND BETWEEN ALLOWING FREE SPEECH ABOUT VIOLENCE AND PROHIBITING SPEECH WHICH LEADS TO VIOLENCE. BUT LAWYER GEORGE BUSHNELL STRESSES THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMERICANS' FREEDOM TO CRITICIZE THEIR GOVERNMENT AND THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING: TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- GEORGE BUSHNELL :28 "IT IS THE RESULT OF DEMENTED AND CRAZY PEOPLE. IT'S NOT FREE SPEECH THAT CREATED THE EXPLOSION IN OKLAHOMA CITY ANY MORE THAN IT'S FREE SPEECH THAT CREATED THE BOMBINGS IN LONDON, OR IN ISRAEL, OR IN THE GAZA STRIP OR ANYPLACE ELSE. THAT'S NOT FREE SPEECH, THAT'S CRAZINESS." TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ASKED CONGRESS FOR STRONGER LAWS TO COMBAT DOMESTIC TERRORISM, INCLUDING GIVING THE GOVERNMENT EASIER ACCESS TO TELEPHONE AND CREDIT RECORDS OF GROUPS THAT AUTHORITIES SUSPECT MAY BE PLANNING TERRORIST ACTIVITY, AND THAT ARE CONSIDERED TO POSE A "CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER" TO THE UNITED STATES. (SIGNED) (CLINTON CUT CBS) 27-Apr-95 8:42 AM EDT (1242 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 8241 total bytes, 8241 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=APRIL 28, 1995 TYPE=ON THE LINE NUMBER=1-00318 TITLE=PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS - SHORT #1 EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037 CONTENT= INSERTS AVAILABLE ON SOUND ON DEMAND AND IN AUDIO SERVICES THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS WEEK, "PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS." HERE IS YOUR HOST, --------. HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE. MOST AMERICANS AGREE THAT THE UNITED STATES SHOULD ENCOURAGE OTHER COUNTRIES TO RESPECT HUMAN RIGHTS. BUT DEBATE CONTINUES OVER HOW THIS SHOULD BE DONE. SOME CONTEND THAT THE U.S. SHOULD CONFINE ITSELF TO OFFERING A DEMOCRATIC EXAMPLE THAT OTHERS MIGHT FOLLOW. OTHERS ARGUE FOR A MUCH MORE ACTIVE ROLE THAT LINKS HUMAN RIGHTS TO TRADE AND OTHER POLICIES. JOHN SHATTUCK IS ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOR. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS A GREAT STAKE IN PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS AROUND THE WORLD. SHATTUCK: "THE UNITED STATES IS COMMITTED TO PROJECTING ITS INTERESTS AND ITS VALUES THROUGH ITS POLICIES IN THE AREA OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE PROMOTION OF DEMOCRACY AROUND THE WORLD THROUGH A VARIETY OF MEANS INCLUDING THE BUILDING OF NEW INSTITUTIONS. IN THE CASE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, FOR EXAMPLE, WORKING WITH OTHER COUNTRIES TO CREATE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS TO TRY THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR HORRENDOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN RWANDA AND IN BOSNIA, THE CREATION OF NEW INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. IT'S CLEARLY IN THE INTERESTS OF WORLD PEACE AND STABILITY AND THE PROMOTION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY, BUT ALSO DIRECTLY THE INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES TO HELP COUNTRIES THAT ARE PURSUING A DEMOCRATIC PATH." HOST: ALAN TONELSON IS A FELLOW AT THE ECONOMIC STRATEGY INSITUTE IN WASHINGTON. HE SAYS THAT PURSUING HUMAN RIGHTS POLICIES FOR THEIR OWN SAKE IS NOT IN THE U.S. INTEREST. TONELSON: "THE ONLY REASON TO CONDUCT A FOREIGN POLICY INITIATIVE OF ANY KIND IS IF IT EITHER IN SOME CONCRETE WAY MAKES THE UNITED STATES MORE SECURE; IF IN SOME CONCRETE WAY IT MAKES A MORE PROSPEROUS COUNTRY; OR IF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE SO INSISTENT ON THIS THAT THEY IN VERY UNMISTAKABLE TERMS LET THEIR LEADERS KNOW. AND IN MY VIEW HUMAN RIGHTS POLICY HAS ALMOST NOTHING TO DO WITH EITHER AMERICAN SECURITY OR PROSPERITY EXCEPT WITH ONE IMPORTANT EXCEPTION, THAT BEING THE FIELD OF LABOR RIGHTS. I THINK IT'S VERY IMPORTANT TO ENSURE THAT THE AMERICAN WORK FORCE IS NOT COMPETING WITH WORKERS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES WHO ARE NOT PERMITTED THE RIGHT TO ORGANIZE THEMSELVES INTO TRULY FREE AND INDEPENDENT LABOR UNIONS." HOST: CONSTANTINE MENGES IS DIRECTOR OF THE PROGRAM ON TRANSITIONS TO DEMOCRACY AT GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY. HE SAYS THE PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY DIRECTLY SERVES AMERICAN INTERESTS. MENGES: "THE MORE COUNTRIES BECOME DEMOCRATIC, THE MORE THEY ARE LIKELY TO BE PEACEFUL AND, OF COURSE, THAT IS IN THE INTEREST OF THE UNITED STATES AS WELL AS THE PEOPLES IN THOSE COUNTRIES. THE MORE HUMAN RIGHTS ARE RESPECTED, THE BETTER PEOPLE WILL LIVE IN COUNTRIES. AND WE DO HAVE AN INTEREST IN A WORLD THAT IS A CIVILIZED PLACE, AND WE DO HAVE A HUMANITARIAN CONCERN FOR HUMAN BEINGS WHO ARE SUFFERING FROM REPRESSIVE REGIMES. I BELIEVE THAT THE MOST IMPORTANT LINKAGE THAT HAS TO BE MADE IS THE LINKAGE BETWEEN THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF POLITICAL DEMOCRACY AND THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS BECAUSE IT IS ONLY DEMOCRATIC REGIMES ULTIMATELY THAT SERVE AS INSTITUTIONAL GUARANTORS OF HUMAN RIGHTS." HOST: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTUCK SAYS THE U.S. WILL CONTINUE TO SUPPORT THE WORLDWIDE STRUGGLE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. FOR ON THE LINE, THIS IS ----------. ANNCR: YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES. THIS IS ----------. 27-Apr-95 4:30 PM EDT (2030 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5291 total bytes, 5291 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/27/95 TYPE=COMPUTER DIGEST 95-61 NUMBER=3-21713 TITLE=COMDEX, OKLAHOMA, IBM, DIAGNOSIS, NAMEPRO BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=SWANEY CONTENT= INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST: ATLANTA, GEORGIA, WAS THE SITE FOR THE SPRING COMDEX, THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER TRADE SHOW. THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING IS BEING DISCUSSED IN CYBERSPACE, IBM IS MAKING A FINANCIAL COMEBACK, USING COMPUTERS TO MAKE LONG-DISTANCE MEDICAL CALLS, AND, AN UNUSUAL NEW SOFTWARE PACKAGE. ***** COMDEX TEXT: ORGANIZERS SAY THAT APPROXIMATELY 100,000 INDUSTRY REPRESENTATIVES CAME TO ATLANTA TO SEE THE LATEST PRODUCTS AND TO LEARN MORE ABOUT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY. USA TODAY SAYS THAT MICROSOFT'S WINDOWS 95, A NEW OPERATING SYSTEM, "DOMINATED THE SHOW." THE PRODUCT IS EXPECTED TO BE AVAILABLE SOMETIME THIS SUMMER. THE NEWSPAPER ALSO SAYS THAT ONE OF THE HIGHLIGHTS AT COMDEX WAS A DEVICE, LESS THAN EIGHT CENTIMETERS IN LENGTH, THAT WRAPS ALONG THE INDEX FINGER. THE SO-CALLED CYBERMOUSE MOVES THE CURSOR ON THE COMPUTER SCREEN DEPENDING ON HOW THE FINGER IS POSITIONED. ***** OKLAHOMA TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES REPORTS THAT "ALMOST BEFORE THE BOOM OF THE EXPLOSION THAT DEVASTATED THE FEDERAL BUILDING HAD STOPPED REVERBERATING ACROSS DOWNTOWN OKLAHOMA CITY, CYBERSPACE WAS ALIVE WITH COMMENTARY." THE NEWSPAPER ADDS THAT THE TRAGEDY "PROVED TO BE AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE GLOBAL WEB OF COMPUTER NETWORKS AT ITS BEST AND ITS WORST: SOME PEOPLE ASKED WHAT THEY COULD DO TO HELP AND REACHED OUT TO SUCCOR (COMFORT) THE VICTIMS, WHILE OTHERS TRANSMITTED TASTELESS JOKES...." LEONARD CONN, PRESIDENT OF INTERNET OKLAHOMA, AND MEMBERS OF HIS STAFF CREATED AN "ELECTRONIC PAGE" OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE BOMBING. THE NEWS WAS PLACED ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB SECTION OF THE INTERNET. MR. CONN SAYS THAT "WE FELT AN OBLIGATION TO DISSEMINATE INFORMATION TO THOSE AROUND THE WORLD LOOKING FOR LOVED ONES AND FRIENDS." ***** IBM TEXT: IN PREVIOUS YEARS, IBM, A MAJOR AMERICAN COMPUTER MANUFACTURER, FACED ECONOMIC PROBLEMS. THOUSANDS OF WORKERS LOST THEIR JOBS. HOWEVER, AT THIS YEAR'S ANNUAL MEETING, LOUIS GERSTNER, IBM'S CHAIRMAN, SAYS THAT HIS COMPANY IS REGAINING MOMENTUM. MR. GERSTNER TOLD THE WALL STREET JOURNAL THAT HE BELIEVES THAT IN THE PAST, THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY "HAS CREATED PRODUCTS TOO COMPLICATED FOR MOST PEOPLE TO USE." HE SAYS THAT "THERE'S NO SUCH EXCUSE TODAY." ***** DIAGNOSIS TEXT: A DEMONSTRATION WAS HELD RECENTLY TO SHOW HOW PHYSICIANS, LOCATED THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS APART "CAN USE VIDEO-CONFERENCING TECHNOLOGY TO DELIVER HEALTH CARE ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD, EVEN TO PATIENTS' HOMES." ACCORDING TO COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRIES REPORT -- THE NEWSPAPER OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION, DOCTORS IN CANADA, VENEZUELA AND HAWAII WERE ELECTRONICALLY LINKED AS THEY DIAGNOSED A PATIENT IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. A DOCTOR EXAMINED THE EARDRUM OF A SANTO DOMINGO PATIENT, AND USED AN EAR-NOSE-THROAT VIDEOSCOPE TO RELAY VIDEO IMAGES TO MEDICAL SPECIALISTS IN THE OTHER COUNTRIES. THE PATIENT WAS DIAGNOSED AS HAVING A PERFORATED EARDRUM. INFORMATION ON THE DISORDER WAS RETRIEVED FROM A TELEMEDICINE NETWORK CALLED TRAINING EDUCATION APPLIED TO COMMUNITY HEALTH. THE NETWORK IS PRESENTLY USED TO TRAIN INTERNS. ***** NAMEPRO TEXT: COMPUTER PROGRAMS ARE WRITTEN TO DO ANY NUMBER OF THINGS. SOME OF THE MORE POPULAR ONES INCLUDE WORD PROCESSING, ACCOUNTING, AND ENTERTAINMENT. PC MAGAZINE REPORTS ON AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT USE. THE MAGAZINE SAYS THAT NAMEPRO IS SOFTWARE THAT CAN HELP PEOPLE COME UP FOR NAMES FOR NEW PRODUCTS. IT CONTAINS A DATABASE OF NEARLY 31,000 NAMES AND PARTS OF NAMES. ONCE A NAME IS CREATED THE PROGRAM CHECKS "TO SEE WHETHER IT HAS ALREADY BEEN TRADEMARKED OR SEARCH TO SEE WHETHER THE NAME MEANS ANYTHING OBSCENE IN ANY OF SEVERAL EUROPEAN LANGUAGES." ***** 27-Apr-95 4:29 PM EDT (2029 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4796 total bytes, 4796 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/26/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177618 TITLE=CLINTON / TERRORISM (S&L-UPDATE) BYLINE=DEBORAH TATE DATELINE=WHITE HOUSE CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON, DETERMINED TO TRY TO PREVENT ANOTHER CAR-BOMBING LIKE THE ONE THAT OCCURRED IN OKLAHOMA CITY LAST WEEK, HAS OUTLINE TOUGH NEW MEASURES TO CRACK DOWN ON TERRORISM. THE PRESIDENT DISCUSSED HIS NEW INITIATIVES WITH A BIPARTISAN GROUP OF CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS WEDNESDAY, AND MR. CLINTON APPEARED TO HAVE LAWMAKERS' SUPPORT. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS. TEXT: AMONG THE NEW PROPOSALS, PRESIDENT CLINTON IS CALLING FOR THE HIRING OF ONE-THOUSAND NEW LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL TO INVESTIGATE, DETER, AND PROSECUTE TERRORIST ACTIVITY. MR. CLINTON IS ALSO SEEKING TO EASE THE BAN ON USING THE MILITARY TO INVESTIGATE CRIMES INVOLVING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS. THE PRESIDENT SAYS THE NEW MEASURES WILL HELP AUTHORITIES FIGHT BOTH DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN TERRORISM. // CLINTON ACTUALITY // THESE MEASURES WILL STRENGTHEN LAW ENFORCEMENT, AND SHARPEN THEIR ABILITY TO CRACK DOWN ON TERRORISTS WHEREVER THEY ARE FROM, BE IT AT HOME OR ABROAD. THIS WILL ARM THEM WITH NEW INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS, INCREASED ENFORCEMENT, AND TOUGHER PENALTIES. // END ACT // MR. CLINTON DISCUSSED HIS PROPOSALS WITH A GROUP OF BIPARTISAN CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS AT THE WHITE HOUSE. FOLLOWING THE MEETING, KEY REPUBLICAN LAWMAKERS PLEDGED TO WORK WITH THE PRESIDENT ON DRAFTING ANTI-TERRORISM LEGISLATION. // OPT // HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH SAYS LAWMAKERS OF BOTH POLITICAL PARTIES WOULD WORK QUICKLY TO PASS A BILL. // GINGRICH ACTUALITY // I THINK YOU WILL SEE AN EFFORT, A VERY SERIOUS EFFORT, BY REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS, IN BOTH THE HOUSE AND SENATE TO WORK TOGETHER WITH THE PRESIDENT TO PRODUCE A BIPARTISAN BILL, IF AT ALL POSSIBLE, AND TO WORK TOGETHER AND GET IT PASSED BEFORE THE END OF MAY. // END ACT // BUT SOME LAWMAKERS, LIKE SENATE REPUBLICAN LEADER BOB DOLE, EXPRESSED SOME RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE CONSTITUTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EXPANDING LAW ENFORCEMENT POWERS. // DOLE ACTUALITY // WE SHOULD MOVE AS QUICKLY AS WE CAN, BUT IN THE PROCESS, BE CAREFUL ABOUT TRAMPLING ON ANYBODY'S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS. // END ACT // ONE PROPOSAL OF CONCERN TO CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS WOULD INCREASE THE ABILITY OF FEDERAL OFFICERS TO CONDUCT COURT-APPROVED ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE. BUT PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS HE BELIEVES A BALANCE CAN BE ACHIEVED IN STRENGTHENING LAW ENFORCEMENT WHILE PROTECTING CIVIL RIGHTS. AMONG THE PRESIDENT'S OTHER PROPOSALS ARE INCREASING CONTROLS ON EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS, AND STUDYING HOW TO KEEP FERTILIZERS AND OTHER WIDELY AVAILABLE CHEMICALS FROM BEING USED TO MAKE BOMBS. EXPERTS SAY THE OKLAHOMA BOMB WAS MADE WITH FERTILIZER AND FUEL. MR. CLINTON IS ALSO CALLING FOR INCREASING THE PENALTIES FOR CRIMES AGAINST CURRENT AND FORMER FEDERAL EMPLOYEES. // END OPT // THE PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED THE NEW MEASURES AFTER ATTENDING FUNERAL SERVICES FOR A SECRET SERVICE AGENT KILLED IN THE OKLAHOMA BOMBING. THE AGENT, ALAN WHICHEVER, HAD BEEN ASSIGNED TO MR. CLINTON'S SECURITY DETAIL UNTIL HE WAS TRANSFERRED TO OKLAHOMA CITY LAST OCTOBER. (SIGNED) NEB/DAT/BD/LWM 26-Apr-95 8:40 PM EDT (0040 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3605 total bytes, 3605 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/26/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177617 TITLE=CHRISTOPHER / KOZYREV (L) BYLINE=DAVID GOLLUST DATELINE=STATE DEPT. CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAVE HELD A FINAL ROUND OF PREPARATORY TALKS IN WASHINGTON FOR NEXT MONTH'S SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENTS BILL CLINTON AND BORIS YELTSIN IN MOSCOW. AS V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THERE WERE SIGNS OF PROGRESS ON FUTURE SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS IN EUROPE. TEXT: MR. CHRISTOPHER SAID NATO EXPANSION AND FUTURE SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS IN EUROPE DOMINATED THE MORE THAN TWO HOURS OF TALKS -- AND HE FORECAST PROGRESS IN THAT AREA WHEN THE TWO PRESIDENTS MEET IN MOSCOW NEXT MONTH. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS MADE CLEAR ITS INTENTION TO PROCEED WITH THE EXPANSION OF NATO TO INCLUDE FORMER WARSAW PACT COUNTRIES DESPITE RUSSIAN OBJECTIONS. BUT SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER - APPEARING WITH HIS RUSSIAN COUNTERPART AFTER THEIR MEETING - STRESSED THAT THE GOAL OF THE PROCESS IS N O T TO ISOLATE RUSSIA FROM THE REST OF EUROPE. /// CHRISTOPHER ACTUALITY /// I WANT TO EMPHASIZE THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DESIRE IN THIS MATTER IS THE INTEGRATION OF EUROPE, WHICH WOULD INCLUDE THE INTEGRATION AND ENGAGEMENT OF RUSSIA IN EUROPE, AND I THINK OUR AIM IS IN THAT DIRECTION. THAT IS SOMETHING THAT I SAY WILL BE ADDRESSED BY OUR LEADERS WHEN THEY MEET ON THE NINTH AND TENTH OF MAY IN EUROPE AND AT THAT TIME I THINK THAT YOU WILL SEE IMPORTANT PROGRESS MADE ON THIS ISSUE. /// END ACT /// MR. CHRISTOPHER DID NOT ELABORATE. BUT U-S OFFICIALS ARE QUOTED AS SAYING THE ADMINISTRATION IS OFFERING RUSSIA TALKS ON A SPECIAL SECURITY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE WEST -- INCLUDING A POSSIBLE RUSSIA/NATO NON-AGGRESSION TREATY OR A NEW CONSULTATIVE MECHANISM BETWEEN THEM. MR. CHRISTOPHER SAID HE AND MR. KOZYREV DISCUSSED WAYS OF EXTENDING AND RE-INVIGORATING THE CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA, DUE TO EXPIRE SUNDAY -- AND THE NEED FOR FINDING A GENUINE AND LASTING POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT IN CHECHNYA. THE SECRETARY OF STATE ALSO SAID HE REITERATED U-S CONCERN ABOUT RUSSIA'S PLANNED NUCLEAR REACTOR SALE TO IRAN -- BUT MR. KOZYREV INDICATED THERE HAS BEEN NO CHANGE IN MOSCOW'S DETERMINATION TO GO AHEAD WITH THE BILLION-DOLLAR DEAL. THE TWO MEN GO TO THE WHITE HOUSE TO REPORT TO PRESIDENT CLINTON ON THE STATUS OF SUMMIT PREPARATIONS LATER IN THE DAY. (SIGNED) NEB / DAG / BD/PT 26-Apr-95 8:14 PM EDT (0014 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2661 total bytes, 2661 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=4/27/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20325 TITLE=CHILD ABUSE BYLINE=KIA JOHNSON DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: (NOT VOICED) INTRO: A FEDERAL ADVISORY BOARD SAYS AT LEAST TWO-THOUSAND OF AMERICA'S CHILDREN DIE EACH YEAR AT THE HANDS OF THEIR PARENTS OR CARETAKERS. AS V-O-A'S KIA JOHNSON REPORTS FROM WASHINGTON, ABUSE AND NEGLECT IN THE HOME IS A LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH FOR CHILDREN UP TO AGE FOUR. TEXT: AFTER A TWO-AND-ONE-HALF YEAR INVESTIGATION OF ABUSE AGAINST CHILDREN, THE U-S ADVISORY BOARD ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT REPORTS MORE VERY YOUNG CHILDREN ARE KILLED BY THEIR PARENTS THAN FROM FALLS OR CHOKING ON FOOD. DEANNE TILTON DURFEE, THE BOARD'S CHAIR, LABELS IT A NATIONAL TRAGEDY, SAYING IT IS A FAR GREATER PROBLEM THAN HAD BEEN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT. // DURFEE ACT// MOST OF THE DATA THAT HAD BEEN PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED RANGED UP TO ABOUT 13-HUNDRED CHILDREN DYING FROM FATAL ABUSE AND NEGLECT EACH YEAR. SO, BASICALLY WE FOUND A NUMBER ALMOST DOUBLE THAT AT THE HIGHEST LEVELS FROM PREVIOUS REPORTS THAT HAD BEEN ISSUED. // END ACT// THE STUDY FOUND MOST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE DIE FROM HEAD INJURIES. BASED ON LATEST DATA, NEARLY 142-THOUSAND CHILDREN ARE SERIOUSLY INJURED AND SOME 18-THOUSAND PERMANENTLY DISABLED EACH YEAR AS A RESULT OF CHILD ABUSE. PROGRAMS EXIST TO TEACH PEOPLE HOW TO BE PARENTS, MOST OF THEM GEARED TOWARD WOMEN. BUT TGHE STUDY INDICATES MOST PHYSICAL ABUSE FATALITIES ARE CAUSED BY ENRAGED OR EXTREMELY STRESSED MALE PARENTS OR CARETAKERS. THE INVESTIGATION ALSO FOUND THAT 85-PERCENT OF THESE FATALITIES WERE OFTEN WRONGLY IDENTIFIED AS ACCIDENTS OR NATURAL CAUSES. THE STUDY SAYS THIS IS BECAUSE MANY POLICE OFFICERS, PHYSICIANS AND CORONERS ARE NOT PROPERLY TRAINED TO IDENTIFY INJURIES AND SEVERE NEGLECT IN CHILDREN. MS. DURFEE SAYS THERE IS A NEED FOR MORE PUBLIC AWARENESS AND EDUCATION AND A BETTER NATIONAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM TO ACCURATELY REFLECT THE TRUE EXTENT OF FATAL CHILD ABUSE. // DURFEE ACT// ONE OF THE FINDINGS OF THE BOARD IS THAT WE DO NOT HAVE A COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL DATA SYSTEM THAT INTERGRATES THE VARIOUS DATA COLLECTION PROCESS WITHIN JUSTICE, HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES. WE CAN ONLY CONCLUDE THAT OUR FINDINGS LEAD US TO BELIEVE THAT WE HAVE BEEN PROFOUNDLY UNDERESTIMATING THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF THIS PROBLEM. IT MAY BE THAT CHILDREN HAVE BEEN DYING AT THIS RATE FOR SOME TIME. // END ACT// THE BOARD MAKES 26 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEM, INCLUDING IDENTIFYING AND REPORTING ABUSE FATALITIES, POMOTING SERVIDES THAT WILL PREVENT ABUSE BEFORE IT STARTS, AND AGGRESSIVELY PROSECUTING PARENTS OR CARETAKERS WHO MURDER THEIR CHILDREN. // REST OPT // THE BOARD SAYS RESPONSIBILITY FOR CHILDREN HAS TO EXPAND TO ENLIST THE SUPPORT OF COMMUNITY AGENCIES, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND INDIVIDUALS TO PROVIDE A SAFETY NET FOR NATION'S CHILDREN. THE BOARD SAYS IT BELIEVES MORE CHILDREN MAY DIE IF CHILD SERVICES ARE REDUCED TO THE BLOCK GRANT (LUMP SUM) LEVELS PROPOSED BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. THE BOARD SAYS IT IS PROFOUNDLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE POTENTIAL IMPACT ON FOSTER CARE AND ADOPTION ASSISTANCE. (SIGNED) NEB/KNJ/GPT 27-Apr-95 8:46 AM EDT (1246 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3552 total bytes, 3552 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177821 TITLE=CROATIA EXPLOSIONS (S-ONLY) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: // NOTE TO EDS: THIS COVERS THE SOME OF THE SAME MATERIAL AS COVERED IN CN-177818 - U-N / YUGO (ROBERTS-GENEVA), // INTRO: SEVERAL EXPLOSIONS RIPPED THROUGH THE CROATIAN CAPITAL ZAGREB TUESDAY, KILLING THREE PEOPLE AND WOUNDING AS MANY AS 50. THE EXPLOSIONS APPEAR TO BE IN RETALIATION AGAINST CROATIA FOR A MILITARY ASSAULT AGAINST SERB-HELD TERRITORY. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: A LARGE EXPLOSION ROCKED THE CROWDED STREETS OF CENTRAL ZAGREB. THE BLAST OCCURRED ONLY A BLOCK FROM THE FOREIGN MINISTRY AND THE U-S EMBASSY, AND WITNESSES THERE REPORTED A NUMBER OF CARS WERE BADLY DAMAGED BY THE EXPLOSION, WHICH ALSO SHATTERED WINDOWS IN NEARBY BUILDINGS. MANY PEOPLE WERE TAKEN TO LOCAL HOSPITALS. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THERE HAVE BEEN AS MANY AS NINE EXPLOSIONS IN THE ZAGREB AREA, INCLUDING THREE NEAR THE CITY'S AIRPORT, WHICH IS NOW CLOSED. IT IS STILL NOT CLEAR IF THE EXPLOSIONS WERE THE RESULT OF BOMBS, OR AS CROATIAN MILITARY SOURCES SUGGEST, THE RESULT OF A ROCKET ATTACK BY REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. WITNESSES AT THE SCENE OF THE EXPLOSION NEAR THE FOREIGN MINISTRY SAW SEVERAL UNEXPLODED BOMBLETS (SMALL BOMBS) ON THE GROUND. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ADVISED RESIDENTS TO REMAIN INDOORS UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/MH/GPT 02-May-95 9:32 AM EDT (1332 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1497 total bytes, 1497 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177826 TITLE=CROATIA EXPLOSIONS UPDATE (S) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS NOTE: THIS SUBS ALL PREVIOUS SHORT CRS BY FOLEY OR ROBERTS /// INTRO: THERE HAS BEEN A ROCKET ATTACK ON THE CROATIAN CAPITAL ZAGREB, KILLING AT LEAST FIVE PEOPLE AND INJURING OVER 100. THE ATTACK APPEARS TO BE IN RETALIATION FOR A CROATIAN ARMY ASSAULT AGAINST REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: BETWEEN FIVE AND SIX ROCKETS HAVE FALLEN ON THE CROWDED STREETS OF CENTRAL ZAGREB CAUSING SEVERAL DEATHS AND INJURING OVER 100 PEOPLE. ONE ROCKET FELL ONLY A BLOCK AWAY FROM THE FOREIGN MINISTRY AND THE U-S EMBASSY, AND WITNESSES THERE REPORT MANY CARS WERE BADLY DAMAGED BY THE EXPLOSION WHICH ALSO SHATTERED WINDOWS IN NEARBY BUILDINGS. THE U-S AMBASSADOR, PETER GALBRAITH, CALLED IT A PARTICULARLY SAVAGE ATTACK AND SAID IT COULD TRIGGER THE MOST SERIOUS FIGHTING IN EUROPE IN 50 YEARS. THE ATTACK APPEARS TO BE IN RETALIATION FOR A CROATIAN ARMY ASSAULT ON REBEL CROATIAN SERBS TO REGAIN CONTROL OF THE MAIN EAST-WEST HIGHWAY BETWEEN ZAGREB AND BELGRADE. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS NOW ANNOUNCED THE ARMY HAS REGAINED CONTROL OF THE HIGHWAY AND THE ASSAULT HAS ENDED SUCCESSFULLY. BUT AIR RAID SIRENS ARE CONTINUING TO SOUND IN ZAGREB AS RESIDENTS BRACE FOR POSSIBLE ADDITIONAL ROCKET ATTACKS. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/SKH/GPT 02-May-95 11:04 AM EDT (1504 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1524 total bytes, 1524 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177811 TITLE=U-N / YUGO (S) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SEVERAL EXPLOSIONS HAVE ROCKED CROATIA'S CAPITAL, ZAGREB, AS GOVERNMENT FORCES CONTINUED AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST SERB REBELS SOUTHEAST OF THE CITY. THERE WERE NO CONFIRMED REPORTS OF CASUALTIES. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS SERB LEADERS HAVE THREATENED TO SHELL CROATIA'S MAIN TOWNS IN RETALIATION FOR THE GOVERNMENT ASSAULT. TEXT: AT LEAST THREE EXPLOSIONS ROCKED THE CENTER OF ZAGREB AT MID-MORNING, IN AN AREA CLOSE TO SEVERAL GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES, A LUXURY HOTEL AND THE U-S EMBASSY. SERB REBELS, WHO CONTROL ABOUT ONE THIRD OF CROATIA, HAVE THREATENED REPEATEDLY TO SHELL THE COUNTRY'S MAIN TOWNS AND CITIES. AND U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE SERBS POSSESS THE LONG RANGE ARTILLERY NEEDED TO CARRY OUT THAT THREAT. THE BLASTS IN ZAGREB CAME AS A CROATIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE AGAINST REBEL POSITIONS SOUTHEAST OF THE CAPITAL MOVED INTO A SECOND DAY. GOVERNMENT WARPLANES WERE AGAIN IN ACTION, STRIKING AT A BRIDGE OVER THE SAVA RIVER ON THE BORDER WITH BOSNIA. U-N OFFICIALS SAY MORE THAN FIVE THOUSAND CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS HAVE REPORTEDLY FLED INTO BOSNIA SINCE THE FIGHTING ERUPTED AT DAWN MONDAY. U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI IS HOLDING MORE TALKS WITH CROATIAN AND SERB LEADERS TUESDAY IN A BID TO CONTAIN THE FIGHTING. THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL HAS CALLED FOR AN IMMEDIATE HALT TO THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/SKH 02-May-95 6:37 AM EDT (1037 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1572 total bytes, 1572 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177818 TITLE=U-N / YUGO (S-UPDATE) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: /// EDS NOTE: WRITETHRU /// INTRO: REBEL SERBS IN CROATIA APPEAR TO HAVE FIRED ROCKETS ON THE CAPITAL, ZAGREB, AND INITIAL REPORTS SAY AT LEAST ONE PERSON WAS KILLED AND MORE THAN 40 WOUNDED. THE ATTACK CAME AS CROATIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES CONTINUED AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST SERB POSITIONS IN AN AREA ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS SOUTHEAST OF THE CAPITAL. VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS HAS BEEN MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS FROM OUR GENEVA BUREAU. TEXT: SEVERAL EXPLOSIONS ROCKED THE CENTER OF ZAGREB AT MID-MORNING, SHATTERING WINDOWS AND SETTING PARKED CARS ABLAZE ON A TREE-LINED SQUARE WHERE THE CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY AND THE U-S EMBASSY ARE LOCATED. DETAILS REMAIN SKETCHY. BUT NEWS AGENCIES AND WESTERN DIPLOMATS IN THE CITY SAY THE BLASTS WERE THE RESULT OF A SERB ROCKET ATTACK. SERB LEADERS HAVE OFTEN THREATENED TO SHELL CROATIAN TOWNS IN RETALIATION FOR GOVERNMENT ATTACKS ON REBEL-HELD AREAS. AND U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE SERBS POSSESS THE LONG-RANGE ARTILLERY AND ROCKETS NEEDED TO CARRY OUT THOSE THREATS. THE EXPLOSIONS IN ZAGREB CAME ON THE SECOND DAY OF A GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE AGAINST REBEL FORCES IN AN AREA KNOWN AS WESTERN SLAVONIA. CROATIAN OFFICIALS INSIST THE OPERATION IS AIMED SOLELY AT SECURING CONTROL OVER A STRETCH OF THE MAIN HIGHWAY BETWEEN ZAGREB AND THE YUGOSLAV BORDER. BUT THERE ARE MOUNTING FEARS THAT THE CROATIAN ASSAULT COULD LEAD TO A RESUMPTION OF FULL-SCALE WAR IN THE COUNTRY. U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI IS HOLDING MORE TALKS WITH CROATIAN AND SERB LEADERS IN A BID TO RESTORE THE CEASE-FIRE. LATE MONDAY, THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL DEMANDED AN IMMEDIATE HALT TO THE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/SKH/GPT 02-May-95 8:18 AM EDT (1218 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1903 total bytes, 1903 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177828 TITLE= U-N/YUGO (L ) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE= GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: REBEL SERB FORCES IN CROATIA FIRED ROCKETS INTO THE HEART OF ZAGREB TUESDAY. NEWS AGENCIES REPORT AT LEAST FIVE DEAD AND MORE THAN 100 WOUNDED. THE SERB ATTACK WAS IN RETALIATION FOR A SURPRISE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE ON A REBEL-HELD AREA SOUTHEAST OF THE CAPITAL. CROATIA'S PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED LATER TUESDAY THAT THE OFFENSIVE IS NOW OVER, WITH GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN CONTROL OF STRATEGIC ROAD AND RAIL LINKS. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS HAS BEEN MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS FROM OUR GENEVA BUREAU. TEXT: IN A BRIEF WRITTEN STATEMENT, PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN SAID THE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE ENDED AFTER CROATIAN TROOPS CAPTURED THE TOWN OF OKUCANI, JUST NORTH OF THE MAIN HIGHWAY FROM ZAGREB TO THE YUGOSLAV BORDER, ABOUT 125 KILOMETERS FROM THE CAPITAL. THERE HAS BEEN NO RESPONSE TO THE PRESIDENTIAL DECLARATION FROM SERB LEADERS SO FAR. OFFICIALS FROM THE TWO SIDES HAVE RESUMED TALKS AT ZAGREB AIRPORT UNDER THE AUSPICES OF U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI. JUST HOURS EARLIER, SERB ROCKETS SLAMMED INTO AT LEAST THREE CROATIAN CITIES, INCLUDING ZAGREB. ONE EXPLOSION IN THE CAPITAL SHATTERED WINDOWS AND SET CARS ABLAZE ON A TREE-LINED SQUARE WHERE THE CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY AND THE U-S EMBASSY ARE LOCATED. ZAGREB AIRPORT WAS ALSO TARGETTED. AND CIVILIAN TRAFFIC WAS BRIEFLY SUSPENDED. THE FLARE-UP HAS PROMPTED FRESH FEARS OF A RESUMPTION OF ALL-OUT WAR IN CROATIA. SERB REBELS, SUPPORTED BY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY, SEIZED CONTROL OF ABOUT ONE THIRD OF THE COUNTRY DURING A BLOODY CONFLICT IN 1991. CROATIAN OFFICIALS HAD INSISTED THAT THE OFFENSIVE LAUNCHED MONDAY WAS LIMITED IN SCOPE AND DID NOT CALL INTO QUESTION ZAGREB'S POLICY OF SEEKING THE PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF REBEL-HELD TERRITORY. FOREIGN MINISTER MATE GRANIC ASSURED FOREIGN DIPLOMATS THAT THE OPERATION WAS AIMED SOLELY AT SECURING CONTROL OVER A CONTESTED STRIP OF THE MAIN HIGHWAY WHERE AT LEAST THREE CROATIAN MOTORISTS WERE SHOT DEAD BY SERB MILITIAMEN LAST WEEK-END. MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND CROATIAN TROOPS, BACKED BY TANKS AND WARPLANES, WERE INVOLVED IN THE OFFENSIVE IN THE WESTERN SLAVONIA REGION. THEY STORMED PAST CEASE-FIRE LINES MONITORED BY U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCES. CROATIAN JETS LAUNCHED REPEATED ATTACKS ON A BRIDGE OVER THE SAVA RIVER ON THE BORDER WITH BOSNIA TO THE SOUTH. U-N OFFICIALS SAID MORE THAN FIVE THOUSAND CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS FLED ACROSS THAT BRIDGE INTO TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS. THE WARFARE IN CROATIA ERUPTED JUST AS BOSNIA'S FOUR MONTH OLD TRUCE WAS EXPIRING. NEWS AGENCIES REPORT MORTAR FIRE IN THE HEART OF SARAJEVO TUESDAY, AS WELL AS CONTINUED FIGHTING BETWEEN BOSNIAN TROOPS AND SERB FORCES ELSEWHERE IN THE COUNTRY. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 02-May-95 11:29 AM EDT (1529 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2937 total bytes, 2937 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177829 TITLE= U-N/YUGO (S 2ND UPDATE) BYLINE= DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE= GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: REBEL SERB FORCES IN CROATIA FIRED ROCKETS INTO THE HEART OF ZAGREB TUESDAY. NEWS AGENCIES REPORT AT LEAST FIVE DEAD AND MORE THAN 100 WOUNDED. THE SERB ATTACK WAS IN RETALIATION FOR A GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE SOUTHEAST OF THE CAPITAL. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS HAS BEEN MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS FROM OUR GENEVA BUREAU. TEXT: IN A BRIEF WRITTEN STATEMENT, PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN SAID THE GOVERNMENT OFFENSIVE ENDED AFTER CROATIAN TROOPS CAPTURED THE TOWN OF OKUCANI, JUST NORTH OF THE MAIN HIGHWAY FROM ZAGREB TO THE YUGOSLAV BORDER, ABOUT 125 KILOMETERS FROM THE CAPITAL. THERE HAS BEEN NO RESPONSE TO THE PRESIDENTIAL DECLARATION FROM SERB LEADERS SO FAR. OFFICIALS FROM THE TWO SIDES HAVE RESUMED TALKS AT ZAGREB AIRPORT UNDER THE AUSPICES OF U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI. JUST HOURS EARLIER, SERB ROCKETS SLAMMED INTO AT LEAST THREE CROATIAN CITIES, INCLUDING ZAGREB. ONE EXPLOSION IN THE CAPITAL SHATTERED WINDOWS AND SET CARS ABLAZE ON A TREE-LINED SQUARE WHERE THE CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY AND THE U-S EMBASSY ARE LOCATED. ZAGREB AIRPORT WAS ALSO TARGETTED. AND CIVILIAN TRAFFIC WAS BRIEFLY SUSPENDED. THE FLARE-UP HAS PROMPTED FRESH FEARS OF A RESUMPTION OF ALL-OUT WAR IN CROATIA. SERB REBELS, SUPPORTED BY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY, SEIZED CONTROL OF ABOUT ONE THIRD OF THE COUNTRY DURING A BLOODY CONFLICT IN 1991. CROATIAN OFFICIALS HAD INSISTED THAT THE OFFENSIVE LAUNCHED MONDAY WAS LIMITED IN SCOPE AND DID NOT CALL INTO QUESTION ZAGREB'S POLICY OF SEEKING THE PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF REBEL-HELD TERRITORY. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 02-May-95 11:32 AM EDT (1532 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1803 total bytes, 1803 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177842 TITLE=U-S-CROATIA (L) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENT CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE IN WESTERN SLAVONIA -- AND THE KRAJINA SERB RESPONSE, A ROCKET ATTACK ON THE CROATIAN CAPITAL, ZAGREB. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE UNITED STATES IS STEPPING UP DIPLOMACY TO TRY TO STOP THE FIGHTING. TEXT: JUST WHEN THE UNITED STATES THOUGHT DIPLOMACY HAD SUCCEEDED IN PEACEFULLY TRANSFORMING THE UNITED NATIONS FORCE IN CROATIA, THE CROATIAN ARMY HAS MOVED INTO A SERB HELD TOWN IN WESTERN SLAVONIA AND THE CROATIAN SERBS HAVE RESPONDED WITH A ROCKET ATTACK AGAINST ZAGREB // OPT // THAT HAS KILLED FIVE PEOPLE AND WOUNDED HUNDREDS OF OTHERS. // END OPT // SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER, ALARMED BY THE ESCALATING FIGHTING IN CROATIA, HAS TELEPHONED RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV, NOW IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA, TO DISCUSS THE SITUATION. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA AGREE ON THE DIPLOMATIC STEPS TO BE TAKEN. ///BURNS ACT/// THEY AGREED THAT THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO TRY TO RE-ESTABLISH THE U-N'S AUTHORITY IN CROATIA. THEY AGREED THAT THE PARTIES SHOULD BE RESTRAINED IN THEIR EFFORTS. THEY AGREED ON THE NEED FOR THE CONTACT GROUP TO GET INVOLVED ENERGETICALLY ON THIS ISSUE IN CROATIA. ///END ACT/// THE U-S REPRESENTATIVE TO THE FIVE NATION CONTACT GROUP, ROBERT FRASURE, HAS URGED SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO RESTRAIN HIS ARMY AND TO USE HIS INFLUENCE WITH THE CROATIAN SERB FORCES. THE STATE DEPARTMENT HAS CONDEMNED THE ROCKET ATTACK ON ZAGREB AS INDISCRIMINATE AGAINST CIVILIANS, SAYING THE ROCKETS WERE ARMED WITH CLUSTER BOMB WARHEADS. THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO CROATIA, PETER GALBRAITH, HAS URGED THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TO RESPECT THE UNITED NATIONS AUTHORITY IN THE AREAS UNDER CONTROL OF THE CROATIAN SERBS. U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTS CROATIA'S DESIRE TO REGAIN THE NEARLY ONE THIRD OF THE COUNTRY HELD BY THE SERBS. AT THE SAME TIME THEY SAY THE UNITED STATES CANNOT UNDERMINE THE UNITED NATIONS ROLE THAT HAS KEPT THE TWO SIDES APART SINCE THE 1992 CEASE-FIRE. IN THE LONG TERM, SAYS ONE STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL, CROATIA IS BETTER OFF SEEKING ITS ASPIRATIONS THROUGH DIPLOMACY. ANOTHER AMERICAN CONCERN IS THAT THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE WILL ONLY AGGRAVATE THE DETERIORATING SITUATION IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA, WHERE A FOUR MONTH OLD CEASE-FIRE HAS EXPIRED THIS WEEK. THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE UNITED STATES CONTINUES TO SUPPORT THE CONTACT GROUP'S EFFORT TO RELAX ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL AGREE TO RECOGNIZE THE INDEPENDENCE OF BOSNIA AND CROATIA. THERE IS LITTLE SIGN THAT MR. MILOSEVIC HAS DROPPED HIS OPPOSITION TO THE PROPOSAL, BUT THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE OFFER REMAINS ON THE TABLE. CONTACT GROUP REPRESENTATIVES ARE MEETING WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY IN LONDON AND PARIS, TO SEE WHAT FURTHER STEPS CAN BE TAKEN TO REDUCE THE VIOLENCE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/MMK 02-May-95 3:20 PM EDT (1920 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3325 total bytes, 3325 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177840 TITLE=U-S-CROATIA (S) BYLINE=RON PEMSTEIN DATELINE=STATE DEPARTMENT CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS TAKEN DIPLOMATIC ACTION TO TRY TO STOP THE NEW OUTBREAK OF FIGHTING IN CROATIA. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT. TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER HAS TELEPHONED RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV TO DISCUSS THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE INTO WESTERN SLAVONIA AND THE CROATIAN SERB ROCKET ATTACK ON THE CROATIAN CAPITAL OF ZAGREB. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE TWO MINISTERS AGREED ON THEIR DIPLOMATIC APPROACH. ///BURNS ACT/// THEY AGREED THAT THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO TRY TO RE-ESTABLISH THE U-N'S AUTHORITY IN CROATIA. THEY AGREED THAT THE PARTIES SHOULD BE RESTRAINED IN THEIR EFFORTS. THEY AGREED ON THE NEED FOR THE CONTACT GROUP TO GET INVOLVED ENERGETICALLY ON THIS ISSUE IN CROATIA. ///END ACT/// THE SPOKESMAN SAYS THE U-S REPRESENTATIVE TO THE CONTACT GROUP, ROBERT FRASURE, TELEPHONED SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO URGE HIM TO KEEP SERBIAN FORCES OUT OF THE CONFLICT AND TO USE HIS INFLUENCE WITH THE CROATIAN SERBS. PETER GALBRAITH, THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO CROATIA HAS URGED THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TO PULL BACK ITS ARMY. THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTS CROATIA REGAINING CONTROL OF ITS TERRITORY THROUGH DIPLOMACY, U-S OFFICIALS SAY, NOT IN UNDERMINING UNITED NATIONS AUTHORITY. (SIGNED) NEB/RP/GPT 02-May-95 2:17 PM EDT (1817 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1666 total bytes, 1666 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2- TITLE=VATICAN / ORTHODOX (L-ONLY) BYLINE=PEGGY POLK DATELINE=ROME CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: POPE JOHN PAUL THE SECOND HAS ISSUED A STRONG APPEAL FOR AN END TO ALMOST ONE-THOUSAND YEARS OF OFTEN ACRIMONIOUS SEPARATION BETWEEN THE CHURCHES OF THE EAST AND THE WEST. AS PEGGY POLK REPORTS, THE ROMAN CATHOLIC PONTIFF CALLED THE BREAK A "SIN," AND AS HE PUT IT, A "CAUSE OF SCANDAL TO THE WORLD." TEXT: THE POPE MADE HIS APPEAL IN AN APOSTOLIC LETTER ENTITLED "ORIENTALE LUMEN" -- THE LIGHT OF THE EAST. HE URGED ROMAN CATHOLICS, WHO PRACTICE WHAT IS CALLED THE LATIN RITE, TO SEEK DIALOGUE WITH MEMBERS OF EASTERN AND ORTHODOX CHURCHES AT EVERY LEVEL, AND TO ACCEPT AND HONOR THE DIFFERENCES IN EACH OTHER'S FORMS OF WORSHIP. CALLING THE BREAK BETWEEN THE ORTHODOX AND ROME IN THE YEAR 1054 A "VERY SERIOUS" SIN, THE ROMAN CATHOLIC PONTIFF SAID THAT (IN HIS WORDS) "THERE CAN BE NO SECOND THOUGHTS ABOUT PURSUING THE PATH OF UNITY." THE POPE HAS MADE PROGRESS TOWARD UNITY WITH ALL CHRISTIAN CHURCHES -- PROTESTANT AS WELL AS EASTERN -- A GOAL OF THE VATICAN'S PLANS TO CELEBRATE THE YEAR 2000 AS THE THIRD MILLENIUM OF CHRISTIANITY. HE IS COMPLETING AN ENCYCLICAL --THE HIGHEST FORM OF PAPAL TEACHING -- ON THE QUEST FOR UNITY AMONG ALL CHRISTIANS. ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH BARTHOLOMEW, THE SPIRITUAL LEADER OF THE WORLD'S 250 MILLION ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS, IS EXPECTED TO MEET WITH HIM AT THE VATICAN IN JUNE. TENSIONS BETWEEN ROME AND ORTHODOX CHURCHES HAVE RISEN WITH THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN THE SOVIET UNION AND EASTERN EUROPE. THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH HAS ACCUSED CATHOLICS OF SEEKING CONVERTS AMONG THE ORTHODOX, WHILE UKRAINIAN CATHOLICS ARE DEMANDING THAT THE ORTHODOX CHURCH RETURN PROPERTY CONFISCATED BY SOVIET DICTATOR JOSEF STALIN AFTER WORLD WAR TWO. AS THE VATICAN ISSUED THE POPE'S 54-PAGE LETTER, JOHN PAUL WAS DISCUSSING THE PROPERTY ISSUE WITH UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT LEONID KUCHMA, WHO IS MAKING A FOUR-DAY VISIT TO ROME AND THE VATICAN. (SIGNED) NEB/PP/SKH/MMK 02-May-95 12:11 PM EDT (1611 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2133 total bytes, 2133 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES 95-369 NUMBER=3-21766 TITLE=QUESTIONING HIGH TECHNOLOGY (L) BYLINE=DAN NOBLE TELEPHONE=619-1014 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=SWANEY CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: PERHAPS NO PHENOMENON IN RECENT TIMES HAS RECEIVED MORE ATTENTION, HELD OUT MORE PROMISE, NOR ACHIEVED SUCH STATURE AS THE INFORMATION SUPER HIGHWAY. IT SEEMS THAT A DAY DOESN'T GO BY THAT SOME HIGH-TECH EVENT IS FEATURED IN THE NEWSPAPERS OR DISCUSSED ON TELEVISION. EXPERTS SAY THAT HIGH-TECH WILL SUPPLY US WITH VAST AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION, PUT US IN CLOSE TOUCH WITH ONE ANOTHER, AND TURN THE WORLD INTO A GLOBAL VILLAGE. OR WILL IT? DAN NOBLE HAS DETAILS. TEXT: CLIFF STOLL IS THE BESTSELLING AUTHOR OF "THE CUCKOO'S EGG," THE TRUE STORY OF HOW HE TRACKED AND EVENTUALLY CAUGHT A GERMAN SPY RING OPERATING OVER THE INTERNET. MR. STOLL, A UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ASTRONOMER, HAS BEEN INVOLVED WITH COMPUTERS AND COMPUTER NETWORKS FOR MORE THAN 20-YEARS -- LONG BEFORE THE INTERNET EVOLVED INTO THE MASSIVE COMMUNICATIONS WEB THAT IT HAS BECOME. BUT NOW, HE HAS SOME DOUBTS AND HE'S PUT THEM IN A BOOK ENTITLED "SILICON SNAKE OIL: SECOND THOUGHTS ON THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY." TAPE: CUT ONE -- CLIFF STOLL (0:56) "I'VE PAID MY DUES. I SPENT HOURS AND HOURS ON ALMOST EVERY NETWORK I COULD COME ACROSS RANGING FROM THE INTERNET, TO AMERICA ONLINE, TO COMPUSERVE, AND IN ALL THE HOURS AND THE DAYS AND THE MONTHS THAT I'VE SPENT CONNECTED THROUGH THE MODEM, I'VE NEVER WALKED AWAY WITH THE SENSE: 'WOW, THIS IS REALLY SATISFYING'. I'VE NEVER GOTTEN THE SAME SENSE OF COMPLETENESS THAT I'D GET EVEN GOING TO A BASEBALL GAME, LET ALONE SPENDING AN AFTERNOON WITH A COUPLE OF GOOD FRIENDS. (///OPT///) INSTEAD, IT'S ALWAYS: 'OH, THAT'S NEAT. WHAT A FASCINATING BIZARRE LITTLE CORNER I'VE DISCOVERED IN CYBERSPACE'. BUT I NEVER GET THE SENSE OF WARMTH, WELCOMING, A SENSE OF I'M A MEMBER OF A REAL NEIGHBORHOOD, A REAL COMMUNITY. (///END OPT///) INSTEAD, I GET A SENSE OF: IT'S ALL VIRTUAL. THERE IS NOTHING REAL TO IT." TEXT: AND, SAYS CLIFF STOLL, MUCH OF WHAT HE FINDS IN CYBERSPACE IS NOTHING MORE THAN TRIVIA... TAPE: CUT TWO -- CLIFF STOLL (1:03) "...A GREAT DEAL OF UNIMPORTANT FACTOIDS THAT ARE COMPLETELY UNSORTED. INSTEAD OF FINDING ALL SORTS OF WARM KINDHEARTED FRIENDLY PEOPLE, WANTING TO ENGAGE IN CHATS, I FIND PUERILE CONVERSATIONS: 'HI'. 'HELLO'. 'HOW ARE YOU'? 'HI'. INSTEAD OF FINDING A KEY TO DEMOCRACY WHERE LOTS OF PEOPLE TALK ABOUT TOUGH ISSUES, I FIND THE MOST BIZARRE MESSAGES POSTED THAT REALLY DON'T HAVE MUCH POINT, AT ALL. INSTEAD OF REPRESENTATIVES AND LEGISLATORS GOING THROUGH, READING THEIR ELECTRONIC MAIL, THEY ARE OVERLOADED WITH IT. THEY GET HUNDREDS, OR THOUSANDS OF LETTERS IN A DAY. HOW CAN THEY POSSIBLY PLOW THROUGH THIS? IT SEEMS TO ME THAT THERE IS THIS WONDERFUL PROMISED LAND OUT THERE, THIS ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SUPER HIGHWAY. WHAT'S ACTUALLY BEING DELIVERED IS NOT EVEN A MILLIONTH OF THE PROMISE." TEXT: ACCORDING TO CLIFF STOLL, IT USED TO BE -- BECAUSE OF THE EXPENSE OF COMPUTERS -- THAT "ONLY THE HIGHEST QUALITY DATA WOULD MAKE IT ON TO A COMPUTER NETWORK. IT WAS," HE ADDS, "EXPENSIVE TO BRING IT THERE." TAPE: CUT THREE -- CLIFF STOLL (0:57) "NOW THAT COMPUTERS ARE UBIQUITOUS -- LOOK, THEY'RE ALL OVER THE PLACE -- THE DATA THAT YOU FIND, THE INFORMATION THAT YOU FIND ON THIS INFORMATION HIGHWAY, IS LOW QUALITY. (///OPT///) NOBODY IS BEING PAID TO FILTER OUT THE DRUDGE. IT'S NOBODY'S JOB TO GO OUT AND GET RID OF THE LOUSY POSTINGS, THE UNIMPORTANT FACTOIDS AND JUST LET THE GOOD WRITING, THE WELL THOUGHT OUT ARGUMENTS TO COME THROUGH. (///END OPT///) IN A PUBLISHING HOUSE WITHOUT EDITORS, WITHOUT REPORTERS, WITHOUT REVIEWERS, WITHOUT CRITICS, LACKING THIS EDITORIAL FILTER THAT KEEPS OUT THE CRUD (FILTH) AND LETS THE GOOD WRITING THROUGH, YOU END UP WITH A SWAMP THAT DOESN'T HAVE MUCH UTILITY." TEXT: IN PARTICULAR, CLIFF STOLL QUESTIONS THE UTILITY OF WORD PROCESSING PROGRAMS. TAPE: CUT FOUR -- CLIFF STOLL (0:35) "WORD PROCESSORS ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO BEGIN BY WRITING AND THEN START WRITING A LOT OF WORDS AND THEN EDIT OUT WHAT YOU DON'T WANT. IT USED TO BE, WHEN YOU HAD MANUAL TYPEWRITERS, ELECTRIC TYPEWRITERS, OR HANDWRITING, YOU HAD TO THINK THROUGH EACH PARAGRAPH BEFORE YOU WROTE IT. (///OPT///) NOW, YOU START WITH THE FIRST WORD, GO TO THE SECOND, GO TO THE THIRD. ANYTHING YOU DON'T WANT LATER ON YOU DO A CUT AND PASTE. CUT IT OUT. THROW IT OUT. (///END OPT///) THE COMPUTER IS CHANGING THE WAY WE WRITE AND HOW WE WRITE. AND MAYBE NOT FOR THE BETTER." TEXT: CLIFF STOLL -- A UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ASTRONOMER AND AUTHOR OF "SILICON SNAKE OIL: SECOND THOUGHTS ON THE INFORMATION HIGHWAY." HE TELLS READERS THAT HE IS QUESTIONING MUCH OF WHAT HE'S DONE IN THE FIELD OF COMPUTING. HE CAUTIONS THAT AS VALUABLE AS NETWORKS CAN BE FOR CERTAIN ENDEAVORS, SUCH AS SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND INFORMAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION, "WE MUST NOT DELUDE OURSELVES INTO THINKING THAT COMPUTER-GENERATED REALITY CAN REPLACE REAL TIME, (AND) TANGIBLE SPACE." 02-May-95 4:21 PM EDT (2021 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6057 total bytes, 6057 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/2/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-20380 TITLE=BOMB MAKING ON THE INTERNET BYLINE=JOHN PITMAN DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AS INVESTIGATORS LEARN MORE ABOUT THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING, QUESTIONS REMAIN ABOUT HOW THE KILLERS LEARNED TO MAKE THE BOMB. ONE OF THE PLACES LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS ARE LOOKING FOR CLUES IS THE INTERNET, WHERE SEVERAL BOMB-MAKING MANUALS ARE EASILY AVAILABLE. VOA'S JOHN PITMAN RECENTLY WENT ON-LINE IN SEARCH OF EXPLOSIVE KNOW-HOW, AND HAS THIS REPORT. TEXT: BOMB MAKING MANUALS TURN UP ALL OVER THE INTERNET. FEDERAL INVESTIGATORS HAVE FOCUSED ON COMPUTER SYSTEMS OPERATED BY SUSPECTED HATE GROUPS, BUT A SIMPLE SEARCH OF UNIVERSITY COMPUTER SYSTEMS UNCOVERED A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT HOW-TO GUIDES. "THE TERRORIST'S HANDBOOK" -- WHICH FIRST APPEARED IN THE 1960S -- PROVIDES STEP-BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR PIPE BOMBS, TEAR GAS AND ROCKETS. THE FOUR-PART "PYRO GUIDE" IS TARGETED AT SMALLER SCALE MISCHIEF-MAKERS. IT HAS INSTRUCTIONS FOR FLASH POWDERS AND FIRECRACKERS. EVEN THE U-S GOVERNMENT'S SANDIA NATIONAL LAB PUBLISHES SCHOLARLY ARTICLES ON THE SCIENCE OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES. FINDING THESE ARTICLES IS AS EASY AS TYPING THE WORD "EXPLOSIVES" INTO A SEARCH PROGRAM, AND LETTING THE COMPUTER DO THE REST. THERE ARE ALSO DISCUSSION GROUPS AND MAILING-LISTS DEVOTED TO BOMB-MAKING. BUT, AS AMERICAN UNIVERSITY COMPUTER SCIENCE PROFESSOR FRANK CONNOLLY FOUND OUT, RECIPES FOR DESTRUCTION CAN BE LURKING ANYWHERE. HE STUMBLED ON THE "PYRO GUIDE" ACCIDENTALLY WHILE LOOKING THROUGH AN ON-LINE COOKBOOK. /// SFX COMPUTER KEYBOARD /// /// FADE UNDER 1ST CONNOLLY ACT /// "THE ONE THAT I WAS TRYING TO GET WAS SOMETHING HOT AND SPICY. AND SO WHEN I LOOKED UP A COLLECTION OF SPICY THINGS IN THIS CATEGORY, THEY HAD THEM BROKEN DOWN BY TEX-MEX, AND THERE WAS A CATEGORY CALLED 'HOT AND SPICY.' AND THERE WAS ANOTHER CATEGORY -- AND WE'LL SEE IT COME UP ON THE NEXT MENU -- THAT WAS CALLED 'PYROTECHNICS.'" /// END ACT /// "THE PYRO GUIDE" IS A COLLECTION OF RECIPES FOR SMALL CHARGES. THE GUIDE'S INTRODUCTION SAYS THE EXPLOSIVES ARE MEANT ONLY TO SATISFY USERS' "SCIENTIFIC CURIOSITY." BUT IT GOES ON TO SAY THE CHARGES ARE ALSO WELL SUITED FOR PRACTICAL JOKES. WHILE NO ONE KNOWS WHO WROTE THE "GUIDE" OR OTHER MANUALS LIKE THE "TERRORIST'S HANDBOOK," THEY ALL INCLUDE PRECISE INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO ORDER AND MIX CHEMICALS. THEY ALSO INCLUDE LENGTHY SAFETY WARNINGS AND DISCLAIMERS. PROFESSOR CONNOLLY READS FROM "THE PYRO GUIDE." /// BEGIN 2ND CONNOLLY ACT /// "IT STARTS OUT WITH: 'THIS IS PART OF A SERIES OF FILES ON PYROTECHNICS AND EXPLOSIVES.' WHEN I GOT TO THAT, IT WAS INTERESTING BECAUSE THEN I KNEW I WASN'T GETTING HOT AND SPICY FOOD. IT SAYS: 'IT'S SERIOUS STUFF AND CAN BE REALLY DANGEROUS IF YOU DON'T TREAT IT SERIOUSLY. FOR YOU KIDS OUT THERE WHO WATCH TOO MUCH CARTOONS, REMEMBER THAT IF A PART OF YOUR BODY GETS BLOWN AWAY IN THE REAL WORLD, IT STAYS BLOWN AWAY. IF YOU CAN'T TREAT THIS STUFF WITH RESPECT, DON'T SCREW AROUND WITH IT." /// END ACT /// NEIL MILLER WAS THE FIRST TO POST THE "PYRO GUIDE" ON THE INTERNET. HE SAYS HE SENT IT TO A PYROTECHNICS DISCUSSION GROUP BECAUSE HE THOUGHT THE MEMBERS MIGHT BE INTERESTED IN IT. SINCE THAT INITIAL POSTING IN 1991, HE ESTIMATES THE "GUIDE" HAS BEEN READ BY TWO OR THREE-THOUSAND PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD, AND SPREAD TO NUMEROUS DIFFERENT COMPUTER SYSTEMS. MR. MILLER SAYS HE DOES NOT CONDONE BOMB-MAKING, AND DIDN'T THINK ANYONE WOULD ACTUALLY FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS. BUT LATE LAST YEAR, HE GOT A CALL FROM THE BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT. APPARENTLY, A BOMB MAKER HAD BEEN ARRESTED IN BOSTON, AND A COPY OF THE "PYRO GUIDE" DISCOVERED AMONGST HIS POSSESSIONS. MR. MILLER SAYS HE NOW HAS MIXED FEELINGS ABOUT WHAT SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT BE POSTED ON THE INTERNET. /// MILLER ACT /// "WHILE ON THE ONE HAND I'M ALL FOR FREEDOM OF THE PRESS WITH RESPECT TO THE INTERNET, I HAVE A HARD TIME DEFENDING CERTAIN THINGS ... THE UPSHOT IS, YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT YOU POST. AND BEING IGNORANT, AS I WAS AT THE TIME, IS NOT MUCH OF AN EXCUSE." /// END ACT /// THE DEBATE OVER THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH ON THE INTERNET WILL CONTINUE FOR YEARS. BUT, IN THE WAKE OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY BLAST, WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE ANY CONNECTION TO THE INTERNET, LAWMAKERS ARE ALREADY TAKING STEPS TO REGULATE POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS INFORMATION ON-LINE. AMONG THESE EFFORTS, DEMOCRATIC SENATOR JAMES EXON HAS INTRODUCED THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT OF 1995. IF PASSED, THE ACT WOULD EXTEND TELEPHONE OBSCENITY AND SECURITY LAWS TO COMPUTERS AND FAX MACHINES. (SIGNED) NEB/JP/LWM 02-May-95 5:29 PM EDT (2129 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5080 total bytes, 5080 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177894 TITLE=CROATIA EXPLOSION (S-UPDATE) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN THE CROATIAN CAPITAL ZAGREB, SAY A CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT HAS BEEN REACHED BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. THE AGREEMENT NOW IN EFFECT COMES AFTER ONE PERSON WAS KILLED AND MORE THAN 40 INJURED IN A SECOND DAY IN A ROW OF ROCKET ATTACKS ON ZAGREB. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FOR VOA NEWS IN ZAGREB. TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS CHIEF NEGOTIATOR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, YASUSHI AKASHI, SAYS THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND REBEL CROATIAN SERB LEADERS HAVE AGREED TO STOP ALL FIGHTING EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY. BUT THE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT IS ONLY A VERBAL COMMITMENT BY BOTH SIDES AND NOTHING HAS BEEN SIGNED. THE ANNOUNCEMENT COMES AFTER ROCKETS WHICH U-N OFFICIALS SAY WERE FIRED BY THE CROATIAN-SERBS SLAMMED INTO ZAGREB FOR THE SECOND DAY IN A ROW. FOUR ROCKETS HIT THE CITY CENTER DURING THE LUNCH HOUR STRIKING THE NATIONAL THEATER AND A CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL. THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO ZAGREB PETER GALBRAITH CALLED IT A SAVAGE ATTACK TIMED TO KILL AS MANY CIVILIANS AS POSSIBLE. THE ROCKET ATTACKS ARE BELIEVED TO BE IN RETALIATION FOR A CROATIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE IN WESTERN SLOVENIA AGAINST CROATIAN SERB FORCES THAT WERE BLOCKING THE EAST-WEST HIGHWAY BETWEEN ZAGREB AND BELGRADE. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT SAYS THE HIGHWAY HAS NOW BEEN REOPENED AND BETWEEN 500 AND 600 CROATIAN SERB SOLDIERS ARE SURROUNDED. THE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT CALLS FOR THE CROATIAN SERB SOLDIERS TO BE EVACUATED UNDER U-N SUPERVISION TO SERB HELD AREAS OF NORTHERN BOSNIA AFTER THEY HAVE GIVEN UP ALL WEAPONS EXCEPT PERSONAL SIDE ARMS. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/T-BP/CF 03-May-95 2:26 PM EDT (1826 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1826 total bytes, 1826 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177874 TITLE=CROATIA EXPLOSIONS (S) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FOR THE SECOND DAY IN A ROW, THE CROATIAN CAPITAL ZAGREB HAS COME UNDER ROCKET ATTACK. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT SAYS AT LEAST 15 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN INJURED, EIGHT OF THEM SERIOUSLY. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FOR VOA NEWS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: FOUR ROCKETS HAVE HIT CENTRAL ZAGREB INJURING A NUMBER OF PEOPLE AND DAMAGING SCORES OF CARS. THE ROCKETS, PACKED WITH SMALL CLUSTER BOMBS, STRUCK IN THE HEART OF ZAGREB, ALSO DAMAGING THE NATIONAL THEATER AND SCATTERING SHRAPNEL ACROSS ONE OF THE CITY'S BUSIEST PEDESTRIAN AREAS. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS SAY ANOTHER SEVEN ROCKETS HAVE ALSO HIT NEAR THE CITY'S AIRPORT. THE ATTACKS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN STAGED BY CROATIAN SERBS IN RETALIATION FOR A CROATIAN ARMY OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE SERBS IN WESTERN SLOVONIA. THE UNITED NATIONS HAS ANNOUNCED THAT A CEASE-FIRE HAS BEEN AGREED ON IN THAT AREA AND THE 500 CROATIAN SERB SOLDIERS WHO ARE SURROUNDED HAVE BEGUN TO HAND IN THEIR WEAPONS -- A PROCESS EXPECTED TO LAST FIVE DAYS. THERE HAS BEEN NO APPARENT PROGRESS ON A WIDER CEASE-FIRE WITH THE CROATIAN SERBS AND THE CITIZENS OF ZAGREB ARE BRACING FOR ADDITIONAL ATTACKS. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/MH/CF 03-May-95 8:23 AM EDT (1223 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1376 total bytes, 1376 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177880 TITLE=E-U / EASTERN EUROPE (L-ONLY) BYLINE=JOHN FRASER DATELINE= BRUSSELS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION HAS AGREED ON A PACKAGE OF LEGISLATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES WHICH EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES WILL NEED TO IMPLEMENT IN PREPARING FOR THEIR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DOCUMENT, WHICH IS CALLED A WHITE PAPER, WILL BE PRESENTED TO E-U LEADERS FOR FINAL APPROVAL AT THEIR SUMMIT IN CANNES NEXT MONTH. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS. TEXT: THE EXISTING EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERS HAVE IMPLEMENTED A FREE TRADE AREA, KNOWN AS THE INTERNAL MARKET, IN WHICH THERE IS FREE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE, GOODS, CAPITAL AND SERVICES. THE AIM OF THE NEW WHITE PAPER IS TO ALLOW THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TO LOCK IN TO THIS INTERNAL MARKET. IF THEY ADOPT ALL THE LEGISLATION, IT WILL BE AN IMPORTANT PART OF PREPARING FOR FULL MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE BRUSSELS COMMISSIONER RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INTERNAL MARKET, MARIO MONTI, SAYS THE WHITE PAPER IS A GUIDE FOR THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE, BUT IS NOT BEING FORCED ON THEM. AND HE SAYS THIS IS A HELPFUL EXERCISE FOR BOTH SIDES. /// MONTI ACT /// I WOULD LIKE TO STRESS THAT ONE OF THINGS THAT THE WHITE PAPER IS NOT, IS AN OBSTACLE. IT IS NOT AN OBSTACLE; IT IS A GUIDE. IT IS MEANT TO BE A TOOL. I HOPE A VERY USEFUL ONE. /// END ACT /// COMMISSIONER MONTI ADDS THAT THE WHITE PAPER CONTAINS MANY LAWS -- HE HAS NOT YET COUNTED HOW MANY -- BUT IT ALSO CONTAINS A LEGISLATIVE AND JUDICIAL STRUCTURE WHICH THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE WILL NEED TO ADOPT BEFORE THEY CAN IMPLEMENT THE LEGISLATION TO CREATE THE INTERNAL MARKET. /// 2ND MONTI ACT /// LAWS ARE IMPORTANT, DIRECTIVES ARE IMPORTANT, BUT WE TRY TO PUT AT LEAST AS MUCH EMPHASIS ON ADMINSTRATIVE STRUCTURES AS WE DO ON LAWS. WE THINK IT WOULD BE HIGHLY DANGEROUS AND NOT CONDUCIVE TO A REAL APPROXIMATION TO THE INTERNAL MARKET IF INADEQUATE ATTENTION WERE GIVEN TO THE TECHNICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE -- EVEN JUDICIARY STRUCTURES -- THAT ARE NEEDED. /// END ACT /// THE COUNTRIES AT WHICH THE WHITE PAPER IS AIMED INCLUDE SIX CENTRAL EUROPEAN STATES -- POLAND, HUNGARY, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA, BULGARIA AND ROMANIA. THE THREE BALTIC STATES ARE ALSO INCLUDED, AS IS SLOVENIA. ALBANIA, TOO, MAY SOON BECOME INVOLVED IN THE EXERCISE. HOWEVER, E-U COMMISSIONERS HAVE STRESSED THAT THE CONTENTS OF THE WHITE PAPER ALONE WILL NOT BE SUFFICIENT TO PREPARE THESE COUNTRIES FOR MEMBERSHIP OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. ADDITIONAL ECONOMIC REFORMS, AND A WHOLE RAFT OF OTHER LEGISLATION, WILL ALSO BE REQUIRED. THE WHITE PAPER WITH ITS RECOMMENDATIONS IS THE START OF A LONG PROCESS -- AND NOT THE END. (SIGNED) NEB/JF/SKH/MMK 03-May-95 9:53 AM EDT (1353 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3073 total bytes, 3073 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177865 TITLE=NATO-CROATIA-BOSNIA BYLINE=JOHN FRASER DATELINE=BRUSSELS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE NATO ALLIANCE HAS BEGUN TO DEPLOY 50 SKILLED COMMUNICATIONS EXPERTS IN CROATIA, TO PREPARE FOR THE POSSIBLE WITHDRAWAL OF UNITED NATIONS FORCES FROM NEIGHBORING BOSNIA. HOWEVER, NATO SOURCES HAVE STRESSED THAT THIS DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE WITHDRAWAL IS ABOUT TO TAKE PLACE. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS. TEXT: THE 50 NATO COMMUNICATIONS EXPERTS COME FROM SIX NATIONS -- THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, BELGIUM, DENMARK, ITALY AND HOLLAND. OF THE 50, ABOUT 20 ARE FROM AMERICA. NATO SOURCES SAY THE FIRST MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNICATIONS UNIT HAVE ALREADY ARRIVED IN CROATIA AND OTHERS ARE ON THEIR WAY. THEIR TASK WILL BE TO SET UP A SOPHISTICATED COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA PROCESSING NETWORK, WHICH WILL BE NEEDED IF AND WHEN NATO BEGINS THE OPERATION TO PULL-OUT THE 24-THOUSAND OR SO UNITED NATIONS FORCES FROM BOSNIA. IT HAS BEEN ESTIMATED THAT SOME 50-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS WILL BE NEEDED FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OPERATION, WHICH COULD TAKE SOME TIME. THE TERRAIN MAY BE HOSTILE; THE UNITED NATIONS TROOPS MAY BECOME THE TARGETS FOR ONE OF MORE OF THE WARRING FACTIONS; AND THERE IS A RISK OF UNITED NATIONS OR NATO FORCES BEING TAKEN HOSTAGE. THE OPERATION WILL BE FURTHER COMPLICATED IF IT IS DECIDED TO WITHDRAW ALL OF THE EQUIPMENT WHICH THE UNITED NATIONS HAS SET UP IN BOSNIA. NATO PLANNERS BELIEVE THAT THE WITHDRAWAL OPERATION WILL BE SPEEDED UP IF A COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK IS ALREADY IN PLACE AND THAT IS WHY THEY HAVE TAKEN THE DECISION TO SEND THE 50 COMMUNICATIONS EXPERTS TO CROATIA. HOWEVER, THE POLITICAL MESSAGE FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS IS THAT THE ALLIANCE CONTINUES TO SUPPORT PEACE EFFORTS IN BOSNIA, BELIEVES THE UNITED NATIONS IS DOING AN IMPORTANT JOB, AND NATO CHIEFS HOPE THEY WILL NOT HAVE TO IMPLEMENT THE WITHDRAWAL OF UNITED NATIONS PERSONNEL. HOWEVER, PLANNING FOR SUCH AN OPERATION IS WELL ADVANCED, SO THAT NATO WILL BE READY TO SWING INTO ACTION IF THE UNITED NATIONS DECIDES ON A WITHDRAWAL. NATO OFFICIALS STRESS THAT THE DECISION TO MOUNT A WITHDRAWAL OPERATION WILL BE TAKEN BY THE UNITED NATIONS, AND NOT BY THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE, ITSELF. (SIGNED) NEB/JF/SKH 03-May-95 4:36 AM EDT (0836 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2366 total bytes, 2366 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177889 TITLE=OWEN / YUGO (S) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE EUROPEAN UNION HAVE PROPOSED NEW PEACE TALKS BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNNMENT AND REBEL SERB LEADERS. THE EUROPEAN MEDIATOR, LORD OWEN, UNVEILED THE PROPOSAL AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN GENEVA TODAY, AFTER SERB FORCES STAGED ANOTHER ROCKET ATTACK ON ZAGREB IN RETALIATION FOR THIS WEEK'S GROUND OFFENSIVE BY CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS. VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN GENEVA REPORTS IT IS NOT YET CLEAR WHETHER THE TWO SIDES WILL AGREE TO ATTEND THE PROPOSED TALKS. TEXT: LORD OWEN SAID THE SITUATION IN CROATIA IS GRAVE AND APPEARS TO BE DETERIORATING. HE CONDEMNED THE SERB ROCKET ATTACKS ON ZAGREB. BUT HE WAS ALSO CRITICAL OF THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE AGAINST REBEL POSITIONS SOUTHEAST OF THE CAPITAL. // OWEN ACT // I ONLY KNOW THIS IS VERY DANGEROUS. THIS IS THE WORST MILITARY OPERATION SINCE THE 1992 CEASE-FIRE BROKERED BY MR. VANCE (FORMER U-N ENVOY CYRUS VANCE). AND WE HAVE TO CONTAIN IT. // END ACT // LORD OWEN SAID THE JOINT U-N / E-U PROPOSAL FOR PEACE TALKS WAS COMMUNICATED TO CROATIAN AND SERB LEADERS EARLY WEDNESDAY. HE SAID NEITHER SIDE HAS REPLIED SO FAR, BUT HE STRONGLY URGED BOTH TO ACCEPT THE PROPOSAL. THE EUROPEAN MEDIATOR AND HIS U-N COUNTERPART, THORVALD STOLTENBERG, WANT THE TALKS TO BEGIN IN GENEVA ON FRIDAY. LORD OWEN SAID THE TALKS COULD COVER POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND MILITARY ISSUES, WITH THE AIM OF REACHING AN OVER-ALL PEACE SETTLEMENT. HE INDICATED THAT THE PROPOSED GENEVA MEETING IS DESIGNED TO COMPLEMENT U-N-SPONSORED TALKS NOW UNDER WAY IN CROATIA ON A CEASE-FIRE AND THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE OPPOSING FORCES FROM THE AREA OF THIS WEEK'S CROATIAN OFFENSIVE. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/CF 03-May-95 1:07 PM EDT (1707 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1982 total bytes, 1982 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177897 TITLE= OWEN/YUGO (L) BYLINE= DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE= GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: MORE ROCKETS SLAMMED INTO CROATIA'S CAPITAL, ZAGREB, WEDNESDAY. AT LEAST ONE PERSON WAS KILLED AND MORE THAN 40 INJURED, AS REBEL SERB FORCES CONTINUED TO RETALIATE FOR THIS WEEK'S CROATIAN OFFENSIVE IN A REBEL-HELD AREA. U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI ANNOUNCED TENTATIVE AGREEMENT ON A CEASE-FIRE. AND THE U-N AND THE EUROPEAN UNION PROPOSED A NEW ROUND OF PEACE TALKS BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND SERB LEADERS LATER THIS WEEK. THE PROPOSAL WAS UNVEILED BY EUROPEAN MEDIATOR LORD OWEN AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN GENEVA. WE HAVE DETAILS FROM V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS. TEXT: THE U-N AND THE EUROPEAN UNION WANT THE PEACE TALKS TO BEGIN HERE ON FRIDAY. LORD OWEN SAID NEITHER SIDE HAS YET RESPONDED TO THE PROPOSAL, BUT HE URGED THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND SERB LEADERS TO ATTEND THE NEGOTIATIONS. LORD OWEN SAID THERE WOULD BE NO FIXED AGENDA FOR THE CONFERENCE. IT WOULD COVER POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND MIILITARY ISSUES, HE SAID, WITH THE AIM OF REACHING AN OVER-ALL PEACE SETTLEMENT. LORD OWEN SAID THE SITUATION IN CROATIA IS GRAVE AND APPEARS TO BE DETERIORATING. HE DEPLORED THE SERB ROCKET ATTACKS ON ZAGREB. BUT HE WAS ALSO IMPLICITLY CRITICAL OF THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE INTO REBEL HELD TERRITORY SOUTHEAST OF THE CAPITAL EARLIER THIS WEEK. ///OWEN ACT/// I ONLY KNOW THAT THIS IS VERY DANGEROUS. THIS IS THE WORST MILITARY OPERATION SINCE THE 1992 CEASE-FIRE BROKERED BY MR. (CYRUS) VANCE (THE FORMER U-N MEDIATOR). AND WE HAVE TO CONTAIN IT. I THINK IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO REACH A CEASE-FIRE WHILE OTHER, LONGER, WIDER AND DEEPER DISCUSSIONS GO ON. MAYBE. I HOPE SO. ///END ACT/// THE RENEWED WARFARE IN CROATIA HAS SPARKED FEARS OF A WIDER BALKAN CONFLICT, WITH THE ARMY OF SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA INTERVENING IN SUPPORT OF THE CROATIAN SERBS. LORD OWEN HAS LONG MAINTAINED THAT IS THE GREATEST THREAT TO PEACE IN THE REGION. ///OWEN ACT/// THE OVER-RIDING FEAR HAS ALWAYS BEEN OF A REVIVAL OF THE WAR BETWEEN SERBIA AND CROATIA. THAT IS THE BIG ONE, AND THAT IS THE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS ONE. ///END ACT/// YUGOSLAV TROOPS HELPED THE CROATIAN SERBS SECURE CONTROL OVER ABOUT ONE THIRD OF THE COUNTRY DURING THE BLOODY CONFLICT OF 1991. BUT LORD OWEN SAID BELGRADE'S REACTION TO THIS LATEST FLARE-UP HAS BEEN BOTH RESPONSIBLE AND HELPFUL. YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS HAVE CONDEMNED THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE. BUT THEY HAVE ALSO DEPLORED THE SERB ROCKET ATTACKS ON CROATIAN CITIES. LORD OWEN SAID HE BELIEVES BOTH BELGRADE AND ZAGREB ARE ANXIOUS TO AVOID AN ESCALATION OF THE WARFARE. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 03-May-95 2:16 PM EDT (1816 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2966 total bytes, 2966 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177904 TITLE=WORLD PRESS FREEDOM (L) BYLINE=DEBORAH BLOCK DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A NEW REPORT SAYS WORLD PRESS FREEDOM HAS DECLINED IN MORE THAN 30 COUNTRIES DURING THE PAST YEAR. IT ALSO SAYS THE NUMBER OF JOURNALISTS WHO HAVE BEEN MURDERED HAS INCREASED. THE ANNUAL SURVEY WAS TAKEN BY THE NEW YORK-BASED, NON-PROFIT GROUP FREEDOM HOUSE. IT RATES COUNTRIES IN THREE CATEGORIES -- FREE, PARTLY FREE, AND NOT FREE. V-O-A'S DEBORAH BLOCK HAS FURTHER DETAILS FROM WASHINGTON. TEXT: THE REPORT SAYS THE DECLINE IN PRESS FREEDOM SIGNALS A DANGEROUS TREND. SURVEY COORDINATOR LEONARD SUSSMAN SAYS HE IS ESPECIALLY CONCERNED ABOUT POSSIBLE EFFORTS IN WESTERN EUROPE TO CONTROL JOURNALISTS. // SUSSMAN ACTUALITY #1 // IN WESTERN EUROPE, FOR EXAMPLE, ONE FINDS A SOFTENING OF THE ATTITUDE TOWARD PRESS FREEDOM, LARGELY AS A RESULT OF THE VARIOUS EFFORTS IN PLACES SUCH AS ITALY, FRANCE AND SPAIN TO RESPOND TO WHAT THEY REGARD AS IRRESPONSIBLE JOURNALISM. AND SO THERE'S AN EFFORT BY GOVERNMENTS TO INFLUENCE OR PRESSURE JOURNALISTS TO BE "RESPONSIBLE." AND THAT IS SIMPLY ANOTHER CODE WORD FOR "WE DON'T LIKE WHAT YOU'RE DOING. YOU'VE GOT TO DO IT OUR WAY." // END ACTUALITY // THE SURVEY SAYS HALF OF THE 143 MURDERS OF JOURNALISTS DURING THE PAST 15 MONTHS OCCURRED IN RWANDA, ALGERIA AND RUSSIA. MR. SUSSMAN SAYS IN RWANDA JOURNALISTS DIED BOTH BECAUSE THEY WERE KILLED DURING THE ETHNIC WAR AND BECAUSE THEY WERE TARGETED AS JOURNALISTS. IN ALGERIA, HE SAID, THE SITUATION IS QUITE DIFFERENT. // SUSSMAN ACTUALITY #2 // IN ALGERIA, WE HAVE THE RELIGIOUS EXTREMISTS WHO ARE TARGETING JOURNALISTS AND SLAUGHTERING THEM IN THE MOST GRUESOME WAYS, AND WE ALSO HAVE THE GOVERNMENT CRACKING DOWN IN TERMS OF RESTRICTIONS ON THEIR COVERAGE. SO THE ALGERIAN JOURNALIST IS REALLY CAUGHT ON BOTH ENDS. // END ACTUALITY // FREEDOM HOUSE REPORTS IN RUSSIA 14 JOURNALISTS WERE KILLED BY THE MAFIA. BUT MR. SUSSMAN SAYS, DESPITE THE DANGER TO JOURNALISTS, RUSSIA'S PRINT MEDIA HAS SHOWN REMARKABLE RESILIANCE. // SUSSMAN ACTUALITY #3 // A GREAT VITALITY, A GREAT ABILITY TO TAKE ON THE GOVERNMENT, PARTICULARLY OVER CHECHNYA. THE TELEVISION IS STILL PRETTY MUCH UNDER GOVERNMENT INFLUENCE, IF NOT ABSOLUTE CONTROL OF EVERY PROGRAM. BUT IF WE HAD TO SIMPLY RATE THE PRINT PRESS IN RUSSIA WE'D RATE IT PROBABLY AS CLOSE TO FREE AS YOU CAN GET - JUST OVER THE LINE OF FREE. BUT WHEN WE INCLUDE TELEVISION WE STILL KEEP IT IN THE PARTLY FREE AREA. // END ACTUALITY // THE FREEDOM HOUSE OFFICIAL SAYS THE BIGGEST CRACKDOWN ON PRESS FREEDOM TOOK PLACE IN GAMBIA AFTER LAST YEAR'S MILITARY COUP. HE ALSO SAYS THE SURVEY CHANGED NIGERIA'S RATING FROM PARTLY-FREE TO NOT FREE AS THE MILITARY-LED GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO INTIMIDATE THE PRESS. IN ASIA, INDONESIA, MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE DROPPED FROM PARTLY FREE TO NOT FREE. THE SURVEY CITED THE INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT FOR DETAINING TWO REPORTERS AND THREATENING THEM WITH PRISON FOR INSULTING THE GOVERNMENT. IN LATIN AMERICA, THE SURVEY IS CRITICAL OF ARGENTINA'S PRESIDENT FOR ASKING CONGRESS FOR LEGISLATION THAT WOULD RESTRAIN INVESTIGATIVE JOURALISM. IN VENEZUELA, THE REPORT SAYS, THE PRESS HAS BEEN WEAKENED BY CONTROLS IMPOSED BY THE PRESIDENT. AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WORLD PRESS FREEDOM SURVEY ARE BURMA, CUBA, NORTH KOREA, TAJIKISTAN AND IRAQ. BUT SEVEN COUNTRIES ARE LISTED AS HAVING EXPANDED PRESS RIGHTS, INCLUDING GUYANA AND SOUTH AFRICA. (SIGNED) NEB/DB/PT 03-May-95 4:07 PM EDT (2007 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 4126 total bytes, 4126 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/3/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177896 TITLE=WORLD PRESS FREEDOMS (S) BYLINE=NICK SIMEONE DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: A NEW SURVEY OF PRESS FREEDOMS AROUND THE WORLD HAS FOUND GREATER RESTRICTIONS ON REPORTERS IN 31 COUNTRIES. BUT THE REPORT BY THE HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATION FREEDOM HOUSE IS WARNING OF WHAT IT CALLS A MORE DANGEROUS TREND: A GENERAL CRUMBLING OF TRADITIONAL PRESS FREEDOMS IN WESTERN EUROPE. WE GET DETAILS FROM V-O-A'S NICK SIMEONE. TEXT: FREEDOM HOUSE FOUND MORE THAN HALF OF THE 143 REPORTED KILLINGS OF JOURNALISTS DURING THE PAST 15 MONTHS WERE IN JUST THREE COUNTRIES: ALGERIA, RWANDA AND RUSSIA. THE SURVEY FOUND THE MOST SEVERE MEDIA RESTRICTIONS IN BURMA, CUBA, NORTH KOREA, TAJIKISTAN AND IRAQ. IN AFRICA, MILITARY GOVERNMENTS IN GAMBIA AND NIGERIA TIGHTENED RESTRICTIONS ON JOURNALISTS. HOWEVER, IMPROVEMENTS WERE FOUND IN DJIBOUTI, ETHIOPIA, MOZAMBIQUE AND UGANDA. THE REPORT'S AUTHOR LEONARD SUSSMAN SAYS THE MOST UNSETTLING TREND MAY BE IN WHAT HE DESCRIBES AS AN EXPANSION OF RESTRICTIONS TOWARD JOURNALISTS IN WESTERN EUROPE, WHERE A FREE PRESS IS TAKEN FOR GRANTED. // SUSSMAN ACT // THE EFFORT TO INSIST -- BY GOVERNMENT EDICT OR GOVERNMENT INFLUENCE OR PRESSURE OR JUST BY OTHER FORMS OF PERSUASION -- TO MAKE JOURNALISTS QUOTE "RESPONSIBLE" UNQUOTE IS SIMPLY ANOTHER CODE WORD FOR (GOVERNMENTS) SAYING, "WE DON'T LIKE WHAT YOU'RE DOING. YOU'VE GOT TO DO IT OUR WAY." // END ACT // AS AN EXAMPLE, THE REPORT CITES A REQUEST BY THE 33-NATION COUNCIL OF EUROPE ASKING JOURNALISTS TO COME UP WITH A SELF-IMPOSED CODE OF CONDUCT, A MOVE FREEDOM HOUSE VIEWS AS AN EFFORT TO CURTAIL THE REPORTING OF NEWS UNFLATTERING TO GOVERNMENTS. (SIGNED) NEB/NJS/MMK 03-May-95 2:06 PM EDT (1806 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1936 total bytes, 1936 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177939 TITLE=CROAT SITREP (S) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-N OFFICIALS IN CROATIA HAVE EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT THE FATE OF SIX THOUSAND CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS STILL IN AN AREA OF WESTERN SLAVONIA JUST RECAPTURED BY THE CROATIAN ARMY. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FOR VOA NEWS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE BEING DENIED ACCESS TO ABOUT SIX THOUSAND CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS AND THEY ARE VERY WORRIED ABOUT THEIR CONDITION. THE OFFICIALS ALSO SAY THEY CAN NOT CHECK THE SAFETY OF ROADS THAT ARE TO BE USED FOR A U-N-SUPERVISED EVACUATION OF CROATIAN SERB SOLDIERS AND CIVILIANS DUE TO BEGIN FRIDAY. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE SURRENDER OF WEAPONS BY THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS -- ANOTHER PART OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT -- IS PROCEEDING SMOOTHLY. BUT THEY HAVE ALSO CONFIRMED WIDESPREAD LOOTING BY THE CROATIAN ARMY OF THE CAPTURED CROATIAN SERB TOWN OF OKUCANI. MEANWHILE IN ZAGREB THE GOVERNMENT SAYS A TOTAL OF SIX PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND 200 WERE WOUNDED BY CROATIAN SERB ROCKET ATTACKS ON THE CAPITAL IN THE LAST TWO DAYS. THE STREETS ARE UNUSUALLY QUIET TODAY, AS NERVOUS CITIZENS HOPE THE CEASEFIRE HOLDS. THE GOVERNMENT HAS PROMISED A STRONG RESPONSE TO ANY RENEWED ROCKET ATTACKS. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/MH/GPT 04-May-95 7:56 AM EDT (1156 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1386 total bytes, 1386 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177967 TITLE=CROATIA FIGHTING (S-UPDATE) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: // PRODUCERS -- CUT SENTENCE IN GRAF 2 // INTRO: REBEL CROATIAN SERB FORCES ARE SURRENDERING, AFTER FIGHTING THURSDAY WITH THE CROATIAN ARMY TROOPS IN WESTERN SLAVONIA. THE FIGHTING CAME LESS THAN 24 HOURS AFTER BOTH SIDES VERBALLY AGREED TO A NEW CEASE-FIRE. INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS ARE ARRANGING TALKS BETWEEN CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND SERB LEADERS IN AN EFFORT TO EASE TENSIONS. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FOR V-O-A NEWS IN ZAGREB. TEXT: UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS SAY FIERCE FIGHTING INCLUDING TANK AND ARTILLERY FIRE OCCURRED BETWEEN CROATIAN ARMY UNITS AND CROATIAN-SERB SOLDIERS OUTSIDE THE TOWN OF PAKRAC, NEAR WHERE THE CROATIAN ARMY SEIZED CONTROL OF A MAIN HIGHWAY EARLIER THIS WEEK. THE FIGHTING CAME AS U-N OFFICIALS WERE WORKING TO EVACUATE UP TO SIX THOUSAND CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS INTO NORTHERN BOSNIA. ACCORDING TO U-N OFFICIALS 800 CROATIAN SOLDIERS ALONG WITH TANKS HAD SURROUNDED 18 U-N OBSERVATION POST INSIDE THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE SEPARATING THE TWO SIDES IN SOUTHERN CROATIA, AND BOTH SIDES HAVE MOVED HUNDREDS OF TROOPS TO THE CONFRONTATION LINE IN EASTERN SLOVONIA. THE U-N SPOKESMAN CHRIS GUNNESS SAID THE U-N IS EXTREMELY WORRIED ABOUT THESE DEVELOPMENTS AND IS TRYING TO MEDIATE BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES BEFORE A WIDER CONFLICT BREAKS OUT. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/T-BP/MMK 04-May-95 2:56 PM EDT (1856 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1522 total bytes, 1522 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177952 TITLE=EU/CROATIA (S) BYLINE=JOHN FRASER DATELINE=BRUSSELS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE 15-NATION EUROPEAN UNION HAS ISSUED A STATEMENT EXPRESSING DEEP CONCERN AT THE RENEWED HOSTILITIES IN CROATIA. THE STATEMENT WARNS THAT IMPROVEMENTS IN TRADE RELATIONS MAY BE PUT AT RISK IF THE VIOLENCE CONTINUES. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FOR VOA NEWS FROM BRUSSELS. TEXT: THE 15 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENTS ARE DEEPLY WORRIED AT THE RECENT FLARE UP IN FIGHTING IN CROATIA. THEY HAVE EXPRESSED PARTICULAR CONCERN ABOUT ATTACKS ON CIVILIAN POPULATIONS. THE E-U GOVERNMENTS SAY THEY DEPLORE THE CROATIAN ATTACK ON SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN WESTERN SLOVENIA. THE STATEMENT CALLS FOR AN IMMEDIATE HALT IN MILITARY ACTIVITIES, AND EXPRESSES FULL SUPPORT FOR EFFORTS BY THE UNITED NATIONS TO MEDIATE BETWEEN THE WARRING FACTIONS. IT NOTES THAT EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENTS AGREED LAST MONTH TO OPEN TRADE NEGOTIATIONS WITH CROATIA. HOWEVER, THE STATEMENT CONTAINS THE WARNING THAT ANY NEW TRADE RELATIONSHIP WILL BE THREATENED IF THE CROATIAN AUTHORITIES UNDERMINE THE PEACE PROCESS. THE STATMENT ALSO CONDEMNS THE ACTIVITIES OF SERB FORCES IN ATTACKING ZAGREB, AND IN TAKING HOSTAGE UNITED NATIONS PERSONNEL. IT CALLS FOR THE IMMEDIATE RELEASE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HOSTAGES, AND AN END TO THE BOMBARDMENTS OF THE CROATIAN CAPITAL. (SIGNED) NEB/JF/MH/GPT 04-May-95 11:57 AM EDT (1557 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1481 total bytes, 1481 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177950 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE= DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE= GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: FRESH FIGHTING ERUPTED IN CROATIA THURSDAY, WITH GOVERNMENT TROOPS BATTLING SERB REBELS SOUTHEAST OF ZAGREB DESPITE A U-N BROKERED CEASE-FIRE. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS THE RENEWED WARFARE CAME AFTER THE TWO SIDES AGREED TO ATTEND PEACE TALKS IN GENEVA. TEXT: U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI ANNOUNCED THE CEASE-FIRE LATE WEDNESDAY. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGED THAT HE HAD OBTAINED ONLY VERBAL COMMITMENTS FROM CROATIAN AND SERB LEADERS TO ADHERE TO THE TRUCE. CROATIA'S DEFENSE MINISTER GOJKO SUSAK TOLD PARLIAMENT EARLY THURSDAY THERE WERE CLASHES OVERNIGHT IN THE WESTERN SLAVONIA REGION, LARGELY OVER-RUN BY ZAGREB GOVERNMENT FORCES IN A LIGHTENING OFFENSIVE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WEEK. NEWS AGENCIES LATER REPORTED HEAVY FIGHTING IN AND AROUND THE TOWN OF PAKRAC, AT THE NORTHERN END OF THE DISTRICT. THE BULK OF SERB FORCES IN THE REGION HAVE EITHER ALREADY FLED OR HAVE AGREED TO SURRENDER THEIR WEAPONS AND LEAVE UNDER U-N ESCORT. BUT U-N OFFICIALS SAY 200 TO 300 REBELS HAVE VOWED TO FIGHT ON. TENSIONS ARE CONTINUING TO RUN HIGH ELSEWHERE IN CROATIA. U-N OFFICIALS REPORTED THAT GOVERNMENT TROOPS HAVE MOVED INTO BUFFER ZONES AROUND OTHER REBEL STRONGHOLDS. THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT SAYS IT HAS NO PLANS FOR FURTHER MILITARY OPERATIONS. BUT PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS THREATENED WHAT HE CALLED ENERGETIC RETALIATION IF THERE ARE ANY MORE SERB ROCKET ATTACKS ON ZAGREB OR OTHER CITIES. AT LEAST SIX CIVILIANS WERE KILLED AND NEARLY 200 WOUNDED IN TWO SUCCESSIVE DAYS OF ROCKET ATTACKS ON THE CAPITAL. AIR RAID SIRENS WERE HEARD IN THE CITY SHORTLY AFTER NOON THURSDAY, SENDING PEOPLE SCURRYING FOR SHELTERS. BUT THERE WERE NO REPORTS OF FURTHER EXPLOSIONS. AS U-N OFFICIALS ATTEMPTED TO RESTORE THE CEASE-FIRE, THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT AND SERB LEADERS ACCEPTED AN INVITATION TO PEACE TALKS HERE IN GENEVA, CO-SPONSORED BY THE U-N AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. U-N AND EUROPEAN MEDIATORS HAD HOPED TO BEGIN THE NEGOTIATIONS ON FRIDAY. BUT A BRIEF STATEMENT ISSUED HERE INDICATED THAT NO DATE FOR THE MEETING HAS YET BEEN AGREED. LORD DAVID OWEN, THE EUROPEAN MEDIATOR, TOLD REPORTERS THERE WILL BE NO FIXED AGENDA FOR THE TALKS. POLITICAL, MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ISSUES CAN BE DISCUSSED, HE ADDED, WITH THE AIM OF REACHING AN OVER-ALL SETTLEMENT TO THE FOUR YEAR OLD CONFRONTATION BETWEEN CROATIA AND ITS ETHNIC SERB MINORITY (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 04-May-95 11:25 AM EDT (1525 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2625 total bytes, 2625 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177943 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND REBEL SERB LEADERS HAVE ACCEPTED A PROPOSAL FOR PEACE TALKS, CO-SPONSORED BY THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS NO DATE HAS YET BEEN SET FOR THE NEGOTIATIONS WHICH WILL BE HELD IN GENEVA. TEXT: A BRIEF STATEMENT FROM THE U-N AND EUROPEAN MEDIATORS HERE THURSDAY CONFIRMED THAT BOTH THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT AND THE REBEL SERB LEADERSHIP IN CROATIA HAVE AGREED TO ATTEND THE NEGOTIATIONS. THE MEDIATORS HAD SUGGESTED THAT THE TALKS BEGIN HERE ON FRIDAY. BUT THURSDAY'S STATEMENT SAID A DATE FOR THE MEETING HAS NOT YET BEEN SET. LORD DAVID OWEN, THE EUROPEAN UNION MEDIATOR, TOLD REPORTERS THERE WILL BE NO FIXED AGENDA FOR THE NEGOTIATIONS. POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND MILITARY ISSUES CAN BE DISCUSSED, HE ADDED, WITH THE GOAL OF REACHING AN OVER-ALL SETTLEMENT OF THE FOUR YEAR CONFRONTATION BETWEEN CROATIA AND ITS ETHNIC SERB MINORITY. THAT CONFRONTATION FLARED ANEW AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS WEEK WHEN CROATIAN TROOPS OVER-RAN ONE OF FOUR REBEL STRONGHOLDS. THE SERBS RETALIATED WITH TWO DAYS OF ROCKET ATTACKS ON ZAGREB THAT KILLED AT LEAST SIX PEOPLE AND WOUNDED ABOUT 200 OTHERS. PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJAN HAS THREATENED RETALIATION IF THERE ARE ANY FURTHER ROCKET ATTACKS ON THE CAPITAL OR OTHER CITIES. CROATIA WAS REPORTED CALM EARLY THURSDAY, WITH BOTH SIDES APPARENTLY RESPECTING A U-N BROKERED CEASEFIRE. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH 04-May-95 8:02 AM EDT (1202 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1643 total bytes, 1643 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/4/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-177956 TITLE=YUGO SITREP UPDATE (L) BYLINE=DOUGLAS ROBERTS DATELINE=GENEVA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THERE WAS A NEW OUTBREAK OF FIGHTING IN CROATIA THURSDAY, AS GOVERNMENT TROOPS BATTLED SERB REBELS SOUTHEAST OF ZAGREB DESPITE A U-N BROKERED CEASE-FIRE. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS THE RENEWED WARFARE CAME AFTER THE TWO SIDES AGREED TO ATTEND PEACE TALKS IN GENEVA. TEXT: U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI ANNOUNCED THE CEASE-FIRE LATE WEDNESDAY. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGED THAT HE HAD OBTAINED ONLY VERBAL COMMITMENTS FROM CROATIAN AND SERB LEADERS TO ADHERE TO THE TRUCE. CROATIA'S DEFENSE MINISTER GOJKO SUSAK TOLD PARLIAMENT EARLY THURSDAY THERE WERE CLASHES OVERNIGHT IN THE WESTERN SLAVONIA REGION, LARGELY OVER-RUN BY ZAGREB GOVERNMENT FORCES IN A LIGHTENING OFFENSIVE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WEEK. LATER THURSDAY, HEAVY FIGHTING ERUPTED IN AND AROUND THE TOWN OF PAKRAC, AT THE NORTHERN END OF THE DISTRICT. THE BULK OF SERB FORCES IN THE TOWN HAD EITHER ALREADY FLED OR HAD AGREED TO SURRENDER THEIR WEAPONS AND LEAVE UNDER U-N ESCORT. BUT U-N OFFICIALS SAID 200 TO 300 REBELS HAD VOWED TO FIGHT ON. AFTER SEVERAL HOURS OF ARTILLERY AND TANK FIRE IN PAKRAC, ZAGREB RADIO SAID THE REMAINING REBELS HAD ALSO AGREED TO LAY DOWN THEIR ARMS. BUT TENSIONS ARE CONTINUING TO RUN HIGH ELSEWHERE IN CROATIA. SERB LEADER MILAN MARTIC WARNED OF MORE FIGHTING UNLESS CROATIAN TROOPS WITHDRAW FROM NEWLY CAPTURED TERRITORY. U-N OFFICIALS REPORTED THAT GOVERNMENT FORCES HAVE MOVED INTO BUFFER ZONES AROUND OTHER REBEL STRONGHOLDS. THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT SAYS IT HAS NO PLANS FOR FURTHER MILITARY OPERATIONS. BUT PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS THREATENED WHAT HE CALLED ENERGETIC RETALIATION IF THERE ARE ANY MORE SERB ROCKET ATTACKS ON ZAGREB OR OTHER CITIES. AT LEAST SIX CIVILIANS WERE KILLED AND WELL OVER ONE HUNDRED WOUNDED IN TWO SUCCESSIVE DAYS OF ROCKET ATTACKS ON THE CAPITAL. AIR RAID SIRENS WERE HEARD IN THE CITY AGAIN THURSDAY, SENDING PEOPLE SCURRYING FOR SHELTERS. BUT THERE WERE NO REPORTS OF FURTHER EXPLOSIONS. AS U-N OFFICIALS ATTEMPTED TO RESTORE THE CEASE-FIRE, THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT AND SERB LEADERS ACCEPTED AN INVITATION TO PEACE TALKS HERE IN GENEVA, CO-SPONSORED BY THE U-N AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. U-N AND EUROPEAN MEDIATORS HAD HOPED TO BEGIN THE NEGOTIATIONS ON FRIDAY. BUT A BRIEF STATEMENT ISSUED HERE INDICATED THAT NO DATE FOR THE MEETING HAS YET BEEN AGREED. LORD DAVID OWEN, THE EUROPEAN MEDIATOR, TOLD REPORTERS THERE WILL BE NO FIXED AGENDA FOR THE TALKS. POLITICAL, MILITARY AND ECONOMIC ISSUES CAN BE DISCUSSED, HE ADDED, WITH THE AIM OF REACHING AN OVER-ALL SETTLEMENT TO THE FOUR YEAR OLD CONFRONTATION BETWEEN CROATIA AND ITS ETHNIC SERB MINORITY. (SIGNED) NEB/DBR/MH/MMK 04-May-95 1:23 PM EDT (1723 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2873 total bytes, 2873 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/6/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178048 TITLE=CROATIA SITREP (S ONLY) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS REFUSED TO PERMIT A UNITED NATIONS AID CONVOY TO REACH CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS WHO FLED INTO NORTHERN BOSNIA EARLIER THIS WEEK, AND THE UNITED NATIONS SAYS THE CROATIAN ARMY HAS LOOTED U-N POSITIONS IN WESTERN SLAVONIA. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. TEXT: THE U-N AID CONVOY WAS TRYING TO CROSS THE SAVA RIVER BRIDGE FROM CROATIA INTO SERB-HELD NORTHERN BOSNIA TO REACH THOUSANDS OF CROATIAN SERB CIVILIANS WHO FLED FROM A CROATIAN ARMY ATTACK LAST MONDAY. U-N OFFICIALS SAY CROATIAN MILITARY COMMANDERS SAID THE BRIDGE WAS HEAVILY MINED AND REFUSED TO ALLOW THE CONVOY TO CROSS. U-N OFFICIALS ALSO COMPLAINED THAT CROATIAN ARMY UNIT HAD LOOTED A NUMBER OF U-N POSITIONS IN THE WAKE OF THE ATTACK IN WESTERN SLAVONIA. THE OFFICIALS SAID ALONG WITH SMALL ARMS AND AMMUNITION, MANY CARS AND JEEPS AND AN AMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER WERE TAKEN. TENSIONS ALONG THE BORDER REMAIN VERY HIGH, AND U-N OFFICIALS OFFICIALS SAY THE CROATIAN SERBS HAVE EVACUATED THOUSANDS OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN FROM FRONTLINE VILLAGES IN EASTERN CROATIA AFTER CROATIAN ARMY UNITS CROSSED A MAIN RIVER THAT SEPARATES THE TWO SIDES. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/DW/CF 06-May-95 3:15 PM EDT (1915 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1394 total bytes, 1394 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/7/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178081 TITLE=EX-YUGO SITREP (S ONLY) BYLINE=DAVID FOLEY DATELINE=ZAGREB CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AT LEAST EIGHT PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN SARAJEVO SUNDAY AS THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL CAME UNDER ITS HEAVIEST SHELLING ATTACK THIS YEAR. DAVID FOLEY ALSO REPORTS FROM ZAGREB THAT UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN CROATIA HAVE LAUNCHED AN INVESTIGATION INTO REPORTS THAT CROATIAN-SERB CIVILIANS WERE KILLED AS THEY FLED FROM A CROATIAN ARMY ATTACK LAST WEEK TEXT: HEAVY SHELLS LANDED IN A CROWDED MARKET AREA NEAR THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT. A NUMBER OF INJURED WERE RUSHED TO HOSPITALS AND THE GOVERNMENT SARAJEVO SAYS THE ATTACK WAS A CLEAR VIOLATION OF THE U-N AGREEMENT PROHIBITING HEAVY WEAPONS CLOSE TO THE CITY. REPORTS ARE THAT THE BOMBS FELL CLOSE A TUNNEL UNDER THE CITY'S AIRPORT. THE TUNNEL IS USED AS A KEY SUPPLY ROUTE INTO THE BESIEGED CITY. IN CROATIA, A SENIOR U-N GENERAL HAS GONE TO WESTERN SLAVONIA TO INVESTIGATE CLAIMS BY CROATIAN-SERB CIVILIAN REFUGEES THAT CROATIAN ARMY TROOPS ATTACKED THEM WITH ARTILLERY AND SNIPER FIRE AS THEY FLED INTO NORTHERN BOSNIA EARLY LAST WEEK. U-N OFFICIALS SAY REPORTS FROM MORE THAN A HUNDRED OF THE REFUGEES ARE BELIEVED TO BE RELIABLE. AND THE OFFICIALS SAY THE CROATIAN ARMY HAS SO FAR PREVENTED THEM FROM REACHING THE AREA TO CHECK ON THE CLAIMS. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAD LAUNCHED A MEDIA CAMPAIGN TO CONVINCE REMAINING REBEL SERBS THAT THEY WOULD BE WELL TREATED IN CROATIA. THE GOVERNMENT HAS REACTED ANGRILY TO THE U-N ALLEGATIONS, BUT UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS SAY THEY "ARE NOT BACKING DOWN AN INCH" (ONE BIT) IN THE DISPUTE. TENSIONS ON CROATIA'S BORDERS ARE STILL HIGH, BUT U-N OFFICIALS NOW DESCRIBE CONDITIONS AS STABLE. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/DW/MMK 07-May-95 2:41 PM EDT (1841 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1840 total bytes, 1840 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/7/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178086 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BLAMED THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR SHELLING ATTACKS THAT KILLED AT LEAST NINE PEOPLE AND WOUNDED MANY OTHERS IN A SARAJEVO SUBURB. MEANWHILE, THERE ARE GROWING SIGNS THAT MANY CIVILIANS WERE KILLED IN CROATIA DURING A CROATIAN ARMY ATTACK ON A SERB-HELD REGION LAST WEEK. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS FROM VIENNA. TEXT: HEAVY MORTAR ROUNDS EXPLODED IN A SARAJEVO SUBURB NEAR THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL'S AIRPORT AND, LATER, IN THE CITY ITSELF. MANY OF THE DEAD OR WOUNDED IN THE GOVERNMENT-HELD SUBURB OF BUTMIR WERE BELIEVED TO BE BOSNIAN ARMY SOLDIERS. IT WAS THE DEADLIEST ATTACK OF ITS KIND SINCE A OPEN-AIR MARKET IN SARAJEVO WAS SHELLED LAST YEAR. THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN THE CITY SAYS THE SHELLING ON SUNDAY WAS LAUNCHED FROM BOSNIAN SERB POSITIONS. THE SERB'S USE OF HEAVY MORTARS VIOLATED THE HEAVY WEAPONS EXCLUSION ZONE IN THE AREA. THE MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS CALLED ON THE MAJOR POWERS TO STOP SERB SHELLING ATTACKS ON SARAJEVO OR TO LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST BOSNIA SO THE MUSLIMS CAN DEFEND THEMSELVES. BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC HAS ASKED U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS GHALI AND NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL WILLY CLAES TO ENFORCE U-N RESOLUTIONS ON BOSNIA. MR. IZETBEGOVIC WAS REFERRING TO THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL'S DESIGNATION OF SARAJEVO AND OTHER MUSLIM ENCLAVES AS SAFE AREAS WHERE CIVILIANS ARE TO BE PROTECTED. IF THE RESOLUTIONS ARE VALID, THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO SHOULD DO SOMETHING. IF THE RESOLUTIONS ARE NO LONGER VALID, HE SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO SHOULD ADMIT IT. MEANWHILE, IN CROATIA, THERE ARE GROWING INDICATIONS THAT A NUMBER OF SERB CIVILIANS WERE KILLED, POSSIBLY BECAUSE THEY WERE CAUGHT IN A CROSS-FIRE, WHEN THE CROATIAN ARMY ATTACKED THE SERB-HELD REGION OF WESTERN SLAVONIA LAST WEEK. THE COMMANDER OF NEPALESE SOLDIERS OF THE U-N PEACE-KEEPING FORCE IN CROATIA SAYS A COLUMN OF CIVILIANS, FLEEING FROM A VILLAGE, WAS SHELLED OR RAKED BY GUNFIRE WHEN THE CROATIAN ARMY BEGAN ITS ASSAULT. THE COMMANDER SAYS SERB GUNNERS WERE FIRING FROM THE VILLAGE AT THE TIME SO CROATIAN FORCES MUST HAVE TARGETED THE AREA TO COUNTER THAT SHOOTING. SERB CIVILIANS, WHO FLED TO SAFETY, HAVE ACCUSED THE CROATIAN ARMY OF CARRYING OUT A DELIBERATE MASSACRE. THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT ANGRILY DENIES THAT. PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS ASSURED THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND GERMANY THAT NO MORE MILITARY OFFENSIVES ARE PLANNED AGAINST THE REMAINING SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN CROATIA. HIS GOVERNMENT IS TRYING TO DEMONSTRATE THAT CAPTURED SERB SOLDIERS AND SERB CIVILIANS IN THE REGION, NOW BACK IN GOVERNMENT HANDS, ARE BEING WELL-TREATED. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/LWM 07-May-95 6:19 PM EDT (2219 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2960 total bytes, 2960 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/9/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178184 TITLE=CIGARETTE LABELS (L-ONLY) BYLINE=MICHELE KELEMEN DATELINE=WASHINGTON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S AND CANADIAN HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS HAVE JOINED TOGETHER TO CALL FOR STRONGER TOBACCO WARNINGS ON CIGARETTE PACKAGE LABELS IN THE UNITED STATES. AS V-O-A'S MICHELE KELEMEN REPORTS, THEY CHARGE THAT AMERICAN TOBACCO COMPANIES ARE GIVING DIFFERENT MESSAGES TO YOUNG AMERICANS THAN THEY ARE GIVING TO YOUNG PEOPLE ABROAD. TEXT: A LAW IN CANADA REQUIRES CIGARETTE COMPANIES TO PRINT LARGE BLACK AND WHITE WARNINGS ON THE FRONT OF THEIR PACKAGES ABOUT THE DANGERS OF ADDICTION AND OF DEATH FROM TOBACCO SMOKE. THEY READ "SMOKING CAN KILL YOU" OR "CIGARETTES ARE ADDICTIVE." IN CONTRAST, U-S LABELS ARE IN SMALL PRINT ON THE SIDE OF A PACKAGE -- OFTEN WRITTEN IN THE SAME COLORS AS THE PACKAGE ITSELF. ONE READS "SMOKING BY PREGNANT WOMEN MAY RESULT IN FETAL INJURY, PREMATURE BIRTH AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT." GARFIELD MAHOOD -- WHOSE NON-SMOKERS' RIGHTS ASSOCIATION LED THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE TOUGH LABEL LAWS IN CANADA -- SAYS PEOPLE MUST HAVE CLEAR INFORMATION BEFORE THEY DECIDE WHETHER TO SMOKE. // MAHOOD ACT // IF YOU HAVE FREEDOM OF CHOICE -- WHICH THE INDUSTRY LIKES TO HANG ON -- THEN YOU HAVE TO HAVE INFORMED CONSENT. AND WHAT THE SUPERIOR WARNING SYSTEM DOES, IT GIVES PEOPLE THE OPPORTUNITY TO HAVE THE KNOWLEDGE BASE ON WHICH TO COME CLOSER TO THE CONCEPT OF INFORMED CONSENT. WHEN IT COMES TO THAT THERE IS OBVIOUSLY A DOUBLE STANDARD IN OPERATION HERE. WE ARE TALKING ABOUT GIVING YOUTHS FREEDOM TO MAKE AN INFORMED CHOICE, BUT AMERICAN KIDS CLEARLY HAVE THEIR HANDS TIED BEHIND THEIR BACKS. // END ACT // MR. MAHOOD SAYS THAILAND, AUSTRALIA AND SINGAPORE HAVE FOLLOWED CANADA'S LEAD WITH STRONG WARNING LABELS AND HE SAYS THERE WAS SOME INTEREST IN THIS IN POLAND, WHERE HE RECENTLY GAVE A TALK. HE SAYS THERE HAS BEEN NO CLEAR RESEARCH TO PROVE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LABELS, BUT SAYS RECENT STUDIES SHOW ONE THING IS CLEAR -- PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES AND MANY OTHER COUNTRIES STILL DO NOT KNOW MUCH ABOUT THE HAZARDS OF SMOKING. TOM LAURIE OF THE TOBACCO INSTITUTE IN WASHINGTON DISAGREES. // LAURIE ACT // I DON'T THINK THERE ARE ANY AMERICANS WHO ARE UNAWARE OF THE HEALTH RISKS LINKED TO SMOKING NOR THE SURGEON GENERAL'S CONCERNS ABOUT SMOKING. WE DON'T THINK NEW WARNING LABELS ARE NECESSARY BECAUSE THE OLD WARNING LABELS ARE BOTH VERY FAMOUS, VERY WELL KNOWN AND HAVE BY THEMSELVES BEEN CITED AS REDUCING CIGARETTE SMOKING BY AS MUCH AS 50 PERCENT IN THE UNITED STATES. // END ACT // MR. LAURIE SAYS STUDIES SHOW THAT BY THE TIME YOUNG PEOPLE REACH SEVENTH GRADE THEY ARE AWARE OF THE RISKS OF SMOKING. STILL, THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, WHICH IS ALSO PUSHING FOR STRONGER LABELS AND OTHER MEASURES, WARNS THAT THREE THOUSAND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES TRY SMOKING EACH DAY. THE ORGANIZATION ADDS THAT TOBACCO USE IS ONE OF THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN AMERICA. // REST OPT // SCOTT BALLIN -- WHO CHAIRS THE COALITION ON SMOKING OR HEALTH -- SAYS REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS ALIKE SHOULD BE WORRIED ABOUT THESE STATISTICS. HE SAYS HE KNOWS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WILL LOBBY HARD AGAINST NEW WARNING LABELS AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS, BUT SAYS HIS SIDE IS READY FOR A FIGHT ON CAPITOL HILL. (SIGNED) NEB/MK/GPT 09-May-95 1:16 PM EDT (1716 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3711 total bytes, 3711 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5-9-95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE NUMBER=3-21859 TITLE=CIVIL WAR DRAFT RIOTS (L) BYLINE=MIKE JOYCE TELEPHONE= DATELINE=CHICAGO EDITOR=FRANCUCH/ SWANEY CONTENT= (INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES) (ED. NOTE: THERE ARE TWO COMPANION PIECES TO THIS SPOT -- "IRISH IMMIGRATION TO U-S" AND "AUTHOR ON HISTORICAL NOVELS." ALL THREE ISSUED ON THE SAME DAY. INTRO: THE DEADLIEST RIOTS IN U-S HISTORY OCCURRED IN NEW YORK CITY DURING THE TIME OF THE U-S CIVIL WAR (1861-65). MOST OF THE RIOTERS WERE IMPOVERISHED IRISH IMMIGRANTS AND, IRONICALLY, THEIR MAIN TARGETS WERE THE CITY'S EQUALLY IMPOVERISHED AFRICAN-AMERICANS. THE EVENT IS THE SUBJECT OF AN HISTORICAL NOVEL CALLED "BANISHED CHILDREN OF EVE," PUBLISHED RECENTLY IN PAPERBACK BY THE PENGUIN GROUP. VOA'S MIKE JOYCE SPOKE WITH THE BOOK'S AUTHOR, PETER QUINN, AND HAS DETAILS. TEXT: THE UNION ARMY OF THE NORTH NEEDED SOLDIERS IN 1863 BUT COULD NOT RECRUIT ENOUGH TO FILL ITS RANKS. THAT FORCED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO BEGIN CONSCRIPTING, OR DRAFTING, MEN INTO THE ARMY. THOSE SELECTED, HOWEVER, WERE ALLOWED TO BUY THEIR WAY OUT OF THE DRAFT FOR 300 DOLLARS. THIS SUM WAS EQUAL TO A YEAR'S INCOME FOR THE NATION'S POOREST LABORERS. THE INEQUITY INFURIATED THE LARGE NUMBER OF RECENT IRISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK CITY, BECAUSE THEY COULD NOT AFFORD TO BUY THEIR WAY OUT OF THE DRAFT. WRITER PETER QUINN SAYS THESE IMMIGRANTS ALSO BELIEVED THAT WHEN THE UNION FINALLY WON THE WAR, NEWLY FREED SLAVES WOULD TAKE THEIR JOBS BY WORKING FOR LESS MONEY. TAPE: CUT ONE -- QUINN (:18) "YOU KNOW, ALL THESE PEOPLE IN THE 18(60S), THEY ARE ALL SCRAMBLING TO GET OUT OF POVERTY. AND THAT'S NEVER A PRETTY SIGHT, WHEN YOU ARE RIGHT UP AGAINST IT. IT IS NOT. THERE IS NOTHING GENTEEL ABOUT IT. THERE IS NOTHING REFINED ABOUT IT. THIS IS NEW YORK IN THE 1860S, WHERE A LOT OF POOR PEOPLE, IN A SMALL SPACE, (WERE) TRYING TO GET OUT OF IT." ///OPT/// TEXT: ONE OF THE STRENGTHS OF PETER QUINN'S BOOK IS ITS ATTENTION TO THE HISTORY OF NEW YORK AND THE BOOK'S DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY DURING THE VARIOUS PERIODS THAT THE "BANISHED CHILDREN OF EVE" ADDRESSES. TAPE: CUT TWO -- QUINN (:18) "I SAY TO PEOPLE ALL THE TIME, 'IF YOU WANT TO SEE NEW YORK IN 1850, GO TO (SEE) RIO DE JANEIRO (TODAY). YOU HAVE THE SHANTY TOWNS, WHICH IS WHAT HAPPENED IN NEW YORK. YOU DIDN'T HAVE A HOMELESS POPULATION BECAUSE PEOPLE COULD BUILD SHANTY TOWNS. WHAT YOU DID HAVE WAS, ONE OF THE GREAT PROBLEMS, ABANDONED CHILDREN. THESE WERE THE REAL ARMIES OF THE STREETS." ///END OPT/// TEXT: THE DRAFT RIOTS STARTED SHORTLY AFTER CONSCRIPTION BEGAN IN JULY OF 1863. FOUR DAYS OF EXTENSIVE LOOTING AND ARSON ENSUED, PUNCTUATED BY VIOLENCE. MOBS ATTACKED BLACKS, THE POLICE AND THE RICH. THE DISORDER ENDED ONLY WHEN FEDERAL TROOPS ARRIVED TO AID THE POLICE. IT IS IRONIC THAT THE MOB OF MOSTLY IRISH IMMIGRANTS TARGETED NEW YORK CITY'S BLACK CITIZENS DURING THE RIOTS, BECAUSE AS PETER QUINN OBSERVES, THE TWO GROUPS ACTUALLY HAD QUITE A BIT IN COMMON. TAPE: CUT THREE -- QUINN (:23) "THERE ARE EXTRAORDINARY PARALLELS BETWEEN THE IRISH EXPERIENCE AND THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN. IN BOTH INSTANCES, YOU HAVE A THOROUGHLY RURAL PEOPLE. IN 1840, IN BRITAIN THE IRISH ARE THE STANDING RURAL JOKE, THE IRISH COUNTRYMAN. WHAT THEY HAD IN BOTH INSTANCES, THEY HAD LOST THEIR LANGUAGE, BOTH PEOPLES. THEY HAD TAKEN ON ANOTHER LANGUAGE. THEY HAD PRESERVED THEIR CULTURE IN THEIR MUSIC, IN THEIR DANCE AND IN THE (THEIR) CHURCH." TEXT: THOUGH ONLY 119 DEATHS CAN BE CONFIRMED, MOST WHO HAVE STUDIED THE RIOTS ARE SURE THE DEATH TOLL WAS MUCH HIGHER. THE EVENT STILL TOPS THE LIST AS THE DEADLIEST CIVIL DISTURBANCE IN U-S HISTORY. 09-May-95 4:11 PM EDT (2011 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3790 total bytes, 3790 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/9/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178199 TITLE=PERRY / BOSNIA (S-O) BYLINE=DAVID SWAN DATELINE=PENTAGON CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY IS CALLING FOR MORE ROBUST USE OF AIRPOWER TO GUARD SARAJEVO FROM THE BOSNIAN SERBS. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, THE UNITED NATIONS REFUSED TO CALL IN THE PLANES WHEN SERB SHELLS KILLED 11 PEOPLE LAST WEEKEND. TEXT: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS CRITICIZING THE U-N DECISION NOT TO ORDER AIR STRIKES IN RESPONSE TO THE WORST ATTACK ON THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL IN MONTHS. MR. PERRY SAYS THE CITY IS A U-N DECLARED SAFE ZONE -- AND SHOULD BE PROTECTED. // PERRY ACT // AND IN PARTICULAR I THINK IN THE SHELLING THAT TOOK PLACE IN SARAJEVO WAS A CLEAR VIOLATION OF THAT SAFE ZONE. AND I BELIEVE THE NATO FORCES SHOULD HAVE BEEN CALLED UPON TO PROVIDE AN EFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO THAT. // END ACT // THE U-N MILITARY COMMANDER WANTED A STRIKE BUT WAS OVERRULED BY SUPERIORS WHO FEARED IT WOULD HURT NEGOTIATIONS OR BRING REPRISALS AGAINST LIGHTLY ARMED PEACEKEEPERS. HOWEVER, A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO NOW ADMITS THE SERBS GOT AWAY WITH MURDER. THOUGH AIR RAIDS WERE USED ONLY SPORADICALLY IN THE PAST, THE UNITED STATES ARGUES THEY CAN BE EFFECTIVE. THE ADMINISTRATION IS HOPING THE PEACEKEEPERS WILL NOT BE DRIVEN OUT OF BOSNIA BECAUSE UP TO 60-THOUSAND U-S AND ALLIED TROOPS WOULD BE NEEDED TO COVER THE WITHDRAWAL.(SIGNED) NEB / DS / BD/PT 09-May-95 6:15 PM EDT (2215 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1605 total bytes, 1605 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/9/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178173 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO HAS ADMITTED THAT THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL CAN NO LONGER BE PROTECTED FROM SERB SHELLING ATTACKS. SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA RULED OUT NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS WHO KILLED 11 PEOPLE IN A SHELLING ATTACK ON A SARAJEVO SUBURB LAST WEEKEND. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AFTER THE SARAJEVO SUBURB OF BUTMIR WAS SHELLED, THE U-N FORCE COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, WANTED RETALIATORY NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS. GENERAL SMITH HAS FAVORED A SOMEWHAT TOUGHER U-N APPROACH IN DEALING WITH VIOLATIONS OF U-N RESOLUTIONS ON THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. BUT, HE WAS OVERRULED BY U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI AND BY THE SENIOR U-N COMMANDER IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, FRENCH GENERAL BERNARD JANVIER. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO ADMITS THAT, IN HIS WORDS, THE SERBS GOT AWAY WITH MURDER. HE SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS WAS NOT IN A POSITION TO DEFEND SARAJEVO EVEN THOUGH THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL IS A U-N/DECLARED SAFE AREA. ONE REASON NATO AIR STRIKES WERE NOT REQUESTED WAS FEAR OF SERB REPRISALS AGAINST VULNERABLE U-N PEACE-KEEPERS. ANOTHER REASON WAS CONCERN THAT NATO MILITARY ACTION MIGHT SET BACK NEGOTIATIONS INTENDED TO PREVENT THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA AND IN CROATIA FROM GETTING WORSE. WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAY THE UNITED NATION'S APPEASEMENT POLICY IN BOSNIA IS DAMAGING THE WORLD BODY'S CREDIBILITY THERE AND ELSEWHERE. DIPLOMATS SAY THE POLICY HAS ALREADY MADE NATO EXTREMELY RELUCTANT TO CONSIDER ANY FURTHER COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED NATIONS. DESPITE FRESH CRITICISM LEVELLED AT YASUSHI AKASHI, THE U-N ENVOY WENT TO BELGRADE TO MEET WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND WITH CROATIAN SERB LEADERS. MR. AKASHI IS TRYING TO AVOID MORE MAJOR FIGHTING BETWEEN THE CROATIAN ARMY AND REBEL SERBS FOLLOWING THE CROATIAN ARMY'S RECAPTURE OF SERB-HELD WESTERN SLAVONIA LAST WEEK. MR. MILOSEVIC DOES NOT WANT YUGOSLAVIA TO GET DRAGGED INTO A NEW ALL-OUT WAR IN CROATIA. BUT, HE COULD FACE STRONG DOMESTIC PRESSURE FOR INTERVENTION IF CROATIAN SERBS APPEAR TO BE IN SERIOUS TROUBLE. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/JWH 09-May-95 11:19 AM EDT (1519 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2389 total bytes, 2389 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/9/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178165 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE BOSNIAN SERBS QUITE LITERALLY GOT AWAY WITH (WENT UNPUNISHED FOR) MURDER WHEN THEY SHELLED A SUBURB OF THE CITY LAST WEEKEND, KILLING 11 PEOPLE. BUT SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS IN ZAGREB REFUSED TO ORDER RETALIATORY NATO AIR STRIKES. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: AN UNCOMFORTABLE U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE U-N FORCE COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, WANTED NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS AFTER THE SARAJEVO SUBURB WAS SHELLED. BUT GENERAL SMITH WAS OVERRULED BY U-N ENVOY YASUSHI AKASHI AND BY THE TOP U-N COMMANDER IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, FRENCH GENERAL BERNARD JANVIER. THE RESULT, ACCORDING TO THE SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO, IS THAT THE SERBS GOT AWAY WITH MURDER. HE ADDS THAT THE DECISION NOT TO REQUEST NATO AIRSTRIKES WAS DIFFICULT AND WAS BASED ON MANY FACTORS. WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAY THE UNITED NATIONS APPEARS DETERMINED TO APPEASE THE SERBS NO MATTER HOW OFTEN OR HOW SERIOUSLY THEY VIOLATE IMPORTANT U-N RESOLUTIONS ON THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE DIPLOMATS SAY THE WEAK U-N POLICY IN BOSNIA MERELY REFLECTS THE LACK OF WILL AMONG THE MAJOR POWERS TO ENFORCE THE RESOLUTIONS ON THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/GPT 09-May-95 10:08 AM EDT (1408 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1508 total bytes, 1508 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5-10-95 TYPE=SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE NUMBER=7-17158 TITLE=SPECIAL ENGLISH SCIENCE REPORT - NEW SUPERCONDUCTOR MATERIAL BYLINE=MARILYN CHRISTIANO TELEPHONE=619-2585 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=CHRISTINE JOHNSON CONTENT=(ADAPTED FROM SCRIPT #3-21647 OF 4/20 BY JESSICA BERMAN) THIS IS __________________ WITH THE SPECIAL ENGLISH SCIENCE REPORT. SCIENTISTS HERE IN THE UNITED STATES SAY THEY HAVE CREATED AN IMPORTANT NEW MATERIAL. THEY SAY IT CAN CARRY ONE-HUNDRED TIMES MORE ELECTRIC CURRENT THAN ANY OTHER MATERIAL. THE SCIENTISTS ARE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S NATIONAL LABORATORY IN LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO. SUPERCONDUCTORS ARE MATERIALS THAT OFFER LITTLE OR NO RESISTANCE TO THE FLOW OF ELECTRIC CURRENT. TRADITIONALLY, THEY WORK ONLY AT A VERY LOW TEMPERATURE: TWO-HUNDRED SEVENTY-THREE DEGREES BELOW ZERO CELSIUS. THEY ARE KEPT COLD WITH LIQUID HELIUM. LIQUID HELIUM IS VERY COSTLY AND DIFFICULT TO USE. IN THE PAST TEN YEARS, NEW MATERIALS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED. THEY ARE CALLED "HIGH-TEMPERATURE" SUPERCONDUCTORS. THEY LOSE RESISTENCE TO ELECTRIC CURRENT AT ONE-HUNDRED NINETY-SIX DEGREES BELOW ZERO CELSIUS. THIS IS STILL VERY COLD. BUT IT IS ALMOST EIGHTY DEGREES WARMER THAN THE OLDER MATERIALS. ANOTHER BIG DIFFERENCE IS THAT LIQUID NITROGEN IS USED TO KEEP HIGH- TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS COLD. LIQUID NITROGEN COSTS MUCH LESS THAN LIQUID HELIUM. IT COSTS ONLY ABOUT ONE-TENTH OF A DOLLAR FOR EVERY LITER. THE MATERIAL THE SCIENTISTS AT LOS ALAMOS DEVELOPED IS A HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING FILM. THE FILM CAN BE STRETCHED AND MADE INTO WIRES. IT CAN CARRY ONE-HUNDRED TIMES MORE ELECTRIC CURRENT THAN LOW-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS. IT CARRIES ONE-MILLION AMPHERES OF CURRENT FOR EVERY SQUARE CENTIMETER. THE COPPER WIRE USED IN MANY HOUSES CARRIES LESS THAN EIGHT-HUNDRED AMPERES FOR EVERY SQUARE CENTIMETER. DEAN PETERSON IS DIRECTOR OF THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY. HE SAYS THE NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FILM COULD MAKE INDUSTRIAL MOTORS MUCH SMALLER AND LESS COSTLY TO OPERATE. IT COULD ALSO REDUCE THE COST OF SOME MEDICAL DEVICES. ONE EXAMPLE IS MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, OR M-R-I. AN M-R-I DEVICE LETS DOCTORS LOOK INSIDE THE BODY. IT PRODUCES A DIFFERENT KIND OF PICTURE THAN AN X-RAY. AMERICAN INDUSTRY IS VERY INTERESTED IN DEVELOPING HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS. NO ONE KNOWS, HOWEVER, IF THE NEW FILM CAN BE PRODUCED IN LARGE AMOUNTS FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES. THE LOS ALAMOS LABORATORY HAS PRODUCED ONLY SMALL PIECES OF IT. SEVERAL YEARS OF TESTING WILL BE NECESSARY BEFORE SCIENTISTS KNOW IF LARGE AMOUNTS CAN BE PRODUCED AT LOW COST. TODAY'S SCIENCE REPORT WAS WRITTEN BY MARILYN RICE CHRISTIANO. THIS IS ________________. 09-May-95 4:12 PM EDT (2012 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2834 total bytes, 2834 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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the 'wireless file' May 11 1995 eur300.zip
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-30025 TITLE=A BOSNIA DEBATE BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: AFTER A RELATIVELY QUIET PERIOD IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE WAR THERE IS ESCALATING AGAIN. THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND SAYS IT IS VIRTUALLY HELPLESS TO CONTAIN THE SITUATION AND THAT THE U-N ROLE IN THE COUNTRY SHOULD BE RE-EXAMINED. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS THAT A DEBATE ON THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE U-N MANDATE IN BOSNIA AND THE ACTIONS OF U-N FORCES THERE IS LONG OVERDUE. TEXT: A SENIOR UNITED NATIONS OFFICIAL IN SARAJEVO, COLUM MURPHY, SAYS IT IS TIME FOR AN INTERNATIONAL DEBATE ON THE U-N MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE WAS RESPONDING TO CRITICISM OF THE UNITED NATIONS'S REFUSAL TO ORDER RETALIATORY NATO AIR STRIKES AFTER THE SERBS SHELLED SARAJEVO LAST WEEKEND. THE SHELLING CLAIMED THE LIVES OF 11 PEOPLE AND INJURED MANY OTHERS. THERE WERE NO AIR STRIKES BECAUSE TOP U-N CIVILIAN AND MILITARY OFFICIALS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WERE AFRAID TO REQUEST THEM. THEY FEARED THAT THE SERBS, ANGERED BY AIR STRIKES BEFORE, WOULD CARRY OUT MORE REPRISALS AGAINST U-N SOLDIERS. MR. MURPHY WANTS THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL TO MAKE UP ITS MIND WHETHER U-N SOLDIERS IN BOSNIA SHOULD BE, TECHNICALLY, PEACE-KEEPERS OR PEACE-MAKERS. THE U-N FORCES ARE, INCREASINGLY, ONLY OBSERVERS AS THE SERBS IGNORE U-N RESOLUTIONS THAT ESTABLISHED SAFE AREAS FOR CIVILIANS AND A HEAVY WEAPONS EXCLUSION ZONE AROUND SARAJEVO. THE PROBLEM, AS MR. MURPHY AND OTHER U-N OFFICIALS SEE IT, IS THAT THE U-N RESOLUTIONS HAVE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY REQUIRED PROTECTION OF THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS. IF THE RESOLUTIONS ARE TO BE ENFORCED, U-N SOLDIERS CANNOT REMAIN NEUTRAL. THEY WOULD HAVE TO BE SUBSTANTIALLY REINFORCED AND MORE HEAVILY-ARMED. THE LOGICAL CONSEQUENCE OF ENFORCING THE RESOLUTIONS IS THAT THE UNITED NATIONS WOULD HAVE TO FIGHT A WAR AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WHO WOULD BE BACKED, TO SOME EXTENT, BY SERBS IN CROATIA AND BY YUGOSLAVIA. THE MAJOR POWERS AND NATO HAVE NO INTEREST IN BECOMING INVOLVED IN A BALKAN WAR LIKE THAT. CONTAINMENT OF THE CURRENT FIGHTING WOULD BE EASIER IF THERE WAS SOME MOVEMENT IN THE PEACE PROCESS. BUT, THE PEACE PROCESS IS DEADLOCKED. THE SERBS WILL NOT ACCEPT THE BIG POWERS' PROPOSED PEACE PLAN, ENDORSED BY THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS. NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL WILLY CLAES AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAVE SAID ONLY FORCE WILL STOP THE SERBS. THE U-N APPROACH IS TO OFFER CONCESSIONS IN THE FACE OF INTIMIDATION. THE POSSIBILITY OF WITHDRAWING U-N FORCES HAS BEEN RAISED SEVERAL TIMES OVER THE LAST YEAR. FRANCE IS INCREASINGLY UNHAPPY ABOUT DEADLY ATTACKS ON ITS SOLDIERS IN BOSNIA. BUT, THERE IS NO INDICATION THAT A U-N WITHDRAWAL IS BEING SERIOUSLY CONSIDERED NOW. THE ARGUMENT IS STILL MADE THAT U-N TROOPS ARE NEEDED TO HELP HUMANITARIAN AID GET THROUGH TO THE PEOPLE WHO NEED IT. THAT ARGUMENT MAY NOT BE VALID. THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS, AND A NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL CHARITIES HAVE SAID THEY WOULD REMAIN IN BOSNIA EVEN IF U-N TROOPS PULL OUT. ANY NEW DEBATE ON THE U-N ROLE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL, ULTIMATELY, HAVE TO DEAL WITH ONE KEY QUESTION: IS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY PREPARED TO DO WHAT IS NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA'S SOVEREIGNTY AND CURRENT BORDERS? THE ONLY REALISTIC ALTERNATIVE TO THAT MAY BE INTERNATIONAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE SERBS' DEMANDS FOR THEIR OWN SEPARATE STATE OR FOR THEM TO BE PART OF A GREATER SERBIA. WESTERN DIPLOMATS AGREE THAT A SERIOUS DEBATE ON THE UNITED NATIONS ROLE AND OBJECTIVES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS URGENTLY NEEDED. BUT, THEY ADD, WITH HEAVY CYNICISM, THAT IT MAY TAKE AN OUTRAGEOUS INCIDENT IN BOSNIA, WITH A SUFFICIENTLY HIGH BODY COUNT, TO PROD THE SECURITY COUNCIL TO TAKE NEW AND MORE EFFECTIVE ACTION. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/SKH/JWH 10-May-95 2:40 PM EDT (1840 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3973 total bytes, 3973 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT NUMBER=5-30026 TITLE=CONGRESS / FOREIGN POLICY BUDGET BYLINE=PAULA WOLFSON DATELINE=CONGRESS CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE U-S CONGRESS IS LOOKING FOR WAYS TO CUT GOVERNMENT SPENDING. ONE FAVORITE TARGET IS THE FOREIGN AFFAIRS BUDGET. AND AS V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS MANY COST CUTTING PROPOSALS ARE UNDER CONSIDERATION. TEXT: AT A TIME WHEN MONEY IS RUNNING OUT FOR POPULAR DOMESTIC PROGRAMS, IT IS DIFFICULT TO BUILD UP MUCH ENTHUSIASM IN CONGRESS FOR SENDING TAX DOLLARS ABROAD. THE FOREIGN AID BUDGET FOR THE COMING YEAR IS LIKELY TO BE SLASHED AS IT MAKES ITS WAY THROUGH THE HOUSE AND SENATE. SO TOO IS SPENDING FOR THE VARIOUS GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT WORK OVERSEAS -- FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT TO COMMISSIONS ON TRADE. REPUBLICANS ARE LEADING THE CALL FOR CUTS. DANA ROHRABACHER OF CALIFORNIA SAYS BALANCING THE BUDGET IS PARAMOUNT. /// ROHRABACHER ACT /// I DO NOT BELIEVE THAT ANYONE -- INCLUDING EGYPT AND ISRAEL -- SHOULD BE EXEMPT FROM THE CUTTING THAT IS GOING ON IN WASHINGTON, D-C NOW. /// END ACT /// MR. ROHRABACHER SAYS AMERICA'S ECONOMIC FUTURE IS AT STAKE....AND EVERYONE MUST MAKE SACRIFICES. HE ARGUES THAT MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN FOREIGN AID IS WASTED -- AND THAT MANY AID RECIPIENTS ARE ACCEPTING HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE WHILE SPENDING THEIR OWN MEAGER RESOURCES ON ARMS. /// ROHRABACHER ACT /// LET US REMEMBER THAT WHEN WE TALKING ABOUT PENNIES THAT WE SPEND THAT KEEP BABIES FROM DYING...THESE ARE PENNIES THAT ARE TAKEN FROM THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AND THE SOCIETIES THAT THEY ARE GIVEN TO ARE SPENDING DOLLARS AND MORE DOLLARS ON WEAPONS JUST AS WE ARE GIVING THEM PENNIES TO SAVE THEIR BABIES! /// END ACT /// THE HOUSE BUDGET COMMITTEE HAS PROPOSED MASSIVE CUTS IN FOREIGN ASSISTANCE TOTALING ALMOST 30 BILLION DOLLARS OVER THE NEXT SEVEN YEARS. FOR 1996, THAT AMOUNTS TO A CUT OF JUST OVER TWO BILLION DOLLARS -- FROM THE CURRENT SPENDING LEVEL OF 20-POINT-FIVE BILLION DOWN TO 18-POINT-THREE. REPUBLICANS ON THE COMMITTEE ARE ALSO TALKING ABOUT THE ELIMINATION OF SEVERAL FOREIGN POLICY AGENCIES, AND POSSIBLE TERMINATION OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTS. DEMOCRATS ACCUSE THE REPUBLICANS OF PLAYING POLITICS WITH FOREIGN AFFAIRS. DURING A HEARING ON THE FUTURE OF THE FOREIGN AFFAIRS BUREAUCRACY, ALCEE HASTINGS OF FLORIDA BLASTED THE REPUBLICAN PROPOSALS, ARGUING THAT THE MONEY SAVED BY CUTTING ASSISTANCE ABROAD WILL NOT HELP THE BUDGET PROBLEM AT HOME. /// HASTINGS ACT /// IF WE WERE TO TAKE ALL OF FOREIGN AID AND PITCH IT INTO THE POTOMAC (THROW IT INTO THE POTOMAC RIVER -- THROW IT ALL AWAY) THE UNITED STATES BUDGET PROBLEMS WOULD NOT BE BY ANY STRETCH OF THE IMAGINATION CONCLUDED IN A FAVORABLE SENSE. /// END ACT /// THE RESULTS OF A RECENT PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY PUT THE FIGHT OVER FOREIGN POLICY SPENDING INTO SOME PERSPECTIVE. MOST OF THOSE POLLED SAID THE UNITED STATES SPENDS TOO MUCH ON AID....BUT MOST ALSO EXAGGERATED THE AMOUNT OF MONEY USED TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE. THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THOSE SURVEYED SAID THE UNITED STATES DEVOTES ABOUT 15 PERCENT OF THE FEDERAL BUDGET TO FOREIGN AID...AND THAT FIVE PERCENT WOULD BE ABOUT RIGHT. THE ACTUAL FIGURE IS LESS THAN ONE PERCENT.(SIGNED) NEB / PW / BD/PT 10-May-95 5:27 PM EDT (2127 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 3595 total bytes, 3595 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/9/95 TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE NUMBER=3-21862 TITLE=DEMOCRACY IS LIKE TOOTHPASTE (L) BYLINE=MARILYN SILVEY TELEPHONE=619-1173 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=SWANEY CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES) INTRO: DISCUSSIONS AT A RECENT TWO-DAY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEMOCRACY HELD IN WASHINGTON, D-C, SHOWED THAT THE TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY ISN'T EASY. MARILYN SILVEY REPORTS. TEXT: WHETHER THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS WERE FROM POLAND OR NIGERIA, RUSSIA OR ESTONIA, THE THEMES OF THEIR PRESENTATIONS WERE SIMILIAR: OUR GOVERNMENTS ARE NOT DOING THE RIGHT THINGS, AND PEOPLE ARE BECOMING DISILLUSIONED WITH THEIR ELECTED LEADERS AND WITH DEMOCRACY GENERALLY. THE MEETING - THE FIFTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON DEMOCRACY - WAS SPONSORED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY, AN INDEPENDENT AMERICAN ORGANIZATION. VOLODYMYR LANOVYI (VO-LOD-E-MEER LAN-OH-VEE), AN ECONOMIST ELECTED LAST YEAR TO UKRAINE'S PARLIAMENT, WHERE HE HEADS THE REFORM MOVEMENT, WAS TYPICAL. HE SAID DEMOCRACY IN UKRAINE IS FRAGILE. MANY MEMBERS OF THE PARLIAMENT ARE STILL MARXISTS, HE SAID, THE GOVERNMENT HAS DONE LITTLE TO SECURE ECONOMIC STABILITY, AND THERE IS RISING UNEMPLOYMENT. TAPE: CUT ONE -- LANOVYI :12 "THERE IS A GROWING SENSE THAT DEMOCRACY SIMPLY DOESN'T WORK, SINCE MANY PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT IT MAKES NO DIFFERENCE WHO THEY CHOOSE." TEXT: ASSIM MOLLAZADE (MOL-LA-ZA-DYE), DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE OPPOSITION MOVEMENT IN AZERBAIJAN, AGREED: TAPE: CUT TWO -- MOLLAZADE :41 "DESPITE SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES FOR EACH NEWLY-INDEPENDENT STATE, THERE ARE A LOT OF THINGS IN COMMON WHICH THEY ARE FACING AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF (THEIR) EVIL EMPIRE. DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD TO DEMOCRACY AND MARKET ECONOMY, IN ALL THESE COUNTRIES PEOPLE FACE ETHNIC CONFLICTS, CHAOS OF MANAGEMENT, AND DEEP ECONOMIC CRISIS. ALL THESE DIFFICULTIES LEAD TO THE INCREASE OF MILITARISM, AUTHORITARIAN RULE, AND APATHY AMONG THE POPULATION TOWARD POLITICAL PARTICIPATION." TEXT: WHILE SERGEI KOVALEV, HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSIONER IN RUSSIA AND A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, HAD JUST VISITED CHECHYNA. HE SAID, THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, THAT NO COUNTRY CAN "SIMULTANEOUSLY CONDUCT A DIRTY WAR AND A TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY." TAPE: CUT THREE -- KOVALEV :25 "IN ESSENCE, WHAT IS TAKING PLACE RIGHT NOW IS AN ATTEMPT IN RUSSIA TO RESTORE THE OLD COMMUNIST SYSTEM UNDER THE FLAG OF A NEW IDEOLOGY. THIS IS THE FUNDAMENTAL DANGER FOR ALL OF US LIVING IN RUSSIA AND FOR ALL OF THOSE IN THE WORLD COMMUNITY. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO DEAL WITH A COUNTRY WHOSE LEADER LIES. THE WORK FOR YOU AND US IS TO FORCE RUSSIA TO LIVE ACCORDING TO LAW AND ORDER." TEXT: BUT DAHAI YU, THE EDITOR OF A CHINESE NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES, TOLD CONFERENCE SPEAKERS FROM THE FORMER SOVIET COUNTRIES THAT THEY HAD ADVANTAGES OVER HIS SITUATION. AT LEAST, HE SAID, YOU HAVE ELECTIONS, AND PEOPLE LIKE YOU WHO CAN ATTEND A CONFERENCE AND RETURN HOME. A LOT OF PEOPLE ENVY YOUR SUCCESS. IN ADDITION TO IDENTIFYING OBSTACLES TO BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS, SOME CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS APPEALED FOR INCREASED WORLDWIDE PUBLIC OPINION TO BE FOCUSED ON CERTAIN COUNTRIES, IN AN ATTEMPT TO FORCE GOVERNMENTS TO BECOME MORE DEMOCRATIC. KIM DAE-JUNG, WHO DIRECTS A PEACE FOUNDATION BASED IN SOUTH KOREA, CALLED FOR INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION ON BURMA, WHERE THE ELECTION RESULTS OF 1990 WERE DENIED. HE SAID HE KNOWS THAT INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE, AS HE HIMSELF HAD BEEN SENTENCED TO DEATH SOME YEARS AGO BUT HIS LIFE WAS SPARED BECAUSE OF INTERVENTION BY U-S PRESIDENTS JIMMY CARTER AND RONALD REAGAN. NOBEL PRIZE WINNER WOLE SOYINKA (WO-LAY SHO-YINKA) OF NIGERIA, WHO NOW LIVES IN PARIS, DISCUSSED NIGERIA'S 1993 ELECTIONS, WHICH WERE ANNULLED AND THE WINNER IMPRISONED. AFRICA, HE SAID, HAS BEEN "RE-COLONIZED" AND IS HAVING TO FIGHT A "SECOND ROUND OF COLONIALISM" AGAINST AUTOCRATIC LEADERS WHO DO NOT PRACTICE THE TWO PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY: PARTICIPATION AND ACCOUNTABILITY. SOME POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO AID IN THE TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY WERE PROPOSED. ADNAN BUYUNG NASUTION (BOO-YUNG NA-SOO-TEE-ON), OF INDONESIA, ASKED FOR MORE HELP IN EDUCATING STUDENTS ABOUT DEMOCRACY. HE SAID YOUNGER INDONESIANS ARE ENTHUSIASTIC, BUT HAVE A WEAK UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT DEMOCRACY IS AND HOW IT WORKS. KRZYSZTOF STANOWSKI, OF POLAND, AGREED THAT EDUCATION IS INDEED A PROBLEM, AS MOST OF THE TEACHERS NOW TRYING TO TEACH ABOUT DEMOCRACY TAUGHT UNDER PREVIOUS SOCIALIST OR COMMUNIST SYSTEMS. HE CALLED FOR FIRST GIVING THE TEACHERS MORE EDUCATION IN DEMOCRACY SO THEY CAN, IN TURN, EXPLAIN IT TO THEIR STUDENTS. AND MART LAAR, OF ESTONIA, SAID THAT STUDENT GOVERNMENTS NEED TO BE IMPROVED. HE SAID THAT WHEN TEACHERS APPOINT STUDENT OFFICERS, STUDENTS THINK DEMOCRACY IS "JUST A GAME," AND THE ELECTION EXERCISE DOES NOT REFLECT REAL LIFE. MANY OF THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE WASHINGTON, D-C, FIFTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON DEMOCRACY URGED PATIENCE. VOLODYMYR LANOVYI SAID HE REMAINED OPTIMISTIC THAT ONE DAY, UKRAINE WILL EMERGE AS A FREE AND OPEN SOCIETY. LUDMILA ALEXEVA, A CONSULTANT TO THE MOSCOW HELSINKI GROUP IN RUSSIA, SAID A TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY TAKES AT LEAST TWO GENERATIONS. SHE ALSO WAS OPTIMISTIC FOR THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY -- BUT NOT, SHE SAID, TOO SOON. OTHER SPEAKERS SHARED THE VIEWS THAT DEMOCRACY WILL IMPROVE WITH TIME - AND THAT IT IS INEVITABLE. AS ESTONIA'S MART LAAR PUT IT, "DEMOCRACY IS LIKE TOOTHPASTE: ONCE IT IS OUT, IT CAN NEVER BE PUT BACK." (SIGNED) 10-May-95 7:06 AM EDT (1106 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 6563 total bytes, 6563 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK NUMBER=4-08327 TITLE=DUBROVNIK & MEXICO'S CHIAPAS NEGOTIATIONS BYLINE=PAMELA TAYLOR/BILL RODGERS TELEPHONE=619-0932 DATELINE=WASHINGTON AND CHIAPAS, MEXICO EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM TAPE LIBRARY /// CART: THEME (ESTABLISH THEN UNDER) HOST: WELCOME TO REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK, A REGULAR WEEKLY MAGAZINE SHOW FEATURING REPORTS BY, OR CONVERSATIONS WITH, VOA CORRESPONDENTS AROUND THE GLOBE ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD. THIS WEEK, WE BRING YOU FIRST-HAND REPORTERS' IMPRESSIONS FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND MEXICO'S TROUBLED CHIAPAS STATE. CART: UP FULL AND UNDER HOST: I'M _________________, SITTING IN FOR REGULAR HOST PAMELA TAYLOR, WHO THIS WEEK HAS HER OWN REPORT BASED ON HER VISIT LAST JULY TO THE CROATIAN CITY OF DUBROVNIK ON THE ADRIATIC COAST. FOUR YEARS AGO, 193 PEOPLE WERE KILLED WHEN THE YUGOSLAV NATIONAL ARMY SHELLED DUBROVNIK, CAUSING AN INTERNATIONAL UPROAR. THE MEDIEVAL CITY, FOUNDED BY THE GREEKS IN THE 7TH CENTURY, IS CLASSIFIED BY THE UNITED NATIONS (UNESCO) AS A WORLD NATIONAL TREASURE. LAST MONTH (APRIL 19TH), SERB MORTAR SHELLS FELL ONCE AGAIN ON THE CITY'S NEW AIRPORT IN THE HILLS ABOVE DUBROVNIK. BEFORE THAT ATTACK CROATIAN TOURISM OFFICIALS WERE HOPING PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN'S DECISION TO ALLOW U-N PEACEKEEPERS TO REMAIN IN THE COUNTRY MIGHT ENCOURAGE TOURISTS TO COME BACK TO SEE HOW WELL DUBROVNIK HAD RECOVERED FROM THE 1991 ATTACK. THIS IS HOW IT LOOKED TO PAMELA LAST SUMMER: TEXT: BEFORE I LEFT FOR CROATIA, I TALKED WITH NAZLI WEISS OF THE PRIVATELY-FUNDED, WASHINGTON-BASED REBUILD DUBROVNIK FUND ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION THE CITY HAD SUFFERED: TAPE: CUT #1 WEISS RUNS [:] "NINE BUILDINGS AND PALACES WERE GUTTED AND 563 BUILDINGS OF THE 824 BUILDINGS INSIDE OLD CITY WERE SERIOUSLY DAMAGED. VIRTUALLY EVERY BUILDING WAS DAMAGED TO SOME EXTENT AND SCARRED TO SOME EXTENT, SOME VERY SEVERELY, OTHERS NOT AS SEVERELY. WHEN THESE SHELLS FELL, THEY EXPLODED AND STARTED FIRES EVERYWHERE AND MOST OF THOSE NINE PALACES WHICH WERE GUTTED, IT WAS AS A RESULT OF FIRE DAMAGE." TEXT: SHE TOLD ME THE CITY WAS ATTACKED THREE TIMES, FIRST IN OCTOBER 1991, AGAIN IN NOVEMBER AND FINALLY THE FIRST DIRECT ATTACK ON THE HISTORIC OLD CITY ON DECEMBER 6TH. THE DECEMBER 6TH ATTACK WAS A 12-HOUR BARRAGE WHICH DROPPED THOUSANDS OF SHELLS INSIDE THE ANCIENT WALLS. ONLY THE THICK STONE WALLS PREVENTED GREATER DAMAGE. TAPE: CUT # 2 NAT SOUND (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:31] TEXT: WHEN I ARRIVED IN DUBROVNIK'S OLD TOWN, IT LOOKED TO ME LIKE LIFE HAD ALMOST RETURNED TO NORMAL. IT WAS THE FIRST TIME SUMMER TOURISTS HAD BEGUN TO RETURN IN SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS. OF COURSE, MOST OF THE THEM WERE CROAT, BUT THERE WERE ALSO MANY CZECHS, A FEW GERMANS AND A HANDFUL OF OTHER NATIONALITIES. I INTERVIEWED THE MAYOR OF DUBROVNIK, NICOLA OBULJEN, IN THE RECTOR'S PALACE, WHICH ALSO SUFFERED EXTENSIVE DAMAGE. I HAD TO PICK MY WAY CAREFULLY AROUND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS: WHEELBARROWS FULL OF CEMENT, AND MEN CARRYING LONG PLANKS AS I WAS ESCORTED TO HIS OFFICE. MAYOR OBULJEN TOLD ME THE CITY WORKED NIGHT AND DAY FOR TWO AND A HALF YEARS TO ERASE ALL EVIDENCE OF THE SERB ATTACK -- PARTLY, HE SAID, IN A FEVERISH EFFORT TO DENY IT EVER HAPPENED AND PARTLY TO BRING THE MUCH NEEDED TOURISTS BACK. MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF DUBROVNIK'S PRE-WAR ECONOMY WAS BASED ON TOURISM: TAPE: CUT # 3 OBULJEN RUNS [:] "WHEN YOU COME TO DUBROVNIK NOW YOU DON'T FEEL AS IF YOU ARE COMING TO A CITY THAT WAS SO DAMAGED AS DUBROVNIK WAS. ESPECIALLY IF YOU ARE LOOKING INSIDE THE WALLS OF THE OLD CITY. INSIDE THE WALLS WE HAVE DONE A LOT, BUT STILL WE HAVE NINE PALACES WHICH ARE TOTALLY GUTTED, NOTHING LEFT BUT FOUR WALLS. WE STARTED WITH ROOFS AND WE ARE REPAIRING ROOFS. EIGHTY PERCENT OF ALL ROOFS WERE DAMAGED." TEXT: FROM MAYOR OBULJEN'S OFFICE I WALKED AROUND THE OLD TOWN. HE WAS RIGHT. AT FIRST GLANCE, YOU DON'T FEEL YOU ARE SEEING A DAMAGED CITY AT ALL. IN FACT, TO ME, THE CITY APPEARED SO SUCCESSFULLY RECONSTRUCTED AS TO GIVE CREDENCE TO SERBIAN CLAIMS NO DAMAGE WAS DONE IN THE FIRST PLACE. BUT CLOSE AND CAREFUL EXAMINATION, AS I WALKED DOWN THE CENTRAL STONE STREET KNOWN AS THE 'STRADUN', REVEALED TRACES OF SHELLING AND FIRE EVERYWHERE. WHILE THE CITY MAY NOT HAVE BEEN DESTROYED, AS SOME CROATS CLAIMED AT THE TIME, A REPORT BY UNESCO (UNITED NATIONS EDUCATION, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION) INDICATES SHELLS STRUCK NEARLY EVERY ROOF INSIDE THE CITY WALLS. UNESCO SAYS IT WILL REQUIRE NEARLY HALF A MILLION DOLLARS TO REPAIR. I STOPPED TO TAKE A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH WHICH SERBIAN FRIENDS IN AMERICA HAD SAID WAS DESTROYED BY A CROAT BOMB. IT LOOKED FINE TO ME, APART FROM A PATCHED HOLE IN THE ROOF AND THE SPRINKLING OF SHRAPNEL NICKS I NOTICED ON SO MANY OTHER BUILDINGS. OTHERS HAD TOLD ME THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX LIBRARY WAS DESTROYED BUT I COULD FIND NO SUCH LIBRARY. IN ITS REPORT ON THE DAMAGE DONE TO DUBROVNIK, UNESCO SAYS THE MAIN LIBRARY WHICH HOUSED THE EARLIEST ARCHIVES FROM THE ANCIENT REPUBLIC OF RAGUSA SUFFERED SERIOUS FIRE DAMAGE FOLLOWING THE DECEMBER ATTACK. SERB NATIONALISTS NOW CALL DUBROVNIK 'RAGUSA' AND MAY BE CLAIMING THIS LIBRARY AS THEIR OWN. ALL THE OFFICIALS I TALKED TO, WHETHER FROM THE U-N, THE U-S OR CROATIA, AGREED ON ONE THING: THAT FEW BUILDINGS INSIDE THE CITY WALLS ESCAPED THE SERB SHELLS. MORE THAN 40 SHELLS ARE REPORTED BY UNESCO TO HAVE LANDED ON THE LESS THAN ONE-KILOMETER-LONG 'STRADUN'. I NOTICED THE SPLASHES OF FRESH CEMENT WHICH MARRED THE OTHERWISE SMOOTH REGULARITY OF THE ANCIENT PAVING STONES. I STOPPED TO TALK TO NINA SKURIC, OF THE CROATIAN NATIONAL ATLAS TRAVEL AGENCY, WHO ACCOMPANIED ME ON MY TOUR. SHE POINTED OUT THE NUMBER OF SHOP FRONTS WHERE NEW PANES OF GLASS REPLACED THE ORIGINAL WINDOW-DOOR COMBINATIONS. IT LOOKED TO ME AS IF EVERY OTHER STOREFRONT WAS NEW: TAPE: CUT # 4 SKURIC/TAYLOR RUNS [1:32] (SKURIC) "ALL ALONG THE STREET THERE WERE SHOP WINDOWS WITHOUT GLASS; EVERYTHING WAS COVERED WITH WOOD. THE FENCE AROUND THE CHURCH WAS DESTROYED AND YOU CAN SEE NOW NEW PARTS, NEW STONES WHICH ARE WHITE IF YOU COMPARE THEM WITH THE GREY. YOU CAN SEE THE FACADE OF THE CHURCH AND THE STEPS WHICH WERE ALSO DAMAGED. THOSE RUINS ARE FROM A PERIOD WHICH IS OLDER THAN DUBROVNIK IS. THE HOLES ARE FROM THE SHELLS BUT THE RUINS ARE FROM AN OLDER PERIOD." (TAYLOR) SO IT WAS DAMAGING LAYERS AND LAYERS OF HISTORY. (TAYLOR) OH MY GOD. SO THEY LEFT THAT ONE (HOUSE) THE WAY IT WAS! HOW MANY HOUSES IN DUBROVNIK LOOKED LIKE THAT? (SKURIC) "NINE. NINE PALACES -- THOSE HOUSES WERE PALACES WHEN DUBROVNIK WAS A CITY REPUBLIC AND NINE OF THEM WERE BURNED DOWN." TEXT: THE "PALACE" WE HAD STOPPED IN FRONT OF WAS A HOUSE BELONGING TO LOCAL ARTIST, PAINTER IVO GRBIC WHO DECIDED TO LEAVE IT IN ITS BURNED AND BOMBED-OUT STATE AS AN "UNOFFICIAL" MONUMENT TO THE SHELLING OF 1991. MR. GRBIC WAS ABLE TO ESCAPE WITH HIS ELDERLY MOTHER, WHO DIED OF SHOCK NINE MONTHS LATER. FRIENDS MANAGED TO RESCUE ABOUT 20 PAINTINGS FROM A LIFETIME'S COLLECTION BEFORE THE INTERIOR OF THE HOUSE WAS COMPLETELY ENGULFED IN FLAMES. HE SHOWED ME A PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN THAT DAY. IT SHOWED HIM WRAPPED IN A BLANKET, (WEARING) A COOKING POT AS A HELMET ON HIS HEAD. HE WAS STANDING IN FRONT OF HIS BURNING HOUSE, SHAKING HIS FIST AT THE CAMERA: TAPE: CUT # 5 GRBIC/TRANSLATOR RUNS [:02+27] "(SERBO-CROATIAN) I WENT OUTSIDE TO SEE WHAT WAS HAPPENING WITH THE HOUSE AND TO TELL THE SERBS I AM STILL ALIVE AND THEY CANNOT DESTROY ME OR THIS CITY. MY BROTHER TOOK THIS PICTURE. I NEVER THOUGHT SUCH A THING COULD HAPPEN AND THEREFORE NEVER TOOK ANY PRECAUTIONS TO HIDE MY PAINTINGS BECAUSE NOBODY COULD BELIEVE THAT SOME CRAZY PEOPLE WOULD ATTACK AND BURN DOWN THIS CITY. THEY WANTED TO SHOW EVERYONE THAT AFTER ALL THESE CENTURIES, DUBROVNIK WOULD BE A SERBIAN CITY." TEXT: THE LVO GRBIC HOUSE WAS ONE OF THE MORE POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTIONS IN DUBROVNIK THAT SUMMER. CROATS AND FOREIGNERS ALIKE CAME TO SEE THE EVIDENCE OF BOMBING, EVIDENCE WHICH WAS HARD TO FIND ELSEWHERE INSIDE THE CITY WALLS. WHEN I ASKED MAYOR OBULJEN WHY THE CITY DIDN'T HAVE AT LEAST ONE PHOTO EXHIBIT AS A MEMORIAL TO 1991, HE REPLIED THAT EVERYONE WANTED TO FORGET THE PAST AND GET ON WITH THE FUTURE. NOT QUITE EVERYONE, IT SEEMS. THE EVENING BEFORE MY ARRIVAL BY SEA, THE AREA AROUND THE AIRPORT WAS BRIEFLY FIRED ON BY SERB SNIPERS IN THE SURROUNDING HILLS. TAPE: CUT # 6 NAT SOUND (UP AND UNDER) RUNS [:19] TEXT: AS WE WALKED BACK THROUGH THE VEGETABLE MARKET -- WHICH WAS IN FULL SWING -- I FOUND IT DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE WHAT IT MUST HAVE BEEN LIKE DURING THOSE TERRIBLE DAYS OF 1991. ALTHOUGH THE CITIZENS OF DUBROVNIK HAD DONE AN ADMIRABLE JOB OF RESTORING THEIR DAMAGED ADRIATIC JEWEL, NO ONE KNOWS IF PEACE WILL LAST LONG ENOUGH TO BRING VISITORS BACK IN SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS. CART: THEME IN FULL AND UNDER HOST: THAT REPORT BY REGULAR HOST PAMELA TAYLOR WAS BASED ON HER TRIP LAST SUMMER TO DUBROVNIK. NOW WE GO TO CORRESPONDENT BILL RODGERS, WHO HAS BEEN COVERING THE CONFICT IN THE SOUTHERN MEXICAN STATE OF CHIAPAS SINCE THE REBEL ZAPATISTA NATIONAL LIBERATION ARMY LAUNCHED A REVOLT IN JANUARY 1994. THE MEXICAN GOVERNMENT AND MAYAN INDIAN REBELS THERE HAVE BEGUN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS TO END THE 17-MONTH OLD REBELLION. THE FIRST FORMAL TALKS IN MORE THAN A YEAR OPENED ON APRIL 22ND, IN A SMALL TOWN IN THE HIGHLANDS OF CENTRAL CHIAPAS. THE TWO SIDES SUSPENDED THEIR MEETING AFTER TWO DAYS OF DISCUSSIONS, AND AGREED TO MEET AGAIN ON MAY 12TH. BILL TELLS US NOW ABOUT THE TOWN OF SAN ANDRES LARRAINZAR AND THE SCENE LAST MONTH WHEN THOUSANDS OF INDIANS ARRIVED IN SAN ANDRES TO WITNESS THE OPENING OF THE NEGOTIATIONS. TAPE: CUT #1 AMBIENT SOUND (ESTABLISH AND FADE) TEXT: I FIRST CAME TO SAN ANDRES LARRAINZAR IN EARLY JANUARY 1994, ON RUMORS THAT THE COMMUNITY WAS A ZAPATISTA STRONGHOLD. IT WAS A COLD, RAINY SUNDAY -- AND FOG SWIRLED THROUGH THE CENTRAL PLAZA WHERE VENDORS INSIDE TINY WOODEN STALLS SOLD FOOD, AND SPOKE TO THEIR CUSTOMERS IN THE INDIAN DIALECT KNOWN AS TZOTZIL. TAPE: CUT #2 - TZOTZIL TEXT: THE TOWNSPEOPLE WERE NERVOUS, AND LOOKED AWAY WHEN STRANGERS LIKE ME TRIED TO CATCH THEIR EYES AND SPEAK TO THEM. THE ZAPATISTAS, WHO TOOK THEIR NAME FROM THE MEXICAN REVOLUTIONARY HERO EMILIANO ZAPATA, HAD JUST LAUNCHED THEIR UPRISING A FEW DAYS BEFORE -- A REVOLT THAT TOOK MEXICO AND THE REST OF THE WORLD BY SURPRISE. NO ONE HAD EXPECTED THAT A GUERRILLA MOVEMENT WITH WIDESPREAD SUPPORT COULD EXIST IN MEXICO, WHICH HAD JUST JOINED THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA IN THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. BUT THE SOUTHERN STATE OF CHIAPAS HAD BEEN LEFT BEHIND IN MEXICO'S DRIVE TOWARD PROSPERITY, AND MANY OF THE MAYAN INDIANS AND THE POOR DECIDED THE ZAPATISTAS OFFERED A CHANCE TO CHANGE THEIR LIVES. SO THEY COVERED THEIR FACES WITH SKI MASKS OR BANDANAS, AND JOINED THE REBELS IN THE MOUNTAINS AND JUNGLES OF CHIAPAS STATE. THIS WAS TRUE FOR MANY IN SAN ANDRES LARRAINZAR, WHERE IN JANUARY 1994 I LEARNED THAT MANY OF THE TOWN'S TWO-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAD EITHER JOINED THE ZAPATISTAS OR SYMPATHIZED WITH THEIR CAUSE. JUST BEYOND THE TOWN, IN THE MUDDY ROADS THAT DISAPPEARED INTO THE FOREST-COVERED MOUNTAINS, WERE ZAPATISTA ROADBLOCKS, MANNED BY POORLY-ARMED GUERRILLAS. MANY OF THE NEARBY VILLAGES, MOST WITHOUT ELECTRICITY OR RUNNING WATER, PROVIDED THE RECRUITS FOR THE REBEL MOVEMENT. RETURNING TO SAN ANDRES MORE THAN A YEAR LATER, I FOUND A VERY DIFFERENT PLACE. TAPE: CUT #3 HAMMERING SOUND TEXT: THERE WERE WORKMEN SCURRYING AROUND THE CENTRAL PLAZA, HAMMERING, PAINTING, AND SAWING IN A RUSH TO GET THE TOWN READY FOR THE PEACE TALKS THAT WERE TO OPEN ON APRIL 20TH. BEHIND ONE SIDE OF THE PLAZA, A SQUARE, PLYWOOD STRUCTURE WAS BEING BUILT ON TOP OF A SLAB OF CEMENT THAT WAS THE TOWN'S MAIN BASKETBALL COURT. THIS WAS WHERE THE GOVERNMENT AND THE ZAPATISTA NEGOTIATORS WOULD HOLD THEIR TALKS. THE MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS SURROUNDING THE SQUARE RECEIVED A FRESH COAT OF WHITE PAINT, AND ONE BUILDING WAS REFURBISHED INSIDE TO PROVIDE LIVING FACILITIES FOR THE REBEL DELEGATION. ACROSS THE PLAZA, A PRESS CENTER WITH PHONES, TABLES AND TYPEWRITERS WAS SET UP INSIDE A SCHOOL FOR THE SCORES OF JOURNALISTS WHO WERE ARRIVING TO COVER THE TALKS. BOTH THE GOVERNMENT AND THE REBELS HAD AGREED SAN ANDRES WOULD BE THE PERMANENT SITE FOR THE PEACE TALKS, AND THE INSTALLATIONS BEING SET UP WERE DESIGNED TO LAST FOR A LONG NEGOTIATION. THE ZAPATISTA DELEGATION ARRIVED THE NIGHT BEFORE THE TALKS WERE SCHEDULED TO BEGIN. THAT AFTERNOON, HUNDREDS OF INDIANS BEGAN GATHERING ON THE OUSKIRTS OF TOWN TO AWAIT THE ZAPATISTA'S ARRIVAL AND TO MAKE SURE THEY WOULD NOT BE HARMED. THE INDIANS CAME FROM COMMUNITIES THROUGHOUT THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS, AND REPRESENTED DIFFERENT TRIBES. THERE WERE TZOTZILES, TZELTALES, CHAMULANS AND TOJOBALES. SOME WERE DRESSED IN SIMPLE, WHITE OR BLACK TUNICS, OTHERS WORE MULTI-COLORED SHIRTS OF RED, BLUE, YELLOW AND PURPLE, ALL INTRICATELY WOVEN. THE CLOTHING AND THE TEXTURED WEAVING IDENTIFIED THE WEARER, NOT ONLY BY TRIBE BUT BY VILLAGE. BY NIGHTFALL, SEVERAL THOUSAND INDIANS HAD LINED THE MAIN ROAD ENTERING SAN ANDRES LARRAINZAR. AS I DROVE UP TO THE TOWN, THE INDIANS BLOCKED MY WAY -- AND ONLY LET ME THROUGH WHEN THEY SAW I HAD THE APPROPRIATE PRESS CREDENTIALS. I DROVE SLOWLY IN THE DARKNESS, CROWDED ON EACH SIDE BY MASSES OF PEOPLE PRESSING TOWARD MY CAR. IT WAS AN EERIE, ALMOST DISCONCERTING SIGHT AS MY HEADLIGHTS BRIEFLY LIT UP THE FACES IN MY PATH. THE FACES STARED BACK, FLAT AND SERIOUS, NEITHER SMILING NOR SPEAKING AS I DROVE BY. TAPE: CUT #4 DRIVING SOUND TEXT: ASIDE FROM THE RUMBLE OF MY CAR'S MOTOR, THE ONLY SOUND WAS THE WIND FLUTTERING THROUGH THE BLACK AND RED PLASTIC FLAGS AND BANNERS THEY HELD, EMBLAZONED WITH THE INITIALS E-Z-L-N -- THE ZAPATISTA NATIONAL LIBERATION ARMY. WHEN I ARRIVED IN THE TOWN, THE CENTRAL PLAZA WAS FILLED WITH MORE INDIANS, MANY OF THEM WOMEN HOLDING BABIES, OR SMALL CHILDREN. MOST HAD BROUGHT THEIR BLANKETS AND FOOD IN PREPARATION FOR A LONG STAY. TAPE: CUT #5 - -CROWD SOUNDS THE ATMOSPHERE WAS FESTIVE, WITH CHILDREN RUNNING ABOUT AND SMALL FIRES BLAZING TO KEEP AWAY THE CHILL OF THE NIGHT AIR. WHEN THE ZAPATISTA DELEGATION ARRIVED INSIDE VEHICLES BELONGING TO THE RED CROSS, CHEERS AND APPLAUSE FILLED THE PLAZA. TAPE: CUT #6 - CHEERS/CHANTING TEXT: "LONG LIVE THE ZAPATISTA NATIONAL LIBERATION ARMY", THEY CHANTED. "DOWN WITH THE GOVERNMENT AND ITS SOLDIERS. LONG LIVE ZAPATA." THE EIGHT MEMBERS OF THE REBEL DELEGATION, EACH ONE WEARING A SKI MASK, TURNED AND WAVED TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE SUPPORT OF THE CROWD. BUT THIS DISPLAY BROUGHT DOWN THE WRATH OF THE MEXICAN GOVERNMENT, WHICH ACCUSED THE ZAPATISTAS AND THEIR SYMPATHIZERS OF STAGING THIS SHOW OF SUPPORT. IN A COMMUNIQUE LATER THAT SAME NIGHT, THE GOVERNMENT DEMANDED THE DEPARTURE OF THE INDIANS FROM SAN ANDRES BEFORE IT WOULD AGREE TO SIT DOWN AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE. ONE OF THE NEGOTIATORS, GUSTAVO IRUEGAS, TOLD ME THEIR PRESENCE WAS A VIOLATION OF THE CONDITIONS PREVIOUSLY AGREED TO FOR HOLDING THE TALKS. TAPE: CUT #7 - IRUEGAS SPANISH ACT (ESTABLISH, LOSE UNDER) TEXT: MR. IRUEGAS SAID THE GOVERNMENT COULD NOT PARTICIPATE IN NEGOTIATIONS IN WHAT HE CALLED A HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT. THE STANDOFF LASTED FOR TWO DAYS, WITH THE GOVERNMENT REFUSING TO SEND ITS NEGOTIATORS TO SAN ANDRES WHILE THE LARGE NUMBERS OF INDIANS REMAINED IN THE TOWN AND CENTRAL PLAZA. FINALLY, THE ZAPATISTA NEGOTIATORS BOWED TO THE GOVERNMENT DEMANDS AND ASKED THEIR SUPPORTERS TO GO HOME. THEY LEFT LATE FRIDAY, APRIL 21ST, COLLECTING THEIR BELONGINGS AND WALKING OUT OF TOWN. FRANCES WISE, AN AMERICAN INDIAN WOMAN FROM OKLAHOMA, WITNESSED THEIR DEPARTURE. MS. WISE, WHO CAME TO SAN ANDRES TO HELP MEXICAN CIVIC GROUPS PROVIDE SECURITY FOR THE TALKS, TOLD ME HOW SHE FELT AS WE STOOD BY THE NOW DESERTED PLAZA. TAPE: CUT #8 - WISE [OPT] "WHEN WE CAME HERE, FIRST OF ALL I DIDN'T EXPECT THE GREAT NUMBERS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE THAT WERE HERE. IT WAS AMAZING TO ME, IT WAS BEAUTIFUL; THERE WAS SO MUCH DIGNITY AND I WATCHED PEOPLE ON THE INDIGENOUS SECURITY BELT. WOMEN WITH CHILDREN, CHILDREN