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novine.1 .bale.,
CROATS GIVE MUSLIMS ULTIMATUM (from the Fargo Forum, Monday, Sept. 7, 1992 (Fargo, North Dakota)) Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina (AP) In another move pushing Bosnia toward partition, Croat forces broke with the mainly Muslim Bosnian army Sunday and threatened to drive Muslim forces from territory around Sarajevo. The move appeared to further weaken the Bosnian governmnet , and it tightened the vise on the Serb-besieged capital, where shelling resumed Sunday night after a day of relative calm in the 6-month-old civil war. There were no immediate reports of casualties. But for the 24-hour period ending at noon Sunday, the Ministry of Health said 10 people had died and 118 were wounded across the republic. More than 8,000 people -- some estimates say 35,000 -- have died since the war began. Sarajevo's already desparate living conditions worsened when the Serbs cut off the city's main reservoir. And presaging the long, hard winter to came, teh first snow fell in the surrounding mountains. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has called for a unified, independent country. But Serbs and Croats have taken control of most of Bosnia since the fighting broke out after a February referendum approved secession from the Serb-dominated Yugoslavia. Velimir Maric, president of the Croatian militia for Sarajevo, said Croatian headquarters in Mostar, southwest of Sarajevo, had given the Bosnian government until today to withdraw from six suburbs around Sarajevo. "After the ultimatum expires we will use all available measures to liberate Croatian territories," Maric told reporters in Stup, a western suburb controlled by Croats. "That could imply a conflict." "Lots of blood will be lost ending one state and lots of blood will be lost creating one state," he said. "No one who lives in Bosnia-Herzegovina is a Bosnian. They are Croats, Muslims, and Serbs. First of all, I am a Croat." The six suburbs, most of whose populations are predominantly Croat, were Stup, Bare, Azic, Otes, Dagladi and parts of Nedzarici, all communities along the city's western front line. Bosnian government forces are surrounded on all sides by Serb fighters, and the government has relied on these suburbs for much of its fuel, weapons, and food, which arrive via Croat-Serb cooperation. Mustafa Hajrulahovic, commander of Bosnian forces in Sarajevo, reacted to the Croat ultimatum by saying: "We have to live in one republic, which is un-cantonized. If they don't agree with that, we will fight until we liberate our territory." Maric said he would not help the Bosnian army try to break the siege of Sarajevo unless he received orders from his commander, Mate Boban -- the leader of ethnic Croats in Bosnia and an ally of President Franjo tudjman of Croatia. Maric, a 40-year-old food inspector before the war, read from a statement on stationary of the Croatian headquarters in Mostar. ================================================ Los Angeles Times Saturday, September 5, 1992 by William D. Montalbano Times Staff Writer Rome---... U.N. officials in Bosnia-Herzegovina told reporters that witnesses on the ground said they saw two missiles fired at the Italian 46th Air Brigade aircraft, which Ando said was clearly marked with U.N. insignia. Residents close to the crash site, which is near the town of Jesenic, 20 miles west of Sarajevo, told the British news agency Reuters on Friday that they saw one of the two rockets slamming into the plane from the direction of Konjic, a town in Muslim-Croatian territory, although the area south of it is held by Serbian militiamen. "I was watching the plane flying past toward Sarajevo when two seconds later two rockets homed in on it from behind without a sound," Zahrovic Fohrudin said. Added Dudic Esad, a local Muslim fighter: "One hit the plane in the rear. A wing fell off, and the plane burst into flames. The other rocket missed. The plane spun straight down to the ground." Loggers Mato Javran and Anto Behrcic, interviewed by an Associated Press reporter, told a similar story. They said they saw what looked like a rocket hit the plane; a wing broke off, and the plane begin to spin before suddenly droping out of the sky. The United Nations halted all relief flights to Sarajevo after the crash. Asked when they might resume, Mike Aitchinson, a U.N. official in Zagreb, Croatia, said, "Maybe never." The plane which had departed from Split, Croatia, fell in the heavily wooded mountainous region where Serbian, Bosnian Croatian and Muslim irregulars are skirmishing for control. Serbian irregulars told reporters that Muslims were responsible for shooting it down. They speculated that Muslim fighters had mistaken the Italian plane for one belonging to the Yugoslav air force. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, a Muslim, countered that "the missiles came from area controlled by Serbs." He told reporters that the United Nations should either provide military air escorts for future flights or send troops to clear land corridors of heavy weapons and anti-aircraft guns. In Washington, the State Department said it had not yet received official word about the cause of the crash. ... The Pentagon said Thursday that two of four U.S. helicopters were fired upon, but not hit, as they helped search for the wreckage of the Italian plane. On Friday, according to the Associated Press, the report was modified: Pilots of two of the helicopters said they had seen flashes of small-arms fire but could not be sure that shots had been fired at them. But the Financial Times, a London newspaper, reported that a local commander of the Croatian Defense Council admitted that his men had shot at the helicopters. ...In an interview Friday with CNN, Acting Secretary of State, Lawrence Eaglburger said that the helicopter incident illustrated the danger of becoming more deeply involved in the Bosnian conflict. That is "an example of the sort of thing I'am concerned about," he said. "We need to recognize that there is a real distinction between trying to assist in getting humanitarian aid into Sarajevo and getting engaged in trying to make peace amongst the contending factions." He said the limited role of providing and shielding humanitarian assistance is the most appropriate one for the United States now. Eaglburger said he would "hazard a guess...the plane was shot down." "There are a lot of out-of-control people in the area," he said. "It could have been anyone." ...In a speech to the Economics Club of Indianopolis that was broadcast back to Pentagon, Cheney cited potential dangers to U.S. intervention in th eregion, saying: "It doesn't strike me as the type of conflict in which I am prepared to commit young Americans to combat." ... ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - [The rest of this article deals with the usual background information and physical description of the site of the wreckage.] ================================================ CNN Headline News Sunday, September 6, 1992 10pm PST [Toria Tolley] "...Ethnic turmoil in Yugoslavia gets even more divisive. Croats announced today that their forces are separating from Bosnian forces which are mainly Muslim. They also threaten to liberate some sections of Sarajevo if Muslims do not pull out from there by Monday."