ON THEIR BACKS, STANDING FOR HOURS AND HOURS WITH SUCH DIGNITY AND PATIENCE, AND HOPE. HOPING THAT THESE PEACE TALKS WOULD START, AND IT WAS JUST HOUR AFTER HOUR HOPING SOMETHING WOULD HAPPEN. THEN FINALLY YESTERDAY, THEY WERE TOLD THAT FOR THE PEACE TALKS TO HAPPEN THEY HAD TO LEAVE. I'M OUTRAGED THAT A GOVERNMENT CAN TELL PEOPLE WHOSE VERY BUSINESS IT IS THEY'RE DISCUSSING THAT THEY HAVE TO LEAVE, THAT THEY CAN'T EVEN BE HERE." [END OPT] WHEN WE WENT BACK TO THE CITY LAST NIGHT, WE WERE ON THE ROAD ABOUT 9:30 LAST NIGHT AND IT WAS RAINING, AND THERE WERE HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF PEOPLE WALKING ON THE ROAD -- WOMEN, CHILDREN AND MEN -- CARRYING THE SUPPLIES THEY HAD BROUGHT IN TO SUSTAIN THEMSELVES FOR THIS DURATION OF THE PEACE TALKS. THEY WERE WALKING DOWN THE ROAD. IT MADE ME SO SAD IT HURT ME. I'M AN INDIGENOUS WOMAN FROM NORTH AMERICA, AND MY FEELING IS WE ARE ALL THE SAME PEOPLE AND IT HURT ME AS AN INDIAN WOMAN TO SEE MY PEOPLE TREATED THAT WAY. THEY DIDN'T COME HERE TO BE A MENACE, THEY DIDN'T COME HERE IN A THREATENING WAY OR ATTITUDE; THEY CAME HERE TO SUPPORT THESE PEACE TALKS BECAUSE IT'S FOR THE FUTURE OF THEIR CHILDREN." TEXT: AS FRANCES WISE SPOKE, MILITARY POLICE USED METAL DETECTORS TO EXAMINE THE BELONGINGS OF REPORTERS WHO WANTED TO ENTER THE PLAZA. SCORES OF UNARMED POLICE NOW STOOD AROUND THE PERIPHERY OF THE PLAZA, FORMING ONE OF THE SECURITY CORDONS THAT BOTH SIDES HAD AGREED TO ESTABLISH FOR HOLDING THE NEGOTIATIONS. EXCEPT FOR A FEW JOURNALISTS, THE PLAZA WAS EMPTY. ONLY SCRAPS OF CLOTHING, FRUIT PEELS, AND PIECES OF WOOD LITTERED THE GROUND AS EVIDENCE OF THE MASSES OF PEOPLE WHO HAD CAMPED THERE FOR ALMOST THREE DAYS. ANOTHER CHAPTER HAD BEEN WRITTEN IN SAN ANDRES' LONG HISTORY AS A SITE WHERE INDIANS AND AUTHORITIES HAVE MET TO TRY TO SETTLE THEIR DIFFERENCES. THREE TIMES IN THE PAST, IN 1712, 1869, AND 1911, THE LEADERS OF INDIAN REVOLTS IN CHIAPAS CAME TO SAN ANDRES TO TALK OF PEACE. BUT EACH TIME, THE LEADERS WERE EITHER ARRESTED OR KILLED AND CONDITIONS FOR THE INDIANS DID NOT IMPROVE. ON THE DAY THE INDIANS LEFT SAN ANDRES, A BALLADEER APPEARED ON THE PLAZA IN THE AFTERNOON * AND GATHERED A CROWD AS HE BEGAN TO STRUM HIS GUITAR. WITH A BEDROLL STRAPPED ON HIS BACK AND RED BANDANA AROUND HIS NECK, HE SANG A BALLAD OF THE ZAPATISTA UPRISING. TAPE: CUT # 9 - SINGING/MUSIC (SLOWLY BRING UP AT * ESTABLISH, FADE AND HOLD UNDER FOR CLOSE) TEXT: "PASS ME A HOODED MASK AND WOODEN RIFLE", HE SANG, "BECAUSE I'M GOING OFF TO WAR AND I HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE. IF OUR CAUSE IS JUST, WE WIN A SHINING NEW COUNTRY." SOME IN THE CROWD NODDED AS HE SANG, CLEARLY MOVED BY THE WORDS, WHILE OTHERS STOOD LISTENING IMPASSIVELY -- PERHAPS AFRAID TO REVEAL WHAT THEY THOUGHT. YET WAR NOW SEEMS UNLIKELY, WITH THE TWO SIDES PREPARING TO HOLD ANOTHER ROUND OF PEACE TALKS. WHAT IS YET TO BE KNOWN IS IF THE ZAPATISTA REVOLT, SO BLOODY IN ITS EARLY DAYS, WILL HAVE SUCCEEDED -- AS THE BALLADER'S SONG PROMISED -- IN BRINGING FORTH A NEW AND SHINING COUNTRY. (SIGNED) MUSIC: BRING SONG UP AND OUT HOST: YOU HAVE LISTENING TO REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA -- A BEHIND THE SCENES LOOK AT THE NEWS EACH WEEK BY VOA REPORTERS AROUND THE NATION AND THE WORLD. I'M YOUR HOST ________SITTING IN FOR VACATIONING PAMELA TAYLOR THIS WEEK. OUR PROGRAM WAS PRODUCED BY _______AND DIRECTED BY _______. JOIN US AGAIN NEXT WEEK WHEN WE BRING YOU ANOTHER EDITION OF REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK. CART: THEME TO END NEB/PAM/BR/DC/PCH 10-May-95 4:13 PM EDT (2013 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 23442 total bytes, 23442 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP (TTA) NUMBER=4-08328 TITLE=US POLICY TOWARD THE BALKANS BYLINE=ERICA BENIS TELEPHONE=619-0934 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) ANNCR: THE END OF THE CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ON MAY 1ST WAS ACCOMPANIED BY NEW FIGHTING IN THE REGION. RENEWED CLASHES BETWEEN CROATIA AND REBEL SERBS, A ROCKET ATTACK BY BOSNIAN SERBS ON SARAJEVO, AND KILLINGS OF U-N PEACEKEEPERS HAVE RAISED NEW FEARS IN THE U-S GOVERNMENT OF A WIDER WAR IN THE BALKANS. IN THIS REPORT PREPARED BY VOA'S ERICA BENIS, ___________ EXAMINES PRESENT U-S POLICY TOWARD THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. TEXT: SINCE THE OUTBREAK OF FIGHTING IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA MORE THAN TOW YEARS AGO, U-S POLICY HAS HAD TWO MAIN OBJECTIVES: TO LIMIT THE CONFLICT TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, AND TO CONSOLIDATE THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. BOTH COULD UNRAVEL AT ANY TIME. KEN JENSEN IS DIRECTOR OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE, A GOVERNMENT RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS PUT TOO MUCH EMPHASIS ON KEEPING CROATIA OUT OF CONFLICT. TAPE: CUT ONE JENSEN "IT WAS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY WE BROKERED THE AGREEMENT FOR A MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA. IT APPEARS NOW THAT OUR EFFORTS ARE IN GREAT DANGER OF NOT COMING TO ANYTHING MUCH." TEXT: IN THE CASE OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION, U-S OFFICIALS WERE HOPING THE ARRANGEMENT WOULD LEAD TO THE CREATION OF AN INTEGRATED GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY. BUT THE CROATS AND MUSLIMS CONTINUE TO GO THEIR SEPARATE WAYS. SUSAN WOODWARD IS A SCHOLAR WITH THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION IN WASHINGTON AND THE AUTHOR OF A BOOK ENTITLED, "THE BALKAN TRAGEDY." SHE SAYS THE DIFFICULTY FOR OUTSIDERS WATCHING THE SITUATION IS HOW UNPREDICTABLE THINGS ARE. TAPE: CUT TWO WOODWARD "WHAT HAPPENED THROUGHOUT THE BALKANS IN THE LAST THREE OR FOUR YEARS IS THAT EACH SIDE TRIES TO THREATEN THE OTHER SIDE INTO A BARGAINING POSITION WHERE THEY WILL ACCEPT SOME DIPLOMATIC AGREEMENT. BUT NEITHER SIDE AGREES." TEXT: MS. WOODWARD SAYS THAT IN CROATIA, FOR EXAMPLE, OVER THE LAST SIX MONTHS THE CROAT AND SERB MILITARY FORCES GOT CLOSER AND CLOSER TO EACH OTHER ALONG THE SEPARATION ZONE NEGOTIATED BY THE UNITED NATIONS, THE U-S, AND RUSSIA ONE YEAR AGO. TAPE: CUT THREE WOODWARD "AND SO THE IDEA OF A TINDERBOX -- THAT IS SOMETHING THAT ONE SMALL EVENT COULD LIGHT UP AN ENORMOUS CONFLAGRATION -- IS WHAT WE'RE DEALING WITH." TEXT: ON THE FACE OF IT, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES ARE HOLDING VERY DIFFERENT POSITIONS ON THE ISSUE OF LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA. BUT MR. JENSEN SAYS THE DIFFERENCES ARE NOT AS GREAT AS THEY SEEM, BECAUSE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS NOT OPPOSED TO A BALANCE OF FORCES WITHIN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. TAPE: CUT FOUR JENSEN "ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THE DIFFERENCE EXISTS IS THAT THERE IS AN AMERICAN HOPE THAT AT LEAST BY THE THREAT OF LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO, THE BOSNIAN NEGOTIATING POSITION -- IN THAT THREE-CORNERED RELATIONSHIP WITH CROATIA AND SERBIA -- MIGHT BE IMPROVED. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY LOOKS AT THIS SITUATION AS ONE THAT WILL BE RESOLVED IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS." TEXT: SUSAN WOODWARD SAYS THE MAIN REASON THE EUROPEANS DIFFER WITH THE U-S ON THE ISSUE OF ARMS EMBARGO IS THAT THEY HAVE TROOPS ON THE GROUND SERVING AS U-N PEACEKEEPERS. TAPE: CUT FIVE WOODWARD "IF YOU LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO, EVEN THOUGH IT MAY NOT MEAN ANYMORE ARMS THAN THERE ALREADY ARE, WE ARE REALLY IN A COMBATANT SITUATION, AND THE U-N FORCES MUST LEAVE." TEXT: MOREOVER, SAYS MS. WOODWARD, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S POSITION WITH REGARD TO THE ARMS EMBARGO KEEPS CHANGING. TAPE: CUT SIX WOODWARD "INSTEAD OF THE ARMS EMBARGO, OR WHAT IT REFERRED TO AS BOTH 'LIFT' AND 'STRIKE' -- TO LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO AND TO USE NATO AIRPOWER AGAINST SERB POSITIONS -- AS A SOLUTION TO THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IT SHIFTED LAST SPRING, ABOUT TEN MONTHS AGO, TO BELIEVING THAT THERE IS ONLY A POLITICAL-DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THIS WAR. THERE IS NO POSSIBLE MILITARY VICTORY ON ANY SIDE, AND THEREFORE IF WE HAVE FIGHTING IT COULD GO ON FOR DECADES. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER THERE WILL BE A SHIFT IN THE CONGRESS AS WELL." TEXT: MR. JENSEN AGREES THAT PEACEFUL SOLUTIONS MUST BE PURSUED. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, HE SAYS, THERE IS A REALITY ON THE GROUND THAT HAS TO BE DEALT WITH. TAPE: CUT SEVEN WOODWARD "IN FACT, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS DEALING WITH IT UNDER AMERICAN LEADERSHIP. I THINK THAT WHAT WE'RE GOING TO SEE IS A CONTINUATION OF THE KIND OF ATTEMPTS ON THE PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO TURN STALEMATE INTO PEACE." TEXT: THE PROBLEM, SAYS KEN JENSEN, IS THAT PREVENTING THE SITUATION FROM BREAKING OUT INTO A LARGER, MORE PROTRACTED CONFLICT COULD TAKE A VERY LONG TIME. AND IN THAT CASE, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MAY DECIDE TO EXTRACT ITSELF FROM THE PROCESS. NEB/EB/PCH 10-May-95 3:54 PM EDT (1954 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5917 total bytes, 5917 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=CLOSEUP (TTA) NUMBER=4-08328 TITLE=US POLICY TOWARD THE BALKANS BYLINE=ERICA BENIS TELEPHONE=619-0934 DATELINE=WASHINGTON EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES) ANNCR: THE END OF THE CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ON MAY 1ST WAS ACCOMPANIED BY NEW FIGHTING IN THE REGION. RENEWED CLASHES BETWEEN CROATIA AND REBEL SERBS, A ROCKET ATTACK BY BOSNIAN SERBS ON SARAJEVO, AND KILLINGS OF U-N PEACEKEEPERS HAVE RAISED NEW FEARS IN THE U-S GOVERNMENT OF A WIDER WAR IN THE BALKANS. IN THIS REPORT PREPARED BY VOA'S ERICA BENIS, ___________ EXAMINES PRESENT U-S POLICY TOWARD THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. TEXT: SINCE THE OUTBREAK OF FIGHTING IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA MORE THAN TOW YEARS AGO, U-S POLICY HAS HAD TWO MAIN OBJECTIVES: TO LIMIT THE CONFLICT TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, AND TO CONSOLIDATE THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. BOTH COULD UNRAVEL AT ANY TIME. KEN JENSEN IS DIRECTOR OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE, A GOVERNMENT RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS PUT TOO MUCH EMPHASIS ON KEEPING CROATIA OUT OF CONFLICT. TAPE: CUT ONE JENSEN "IT WAS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY WE BROKERED THE AGREEMENT FOR A MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA. IT APPEARS NOW THAT OUR EFFORTS ARE IN GREAT DANGER OF NOT COMING TO ANYTHING MUCH." TEXT: IN THE CASE OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION, U-S OFFICIALS WERE HOPING THE ARRANGEMENT WOULD LEAD TO THE CREATION OF AN INTEGRATED GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY. BUT THE CROATS AND MUSLIMS CONTINUE TO GO THEIR SEPARATE WAYS. SUSAN WOODWARD IS A SCHOLAR WITH THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION IN WASHINGTON AND THE AUTHOR OF A BOOK ENTITLED, "THE BALKAN TRAGEDY." SHE SAYS THE DIFFICULTY FOR OUTSIDERS WATCHING THE SITUATION IS HOW UNPREDICTABLE THINGS ARE. TAPE: CUT TWO WOODWARD "WHAT HAPPENED THROUGHOUT THE BALKANS IN THE LAST THREE OR FOUR YEARS IS THAT EACH SIDE TRIES TO THREATEN THE OTHER SIDE INTO A BARGAINING POSITION WHERE THEY WILL ACCEPT SOME DIPLOMATIC AGREEMENT. BUT NEITHER SIDE AGREES." TEXT: MS. WOODWARD SAYS THAT IN CROATIA, FOR EXAMPLE, OVER THE LAST SIX MONTHS THE CROAT AND SERB MILITARY FORCES GOT CLOSER AND CLOSER TO EACH OTHER ALONG THE SEPARATION ZONE NEGOTIATED BY THE UNITED NATIONS, THE U-S, AND RUSSIA ONE YEAR AGO. TAPE: CUT THREE WOODWARD "AND SO THE IDEA OF A TINDERBOX -- THAT IS SOMETHING THAT ONE SMALL EVENT COULD LIGHT UP AN ENORMOUS CONFLAGRATION -- IS WHAT WE'RE DEALING WITH." TEXT: ON THE FACE OF IT, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES ARE HOLDING VERY DIFFERENT POSITIONS ON THE ISSUE OF LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA. BUT MR. JENSEN SAYS THE DIFFERENCES ARE NOT AS GREAT AS THEY SEEM, BECAUSE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS NOT OPPOSED TO A BALANCE OF FORCES WITHIN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. TAPE: CUT FOUR JENSEN "ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THE DIFFERENCE EXISTS IS THAT THERE IS AN AMERICAN HOPE THAT AT LEAST BY THE THREAT OF LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO, THE BOSNIAN NEGOTIATING POSITION -- IN THAT THREE-CORNERED RELATIONSHIP WITH CROATIA AND SERBIA -- MIGHT BE IMPROVED. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY LOOKS AT THIS SITUATION AS ONE THAT WILL BE RESOLVED IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS." TEXT: SUSAN WOODWARD SAYS THE MAIN REASON THE EUROPEANS DIFFER WITH THE U-S ON THIS ISSUE IS THAT THEY HAVE TROOPS ON THE GROUND SERVING AS U-N PEACEKEEPERS. TAPE: CUT FIVE WOODWARD "IF YOU LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO, EVEN THOUGH IT MAY NOT MEAN ANYMORE ARMS THAN THERE ALREADY ARE, WE ARE REALLY IN A COMBATANT SITUATION, AND THE U-N FORCES MUST LEAVE." TEXT: MOREOVER, SAYS MS. WOODWARD, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S POSITION WITH REGARD TO THE ARMS EMBARGO KEEPS CHANGING. TAPE: CUT SIX WOODWARD "INSTEAD OF THE ARMS EMBARGO, OR WHAT IT REFERRED TO AS BOTH 'LIFT' AND 'STRIKE' -- TO LIFT THE ARMS EMBARGO AND TO USE NATO AIRPOWER AGAINST SERB POSITIONS -- AS A SOLUTION TO THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, IT SHIFTED LAST SPRING, ABOUT TEN MONTHS AGO, TO BELIEVING THAT THERE IS ONLY A POLITICAL-DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THIS WAR. THERE IS NO POSSIBLE MILITARY VICTORY ON ANY SIDE, AND THEREFORE IF WE HAVE FIGHTING IT COULD GO ON FOR DECADES. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER THERE WILL BE A SHIFT IN THE CONGRESS AS WELL." TEXT: MR. JENSEN AGREES THAT PEACEFUL SOLUTIONS MUST BE PURSUED. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, HE SAYS, THERE IS A REALITY ON THE GROUND THAT HAS TO BE DEALT WITH. TAPE: CUT SEVEN WOODWARD "IN FACT, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS DEALING WITH IT UNDER AMERICAN LEADERSHIP. I THINK THAT WHAT WE'RE GOING TO SEE IS A CONTINUATION OF THE KIND OF ATTEMPTS ON THE PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO TURN STABILITY OR STALEMATE, IF YOU WILL, INTO PEACE." TEXT: THE PROBLEM, SAYS KEN JENSEN, IS THAT PREVENTING THE SITUATION FROM BREAKING OUT INTO A LARGER, MORE PROTRACTED CONFLICT COULD TAKE A VERY LONG TIME. AND IN THAT CASE, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MAY DECIDE TO EXTRACT ITSELF FROM THE PROCESS. NEB/EB/PCH 10-May-95 5:12 PM EDT (2112 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 5941 total bytes, 5941 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178227 TITLE= YUGO SITREP (L) BYLINE= WAYNE COREY DATELINE= VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL SARAJEVO HAS AGAIN BEEN SHELLED, AND AT LEAST FOUR PEOPLE HAVE BEEN INJURED. AS THE MILITARY SITUATION IN AND AROUND SARAJEVO WORSENS, A UNITED NATIONS OFFICIAL THERE IS CALLING FOR AN INTERNATIONAL DEBATE ON THE U-N MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: MORTAR ROUNDS EXPLODED IN THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO AND SNIPERS OPENED FIRE AGAIN. THE SHELLING AND SHOOTING OCCURRED AFTER THE UNITED NATIONS COMMAND SAID IT COULD NOT PROTECT THE CITY FROM SERB ATTACKS. THE COMMAND SAYS THE SERBS ARE STEADILY STRANGLING SARAJEVO AND THAT THERE IS LITTLE U-N FORCES CAN DO ABOUT IT. AT THE SAME TIME, HEAVY FIGHTING IS REPORTED BETWEEN MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT TROOPS AND SERB FORCES ALONG A STRATEGIC CORRIDOR THAT LINKS SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. THE SERBS CLAIM THEY HAVE SHOT DOWN A GOVERNMENT HELICOPTER OVER THE EASTERN MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF ZEPA. TWELVE PEOPLE ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN KILLED, INCLUDING BOSNIAN ARMY OFFICERS. THE MILITARY SITUATION IN BOSNIA IS ESCALATING FOLLOWING THE END OF A FOUR-MONTH OFFICIAL CEASEFIRE THAT HELPED TO RESTRAIN BUT DID NOT END THE FIGHTING. IT IS THE WORSENING SITUATION IN AND AROUND SARAJEVO, THOUGH, AND THE INABILITY OF U-N FORCES TO DO MUCH ABOUT IT THAT IS AGAIN ATTRACTING INTERNATIONAL CONCERN. A SENIOR U-N OFFICIAL IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, COLUM MURPHY, IS CALLING FOR AN INTERNATIONAL DEBATE ON THE U-N MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SHOULD DECIDE IF IT WANTS U-N TROOPS TO REMAIN SIMPLY OBSERVERS OR IF IT WANTS THEM TO ENFORCE A PEACE. IF U-N SOLDIERS ARE TO ENFORCE U-N RESOLUTIONS ON THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT, MR. MURPHY SAYS THEY HAVE TO BE GIVEN THE MEANS TO DO THAT. THE U-N COMMAND CAN STILL ASK FOR NATO AIRPOWER TO HELP PROTECT ITS TROOPS ON THE GROUND OR TO HELP ENFORCE U-N RESOLUTIONS. BUT, SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA FEAR NATO AIR STRIKES WOULD ONLY ANGER THE SERBS AND LEAD TO REPRISALS AGAINST U-N SOLDIERS. SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS GHALI WILL MEET LATER THIS WEEK WITH KEY U-N CIVILIAN AND MILITARY OFFICIALS TO REVIEW THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA AND IN NEIGHBORING CROATIA. WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAY THE WAR IN BOSNIA WAS BOUND TO GET WORSE BECAUSE OF THE U-N APPEASEMENT OF THE SERBS AND BECAUSE THERE IS NO SIGNIFICANT MOVEMENT IN THE PEACE PROCESS. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH/GPT 10-May-95 11:57 AM EDT (1557 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 2678 total bytes, 2678 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178215 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: INTRO: SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SHELLED AGAIN, AND A UNITED NATIONS OFFICIAL THERE IS CALLING FOR AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO REVIEW THE MANDATE OF U-N FORCES IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM OUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN BUREAU IN VIENNA. TEXT: MORTAR ROUNDS SLAMMED INTO THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO. A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WERE INJURED. THE SHELLING FOLLOWED THE U-N COMMAND'S ADMISSION THAT IT COULD NOT PROTECT THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, ONE OF THE U-N/DECLARED SAFE AREAS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. A U-N OFFICIAL IN SARAJEVO IS CALLING FOR A SERIOUS INTERNATIONAL DEBATE ON WHETHER U-N FORCES IN BOSNIA SHOULD ONLY TRY TO KEEP THE PEACE, AS THEY ARE DOING NOW, OR ENFORCE IT. IF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WANTS U-N SOLDIERS TO ENFORCE U-N RESOLUTIONS ON THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT, THE OFFICIAL SAYS THE MEANS TO DO THAT MUST BE PROVIDED. SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE BEEN CRITICIZED FOR NOT ORDERING RETALIATORY NATO AIR STRIKES AFTER A DEADLY SERB SHELLING ATTACK ON A SARAJEVO SUBURB LAST WEEKEND. THE DECISION NOT TO CALL FOR NATO ACTION WAS BASED PARTLY ON FEAR OF SERB REPRISALS AGAINST LIGHTLY-ARMED U-N TROOPS IN SARAJEVO OR ELSEWHERE IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/MH 10-May-95 7:00 AM EDT (1100 UTC) NNNN Source: Voice of America Download Complete. 1406 total bytes, 1406 bytes/sec Press <RETURN> to continue
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DATE=5/10/95 TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT NUMBER=2-178262 TITLE=YUGO SITREP (S) UPDATE BYLINE=WAYNE COREY DATELINE=VIENNA CONTENT= VOICED AT: ///NEW INFO THRUOUT. THIS MAY BE USED AS AN UPDATE OR AS AN OVERNIGHTER/// INTRO: SARAJEVO HAS BEEN SHAKEN BY ANOTHER MORTAR ATTACK AND B