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CNN Headline News Wed, Sept 9, 1992 10am PST Sarajevo--- ...French call yesterday's attack on relief convoy equivalent to an act of war... [Wounded French soldier]: "...You can't believe that we are here on humanitarian and peace mission..." [French general]: "...There was a fighting between the two sides. After one phone call Serbian side stopped. Bosnians didn't..." Two French soldiers were killed, more wounded. ...As another frustration for U.N. peacekeepers there was a delay in exchange of prisoners. Serbian busses came, and their prisoners were waiting for hours in the scorching heat... [U.N. officer to Bosnian representative]: "...We will wait here two more hours, then..." Bosnian busses never came. It could be seen that most of Serbian prisoners were victims of "ethnic cleansing", women and children. There was just one bus with soldiers. ...Peace neogotiators in Geneva condemned the shooting incident... U.N. does not feel secure even for its headquarter in Sarajevo... The time may be coming when U.N. will not be able to perform its mission any longer..."
novine.3 .bale.,
RFE/RL Daily Report 09 SEP, 1992 Date: Wed, 9 Sep 1992 14:03:48 +0100 Reply-To: rferl-daily-report-request@AdminA.RFERL.ORG From: rferl-daily-report-request@admina.rferl.org The RFE/RL Daily Report is a digest of lastest developments in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is published Monday through Friday (except German holidays) by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty, Inc.). Copyright 1992 RFE/RL, Inc. - ---------------------------------------------------------------- F..................................................................M........... M RFE/RL DAILY REPORT No. 173, September 9, 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR NATIONAL PATRIOTS DEMONSTRATE IN ST. PETERSBURG. "Social Security for Workers," was the slogan under which the extreme nationalist Russian Party held a meeting in St. Petersburg on 7 September, Ostankino TV reported. The meeting was permitted by the mayor's office. The demonstrators condemned Yeltsin's leadership as "criminal and Zionist." The demonstrators also demanded the release of the chief editor of the newspaper Narodnoe delo, who has been arrested and charged with the dissemination of anti-Semitic material. The "red-brown opposition" in Russia plans to hold mass demonstrations on 15 September. The protests will reportedly include the picketing of the St. Petersburg and Ostankino TV centers. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL Inc.) ATTEMPT TO REVIVE CPSU AS MASS MOVEMENT. On 8 September, Pravda published a draft program aimed at reviving the Communist Party as a mass movement. The program said Communists should hold a conference in Moscow next month. The program also called for a "rebirth" of the Soviet Union and its return to socialist development. It said state socialism experienced "crisis" in the 1970s, but it blamed the "mistakes" and the "treason" of Mikhail Gorbachev and others for turning the USSR toward capitalism. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL Inc.) EXPORT OF RUSSIAN OIL PRODUCTS HALTED. The major Russian exporter of petroleum products, Rosnefteprodukt, has suspended deliveries to Japan and Western Europe, Reuters reported on 8 September. An official of the company explained that this happens most years because of increased domestic demand during the harvesting campaign and because of the need to ship oil to the Far North before rivers froze. An aide to the Russian Energy Minister was quoted as saying that shipments of crude oil were continuing. Aleksandr Shokhin, the deputy prime minister for foreign economic relations, was quoted by the Financial Times of 9 September as saying that the government had "lost control" over state-owned oil exporters and wanted to recentralize purchases in order to meet obligations to foreign states. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) JAPAN AGAINST CHINESE PURCHASE OF EX-SOVIET CARRIER. Japanese Vice Foreign Minister Koji Kakizawa on 7 September advised China not to buy an ex-Soviet aircraft carrier under construction in Ukraine. UPI quoted Kakizawa as warning that such a purchase would destabilize the Asia-Pacific region. There have been persistent rumors that China plans to buy the "Varyag," a sister ship of the Russian Navy's "Admiral Kuznetsov," that was being fitted out in a Ukrainian shipyard at Mykolaiv prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union. The September edition of the "U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings" says that the deal has been finalized, and that Russia will provide twenty-two SU-27 fighters to equip the ship. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) FOUR CIS STATES WANT TO DISCUSS BORDER ISSUES WITH CHINA. Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan agreed on 8 September to raise the issue of mutual troop reductions along their combined 8,000 kilometer border with China, as well as other border issues. ITAR-TASS, which announced the agreement, said that it was reached on the periphery of a meeting of CIS foreign ministers in Minsk. The Russian and Chinese defense ministers discussed troop pullbacks from their mutual border when they met in Moscow last month, but failed to agree on how far back the troops should be withdrawn. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) KRAVCHUK CALLS FOR SPEEDY REFORMS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk called for speedy implementation of economic reforms and criticized political groups for engaging in polemics, Western news agencies reported on 8 September. Kravchuk addressed a group of cabinet ministers and other officials on the eve of the opening of a new parliamentary session, saying that the time for political rallies was over. At the same meeting, the new first deputy prime minister, Valentyn Symonenko, outlined a new economic program stressing "mass privatization." Symonenko argued that new legislation was needed for the program to be successful. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) DISGRACED SHEVARDNADZE ASSOCIATE MAKES COMEBACK AS VICE PRESIDENT. Soliko Khabeishvili, the former Georgian Communist Party Central Committee secretary for industry, who was sentenced in the spring of 1987 to 15 years' deprivation of freedom for allegedly accepting 75,000 rubles in bribes from three raikom first secretaries, is now Georgia's vice president, according to Die Welt of 8 September. Khabeishvili has been a close associate of Shevardnadze since the late 1950s when both men were members of the Georgian Komsomol Central Committee apparatus. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN PEACEKEEPERS KILLED. International media report on 8 September that two French peacekeepers were killed and at least two others wounded in an attack on a UN convoy by as yet unknown assailants. Bosnian Muslims and Serbs each accusing the other of the attack, which UN observers say was clearly deliberate. The 35-vehicle convoy originated in Belgrade and was delivering supplies to UN peacekeeping forces in Sarajevo. The attack occurred near Sarajevo's airport. Fighting throughout most of Bosnia-Herzegovina continues. Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen, cochairmen of the international peace conference on the former Yugoslavia are due in Zagreb today to start a three-day official visit which will also take them to Belgrade and Sarajevo. The envoys are seeking ways of resuming humanitarian aid flights and are expected to press for guarantees from the warring parties to stop the attacks on relief efforts. Sarajevo officials say that the city's food supply will run out on 10 September. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) RIFT AMONG BOSNIAN SERBS? Radios Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia report on 8 September that Bosnia's ministry of internal affairs has obtained evidence of a rift between Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic, the commander of the Bosnian Serb army. The document charges that Karadzic is applying a double standard to the army: in the past month he has been praising the army and emphasizing its successes publicly, while privately working toward replacing Mladic and his inner circle. For their part the Bosnian Serb military leadership is unhappy with Karadzic's behavior and handling of policy, particularly over his handing control of Serb artillery over to UN forces, which Mladic feels is being done at an unsuitable time for the Serbian army. Mladic believes that the army now has no chance of holding its current positions and will suffer further setbacks, as in Gorazde. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) TENSE SITUATION IN THE SANDZAK. In a letter to the Geneva conference on the former Yugoslavia, the Muslim Council of the Sandzak says that about 70,000 Muslims have fled the region, allegedly because of "Serbian military terror." Council president Sulejman Ugljanin says that the Sandzak has been occupied by the Serbian and Montenegrin army, which deployed 29,000 reserve troops to the area between early February and June. According to Ugljanin, the terror the Muslims are subjected to and the display of military might and combat hardware have been stepped up since the London conference in late August and show no sign of abating. The letter states that 70 explosions have destroyed shops and properties owned by Muslims in the Montenegrin towns of Pljevlja, Bijelo Polje, and Priboj. The Sandzak is a region straddling the Serbia-Montenegro border. Radio Croatia carried the report on 8 September. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) VOJVODINA HUNGARIANS PROTEST RESETTLEMENT. Janos Vekas, vice president of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Vojvodina, said that by forcefully settling large numbers of Serbs in Vojvodina, Hungarian-Serbian relations could be spoiled for a long period of time. According to Vekas, each city in Vojvodina will have to make room for some 4,000 Serbs, and citizens will have to take in the refugees without compensation. The report was carried by Radio Budapest on 8 September. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER ON FUTURE CZECH-SLOVAK RELATIONS. Speaking to reporters in Prague on 8 September, Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec said that the Czech Republic and Slovakia will exchange ambassadors early next year. He also said that the priorities of Czech foreign policy will remain the same as those of the Czechoslovak foreign policy but that the Czech Republic will wield less international influence and will scale down some of the foreign policy projects initiated by former Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier. The Czech foreign minister further said that attaining membership of the European Community, NATO, and West European Union will be among the priorities. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) KLAUS REJECTS CZECH-SLOVAK DEFENSE UNION. Speaking on Czech Radio on 8 September, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus ruled out the possibility that the Czech Republic and Slovakia could form a defense union or have a common army after 1 January 1993, when Czechoslovakia is to split into two independent states. Klaus said that there exists a strong army lobby in Czechoslovakia, consisting of generals and high officers who would like to preserve a federal arrangement for the army even after the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Klaus rejected such a scenario but said that, in physical terms, it may not be possible to separate the Czech and Slovak parts of the army completely before 1 January 1993. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) POLISH GOVERNMENT FIRM ON STRIKES. Reviewing the strike scene on 8 September, the Polish cabinet restated its basic principles of action. In a statement issued after the meeting, the government reminded the public that Polish law does not permit the payment of wages for strike days; that strikers' pay demands cannot be addressed to the government, which is not a party to wage talks; and that the government will do everything in its power to ensure that no pay increases result from current strikes. Responding to the proliferation of strike "mediators," the government stressed that all official talks with unions must have the labor ministry's approval and that no agreements will be reached with parties or parliamentarians. Meanwhile, President Lech Walesa met with Maciej Jankowski, leader of Solidarity's radical Warsaw region, to discuss his idea of a "confederation of reformist forces." (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN MINERS HOLD PROTEST RALLY. On 8 September some 1,500 miners from Cluj County took part in a protest rally in the city of Cluj. The rally, which was also attended by delegations from other regions, including Maramures, Moldova, and the Banat, demanded state subsidies for the mining industry, cash payments to compensate for recent subsidy cuts in prices for staples and services, and adequate social protection. Radio Bucharest quoted Eugen Tamas, president of the Federation of Romania's Mining Trade Unions, as saying that 90% of union members favor a strike if demands are not met by the authorities. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) "KING OF ALL GYPSIES" CROWNED IN ROMANIA. Ion Cioaba, self-styled King of all Gypsies, was crowned on 8 September at the Bistrita Monastery in Oltenia. Radio Bucharest reports that thousands of Gypsies cheered as a priest laid a two-and-a-half-kg Swiss-made golden crown on his head. The 57-year-old Cioaba swore to fight to overturn centuries of contempt for Gypsies. Rival Gypsy groups that do not recognize Cioaba as a leader and accuse him of collaboration with Nicolae Ceausescu's regime protested the ceremony. According to the last census, taken in January, 410,000 Gypsies live in Romania, but Gypsy leaders maintain the figure is much higher. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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UPI NEWS --- Subject: French say gunfire against soldiers came from Bosnian zone Subject: Conflicting versions of U.N. convoy incident Subject: Bosnian Serb leader claims artillery ready for U.N. supervision Subject: The prisoner exchange that wasn't Subject: Attack on U.N. convoy called 'cold-blooded murder' Subject: Fischer and Spassky started game five of rematch Subject: U.N. says all sides violate human rights in Bosnia-Hercegovina ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: French say gunfire against soldiers came from Bosnian zone Date: 9 Sep 92 09:59:44 GMT PARIS (UPI) -- The French Defense Ministry Wednesday said machine-gun fire that killed two French United Nations peacekeeping troops near the Sarajevo airport came from a zone held by Bosnian forces. ``The logistic convoy coming from Belgrade was hit by light-infantry fire and grenades as it entered a zone held by Bosnian forces south of the Sarajevo airport,'' a ministry statement said. The statement labeled the two dead soldiers ``victims of a deliberate attack, and of a manifest provocation by persons wanting to make war, and who are enormously bothered by the prospects of peace.'' Military officers on the scene said Tuesday's attack appeared deliberate, because it lasted for about five minutes. The slain troops, identified as Frederic Vaudet, 28, and Eric Marot, 21, died from bullet wounds to the head, even though they wore protective United Nations blue helmets, the ministry said. Three other French soldiers suffered slight injuries in the attack. The latest bloodshed raised the total number of U.N. peacekeepers killed in Sarajevo to four. Some 46 other U.N. soldiers have also been injured. Last week, four Italian pilots also died when someone shot down their relief plane as it approached Sarajevo airport. Italian authorities initially claimed the craft had been deliberately targeted by Serbian forces, who allegedly fired two surface-to-air missiles at it. But Wednesday, the British Broadcasting Corp. reported officials now speculate the plane might have flown into the middle of a fight between Serbian and Bosnian forces. In the wake of the tragedy, U.N. officials in Sarajevo said they considered a resumption of humanitarian flights unlikely in the foreseeable future. On Tuesday, U.N. Secretary General Butros Ghali said he agreed ``in principle'' with the idea of providing military air support for humanitarian flights, but said such a step would require a U.N. Security Council resolution. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Conflicting versions of U.N. convoy incident Date: 9 Sep 92 16:10:17 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- The U.N. military commander in Sarajevo insisted Wednesday that Bosnian fighters shot dead two French troops and wounded five others in a U.N. supply convoy. But witnesses said the unprotected column drove directly into a pitched battle. The conflicting versions surfaced a day after the incident occurred on the edge of Sarajevo airport, a U.N.-controlled island set amid shifting battlefields on the western fringe of the Bosnia-Hercegovina capital. Both versions agreed that fierce fighting had been raging outside the airport for three days, with predominantly Muslim Slav Bosnian forces pressingan attac from the suburb of Butmir against the Serb-held settlement of Lukavica. Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek, the Sarajevo sector commander of the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR), contended a cease- fire had been in effect for 20 minutes before the U.N. convoy began moving from Lukavica into the airport complex at about 7:20 p.m. Tuesday. But, witnesses, including French soldiers aboard the convoy, said it drove directly into raging crossfire between Bosnian units and fighters belonging to Serbian forces seeking to carve a self-declared state out of Bosnia-Hercegovina. ``We drove straight into a firefight. The range was very close, about 10 meters,'' said one of the French soldiers interviewed at the U.N.- controlled airport. ``There was no time to fire back.'' Razek said gunfire fire was loosed by ``uncontrolled elements'' at three trucks of the column as it moved into the airport complex. ``It was very clear that the fire came from the Bosnian side,'' Razek told a news conference. ``It was just one or two persons on the ground who were involved.'' ``The accident resulted in two French soldiers being killed and five were wounded,'' said Razek. Razek, however, then became unsure of certain details of the incident and contradicted himself on several key points. He asserted that the head and tail of the convoy were each protected by ``two or three'' armored personnel carriers dispatched from UNPROFOR headquarters. But U.N. sources and witnesses said there were no armored cars, a breach of standing UNPROFOR orders that require them to be sent to accompany all U.N. convoys entering war-torn Sarajevo. Razek denied witness reports that at least one mortar round was loosed at the convoy. He said he supported the French convoy commander's decision to proceed to the airport despite the dangerous conditions. ``I agree with this judgement. The light was enough for anybody to recognize and identify the trucks and the shots came from a very short distance...not less than 100 meters, maybe less,'' he said. Later, however, Razek said: ``If the story (of fierce fighting) had come to my ear a little earlier, I wouldn't have allowed the convoy to proceed to the airport unless both sides could withdraw their elements a proper distance from the road.'' Razek said he received assurances at a meeting with senior Bosnian officials that they would investigate the incident. Officials of the U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) were among those who said that the clashes were still raging when the convoy entered the airport complex. ``There was an intense battle going on and they (the convoy) tried to cross the runway. The battle was so intense before they arrived that we had gone to shelters,'' said Dag Espeland, the chief UNHCR logistics officer based at the airport. ``I asked myself why they came in,'' he said. In Zagreb, Croatia, Cyrus Vance, co-chairman of the ongoing Yugoslavia peace conference, called the killing of two U.N. peacekeepers ``plain cold-blooded murder.'' ``It simply cannot be tolerated,'' said Vance, who is touring the region for talks with leaders of the warring factions. Serbian forces beseiging Sarajevo and Bosnian defense units clash almost daily in seesaw contests for control of several townhouse and apartment colonies located right on the airport boundaries. Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic said the goverment's information also was that the U.N. vehicles drove into a firefight, and he indirectly criticized UNPROFOR for not taking better precautions. ``We are very sorry for those two soldiers...but one should try to program things more carefully. We always asked UNPROFOR people not to travel at night. We always asked them to avoid direct fights,'' said Ganic. The French convoy bearing food, fuel and water was completing a regular weekly supply run from Belgrade to the U.N. headquarters on the western fringe of the embattled Bosnia-Hercegovina capital. The two dead French soldiers were the first fatalities of the 800- member French army contingent of UNPROFOR, which is assigned to protecting the airport and U.N. humanitarian aid operations in and around Sarajevo. The incident brought UNPROFOR's overall casualties in Sarajevo since May to at least four dead and 46 injured. The previous casualties have all been blamed on attacks against UNPROFOR by the warring factions. Last week, U.N. Under-Secretary Marrack Goulding, the head of the United Nation's peace-keeping operations, warned that UNPROFOR could be withdrawn from the war-ravaged city because of the high casualty rate. The latest incident, however, did not affect U.N. humanitarian aid distribution convoys, said Izumi Nakamitsu, the head of the UNHCR's Sarajevo operations. ``We are not going to stop,'' she said, adding that cooperation between the agency and the warring factions was increasing and raising ``the level of confidence.'' She said that the week-old suspension in the U.N.-supervised humanitarian airlift did not threaten the estimated 500,000 people blockaded in Sarajevo as the size of UNHCR truck convoys was being increased. By Friday, she said, daily convoys would be arriving with 180 tons of food and medicines from Croatia's Adriatic port city of Split. The amount is only 20 tons less than what the airlift was providing each day. The airlift was suspended after an Italian cargo plane crashed last Thursday en route to Sarajevo with humanitarian supplies, possibly because it was hit by missiles. Four Italian crewmembers were killed. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnian Serb leader claims artillery ready for U.N. supervision Date: 9 Sep 92 13:58:02 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Radovan Karadzic, the leader of Serbian guerrillas in Bosnia-Hercegovina, said Wednesday his forces' artillery would be placed under U.N. supervision before the Saturday deadline. ``At midday today (Wednesday), U.N. observers should be placed on all Serbian positions around Sarajevo, and tomorrow (Thursday) morning they will come to positions around Bihac and Jajce. In this way we have permitted the supervision of our artillery two days before the deadline, '' Karadzic said. Karadzic, the self-styled president of a self-declared Serbian state in newly independent Bosnia-Hercegovina, said he would have talks with Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen, the co-chairmen of the Geneva peace talks on former Yugoslavia, in a Serbian stronghold near Sarajevo Thursday. Vance and Owen have given Karadzic's forces until Saturday to place under U.N. supervision the heavy weaponry in areas surrounding the Bosnia capital of Sarajevo, and the towns of Bihac and Jajce. Karadzic said he was ready to make ``territorial concessions'' to the Bosnia-Hercegovina authorities, but only after the ongoing war ceases. The Bosnia-Hercegovina government is mostly made up of Muslim Slavs but also includes moderate Croats and Serbs. Karadzic's guerrillas have captured about 70 percent of the republic's territory although Serbs comprise only 32 percent of the population of 4.4 million. Addressing reporters at a Belgrade hotel, he said he may negotiate giving back anything between ``one to 20 percent'' of the territory. Referring to the predominantly Muslim Slav city of Sarajevo, Karadzic said the whole of the capital is ``on the land that is in possession of Serbs.'' ``A large part of Sarajevo will go to the Serbs...the old part of the city would be given to the Muslims, while a part in which Croats live would be an extra-territorial section,'' Karadzic said. He did not elaborate any further. Karadzic reiterated his stand that Bosnia-Hercegovina should be divided into Swiss-style ``ethnic districts.'' A Serbian land-grab campaign, to carve out a self-declared Serbian republic and attach it to neighboring Serbia, began late in March, before the former central Yugoslav republic's independence was internationally recognized early in April. Bosnia-Hercegovina's population is comprised of 1.9 million Muslim Slavs, 1.4 million Christian Orthodox Serbs and 750,000 Roman Catholic Croats. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: The prisoner exchange that wasn't Date: 9 Sep 92 17:49:27 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- This is a tale of arms and men, the evils of drink and of more than 900 people who disappeared in the prisoner exchange that wasn't. It is also the story of a stolid Royal Canadian Mounted Police sergeant from Winnipeg who tried to make it happen, but learned that in the Balkans, things rarely come off the way one hopes. ``I respect these people here, but I don't respect their ability to organize things,'' said Sgt. Jim Hull, the commander of the civilian police unit of the U.N. Protection Force in Sarajevo. U.N. police and troops Tuesday set out to oversee a swap of 470 Serbian and Bosnian war prisoners in Kobiljaca, a town wedged between Serbian and Croatian lines, 15 miles northwest of Sarajevo. The swap was agreed by the warring factions for 1 p.m. It began with U.N. personnel escorting two buses of Bosnian captives from the Serb-run prison of Kula, outside Sarajevo. Things began going awry immediately. The convoy arrived in Koblijaca an hour late because it was held up at a Serbian checkpoint and forced to pick up more prisoners. In Kobiljaca, U.N. personnel found seven more buses of Bosnian captives, said Hull. ``These nine buses were later joined by two more buses containing alleged prisoners.'' Hull said the U.N. unit was then told by negotiators of the two sides that the exchange had grown, with 462 Bosnians to be swapped for 454 Serbs -- who had still not arrived. U.N. officers waited three and a-half hours for the Bosnian side to deliver the Serbian prisoners. During that time, they noticed ``the Serbian military presence in the area appeared to increase and the indulgence of alcoholic beverages was clearly evident,'' Hull said. A U.N. armored car was sent to find the Serbian prisoners, who were discovered 8 miles away in six buses. The buses were escorted by the U. N. vehicle to within less than a mile of Kobiljaca, where they were stopped at a Croatian checkpoint. An argument erupted between the Bosnian negotiators and the Croatian commander that soon embroiled bystanders, Hull said. ``It was learned that Croatian military were justifiably concerned about the presence of many armed Bosnian soldiers who had come with the convoy,'' he explained. ``This in all probability could have caused an armed confrontation (with the Serbs).'' U.N. personnel also objected to the Bosnian soldiers. But, unable to resolve the dispute and growing anxious because of the approaching dark, the U.N. unit tried to coax the convoy to move by proceeding through the checkpoint. Only one bus followed, but ``broke down...and had to be left behind,'' Hull said. The U.N. unit continued into Kobiljaca, where ``it was quite apparent that tension was mounting among everyone present,'' he said. ``With this in mind and the fact that the liquor being consummed during the day was now showing undesirable effects on the Serbian soldiers and civilians present,'' the U.N. contingent abandoned the exchange, Hull explained. The prisoners were left with their captors and ``we have no idea where they are,'' said Hull. That, however, was not the end of the story. More than seven hours after leaving Kula, the four-vehicle U.N. unit set out to return to Sarajevo, but was forced to stop for about two more hours at a Serbian checkpoint. Hull said the halt resulted because a Serbian police chief wanted to arrest the Bosnian prisoner exchange negotiators accompanying the U.N. personnel back to Sarajevo. The U.N. officers refused to surrender the Bosnians, and after ``cooler heads prevailed,'' the convoy was allowed to continue, Hull said. Despite the farcical nature of the incident, Hull was not amused. ``We, under the circumstances, don't find it very comical,'' he said. ``This is too deadly a situation...to be messing around.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Attack on U.N. convoy called 'cold-blooded murder' Date: 9 Sep 92 18:17:31 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Mediators working to negotiate peace among the Yugoslav republics arrived in the region to assess the chances for progress Wednesday amid continuing confusion over who was responsible for an attack on a U.N. convoy that killed two French soldiers and wounded five. Arriving in the Croatian capital of Zagreb, peace conference co- chairman and former U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance sharply condemned the attack on the convoy Tuesday night, describing it as ``plain cold-blooded murder'' and saying those responsible should be brought to justice. Conflicting accounts continued to cloud the incident, which took place on the edge of Sarajevo airport, a U.N.-controlled island set amid shifting battlefields on the western fringe of the capital of Bosnia- Hercegovina. A U.N. military commander insisted Wednesday that Bosnian fighters deliberately attacked the unprotected U.N. supply convoy, killing two French troops and wounding five others, but witnesses said the column accidentally drove into a pitched battle between Serbs and Bosnians. Both versions agreed fierce fighting had been raging outside the airport for three days, with predominantly Muslim Slav Bosnian forces pressing an attack from the suburb of Butmir against the Serb-held settlement of Lukavica. Speaking upon his arrival in Zagreb, Vance acknowledged it was difficult to know who was to blame for the incident, but he sharply condemned the attack. ``It simply cannot be tolerated,'' Vance said. ``People who commit those kinds of cold-blooded crimes will be apprehended if it is possible to do so and submitted to the courts and be given the penalties...that such cold-blooded crimes deserve.'' Vance and peace conference co-chairman David Owen were in the region to meet with leaders of the warring factions to try to secure humanitarian relief flights and land convoys into war-torn Bosnia- Hercegovina. A key issue is the interrupted airlift, still in abeyance following the crash last week of an Italian Air Force plane on U.N. service, Vance said. Four airmen were killed in the plane that possibly was shot down by missiles. Another major issue was the Vance-Owen demand that Yugoslav army- supplied Serbian heavy artilllery be concentrated in U.N.-monitored locations by Saturday. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic set for himself a deadline for concentrating the weapons by Thursday, when he expected to meet Vance and Owen in a Serbian stronghold near Sarejevo. In Belgrade, Karadzic also told reporters Wednesday he may negotiate giving back ``one to 20 percent'' of the Bosnian territory captured by the Serbs who are trying to carve an separate nation out of the newly independent republic. Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek, commander of the Sarajevo sector of the U.N. Protection Force, doubted Karadzic could meet his self-imposed deadline. ``I know there are some difficulties with their local commanders,'' Razek told a news conference. ``Our senior military observers are working with them (the Serbs) to sort out all their difficulties.'' Referring to the fatal attack on the U.N. convoy, Razek said gunfire was loosed by ``uncontrolled elements'' at three trucks of the column as it moved into the airport complex. ``It was very clear that the fire came from the Bosnian side,'' he said. ``It was just one or two persons on the ground who were involved.'' Razek said a cease-fire had been in effect for 20 minutes before the convoy began moving from Lukavica into the airport complex Tuesday evening. But witnesses, including French soldiers in the convoy, said it accidentally drove into a raging battle between Bosnians and Serbs. ``We drove straight into a firefight. The range was very close, about 10 meters,'' said one of the soldiers at the U.N.-controlled airport. ``There was no time to fire back.'' Razek said he received assurances from senior Bosnian officials they would investigate the incident. Officials of the U.N. High Commission for Refugees also said a fight was raging when the convoy entered the airport complex. ``There was an intense battle going on and they (the convoy) tried to cross the runway. The battle was so intense before they arrived that we had gone to shelters,'' said Dag Espeland, chief UNHCR logistics officer at the airport. ``I asked myself why they came in,'' he said. Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic said the goverment's information also was the U.N. vehicles drove into a firefight. ``We are very sorry for those two soldiers ... but one should try to program things more carefully,'' Ganic said. ``We always asked UNPROFOR people not to travel at night. We always asked them to avoid direct fights.'' The French convoy bearing food, fuel and water was completing a regular weekly supply run from Belgrade to the U.N. headquarters on the western fringe of the embattled Bosnia-Hercegovina capital. The dead soldiers were the first fatalities of the 800-member French army contingent of UNPROFOR, which is assigned to protecting the airport and U.N. humanitarian aid operations in and around Sarajevo. The incident brought UNPROFOR's overall casualties in Sarajevo since May to at least four dead and 46 wounded. The previous casualties all have been blamed on attacks against UNPROFOR by the warring factions. Last week, U.N. Under-Secretary Marrack Goulding, head of the United Nation's peace-keeping operations, warned UNPROFOR could be withdrawn from Sarajevo because of the high casualty rate. The latest incident would not affect humanitarian aid convoys, said Izumi Nakamitsu, head of the UNHCR's Sarajevo operations. ``We are not going to stop,'' she said, adding cooperation between the agency and the warring factions was increasing and raising ``the level of confidence.'' She said the week-old suspension in the U.N.-supervised humanitarian airlift did not threaten the estimated 500,000 people blockaded in Sarajevo as the size of UNHCR truck convoys was being increased. By Friday, she said, daily convoys would be arriving with 180 tons of food and medicines from Croatia's Adriatic port city of Split. The amount is only 20 tons less than what the airlift was providing each day. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fischer and Spassky started game five of rematch Date: 9 Sep 92 19:00:11 GMT PRZNO, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Former world chess champion Bobby Fischer and his longtime rival, former Soviet grandmaster Boris Spassky, started the fifth game of their controversial re-match Wednesday after a two-day break. Fischer is playing white in the game that started 3:30 p.m. in the Maestral Hotel in Przno, near the plush Montenegrin resort of Sveti Stefan in the southern Adriatic. Fischer played the classical Ruy Lopez opening -- the same one he used in game three -- and after the first 20 moves experts said Fischer appeared to have a slight advantage. ``I am satisfied with this opening,'' said Fischer's second, Spanish grandmaster Eugenio Torre. ``Fischer prepared well for this game, and the fight will be very long and interesting,'' Torre added. Spassky, now a naturalized French citizen, defeated Fischer in a previous game Sunday. Monday and Tuesday were days off. The match will continue until one of the longtime rivals achieves ten victories. The result by now is 1:1, with Fischer winning the first game and Spassky the fourth. Games two and three were draws. Under the scoring system demanded by Fischer, drawn games are not counted in scoring. Fischer still demands to be called ``the chess champion of the world'' even though he went into seclusion shortly after earning that title and has avoided public life and chess competition for the past 20 years. Fischer became the world chess champion after defeating Spassky for the title in the 1972 championship in Reykjevik, Iceland. He was stripped of the honor a few years later after refusing to play Soviet grandmaster Anatoly Karpov under the World Chess Federation rules. Fischer, 49, is also in a deep trouble with the U.S. Treasury Department, which said the match with Spassky would violate U.N. sanctions against the new Yugoslav federation of Serbia and Montenegro. The U.N. sanctions ban all financial and economical transactions with two republics because of their involvement in the war against neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina. Fischer publicly spat on the Treasury's cease-and-desist order at a news conference Sept. 1 on the eve of the first game. He could face a fine of up to $250,000 and a maximum 10 years in prison for defying the order. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. says all sides violate human rights in Bosnia-Hercegovina Date: 9 Sep 92 18:03:14 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- A U.N. human rights investigator charged Wednesday that all warring parties in Bosnia-Hercegovina have committed grave violations and proposed that peacekeeping troops be deployed to cover the whole Balkan republic. Former Polish Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki warned that there is a ``real possibility'' that violence involved in the Serb-led so-called ``ethnic cleansing'' activities will spread to Kosovo, Sandzak and Vojvodina, the other ethnic regions in the former Yugoslavia. Mazowiecki, appointed by the U.N. Commission on Human Rights in Geneva, visited Bosnia-Hercegovina last month to investigate allegations of mass execution of Muslims and Croats by Serbian forces in their drive to claim large chunks of the republic's territory. The investigator said his visits were limited by time and his assessments were a ``diagnosis'' of the main problems existing in that country with three distinct ethnic populations embroiled in a five- month-old civil war. ``Massive and grave violations of human rights are occurring throughout the territory of Bosnia-Hercegovina,'' Mazowiecki said in a report to the U.N. Security Council. ``Human rights violations are perpetrated by all parties to the conflicts,'' he said. ``There are also victims on all sides. However, the situation of the Muslim population is particularly tragic: they feel that they are threatened with extermination.'' Mazowiecki said he has obtained ``credible evidence'' that Muslims and Croats were subjected to the ethnic cleansing campaign in both Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia. But on the other hand, Serbs in Croatia have been also discriminated against, harrassed and maltreated and the importance of human rights violations there cannot be underestimated. ``There is credible evidence that some prisoners have died of torture and mistreatment in both Croatia and the various parts of Bosnia- Hercegovina, and at the present stage of this investigation it cannot be ruled out that executions may have been carried out systematically in other regions,'' he said. But he said allegations of systematic execution of Muslims and Croats by Serbs in detention camps have been ``proven false'' by ``humanitarian bodies'' in the Yugoslav territories. Mazowiecki proposed that the Security Council expand the mandate of the U.N. Protection Force in Croatia to cover the whole territory of Bosnia-Hercegovina. The 14,000-strong U.N. peace force was set up earlier this year to put an end to the civil war in Croatia, but its troops were called to provide security to the Sarajevo airport and to escort humanitarian convoys. At the U.N. headquarters in New York, the death of two French peacekeeping soldiers south of Sarajevo Tuesday was strongly deplored by Secretary-General Boutros Ghali. France has also asked the Security Council to meet urgently Wednesday to discuss the incident, which occurred after a U.N. food convoy was reportedly ambushed. U.N. spokesman Francois Giuliani said the United Nations has ordered an investigation on the incident. He said Ghali may present next week a plan to increase the strength of the U.N. peace force in Bosnia- Hercegovina in order to deal with the war situation in that republic.
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RFE/RL DAILY REPORT No. 174, September 10, 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN ABRUPTLY CALLS OFF JAPAN VISIT. On 9 September, Russian President Boris Yeltsin indefinitely postponed his long-planned visit to Japan just four days before it was scheduled to begin. Japanese Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe would not confirm whether or not Yeltsin's decision stemmed from Japan's refusal to provide large-scale economic aid to Russia until the Kuril Islands dispute is resolved in Japan's favor, Western agencies reported. On 6 September, Yeltsin had noted that "I have to consider the attitude of 150 million Russians," when considering the Kuril Islands issue, "Novosti" reported on 7 September. Yeltsin also announced that his trip to South Korea would be postponed until December when Yeltsin is already scheduled to visit China. (Hal Kosiba, RFE/RL Inc.) BURBULIS CRITICIZES JAPAN. Russian State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis has warned Japan not to "exaggerate its role and importance to the detriment of other states in the Pacific region." He told ITAR-TASS on 9 September that Russian-Japanese relations "are not the only prospects in this region" for Russia. Burbulis said that according to a recent opinion poll published by Interfax on 8 September, 60 percent of Russians oppose returning the Kuril islands to Japan, and he noted that Yeltsin and government officials must take the opinion and sentiments of the Russian population into account. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) ON THE ROLE OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL. Russian President Boris Yeltsin indicated in his phone conversation with Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa that the decision to postpone his visit to Japan had been made by the Security Council rather than by him personally. If this statement is accurate, it demonstrates the extent to which this recently created committee has become a major collective decision-making body in Russia. However, First Deputy Parliamentary Speaker Sergei Filatov, who is also a member of the Security Council, was not present at the meeting and was unaware of the postponement, Western news agencies reported on 9 September. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN FOOD SUPPLY DOWN. The Russian State Committee for Statistics (Roskomstat) announced on 9 September that food production during the past few months has declined by an average of 22% when compared with the same period of 1991, ITAR-TASS reported. Roskomstat attributed part of the decline to shortfalls in contractual deliveries from other CIS members and from the Baltic states. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) SCALE OF RUSSIAN CAPITAL FLIGHT MINIMIZED. The Russian First Deputy Minister for Foreign Economic Relations, Sergei Glaziev, announced on 9 September that Russia has exported some $2 billion to date in 1992, Interfax reported. About half of this sum has been retained abroad legally to purchase foreign goods and materials. The rest has been transferred illegally but has also been used to buy foreign goods. The total sum is far below some Western estimates of capital flight: these Glaziev attributed to Western banks which spread the reports in order to raise their interest rates charged because of the implied risk factor. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) FURTHER RAISES FOR RUSSIAN COAL MINERS. Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar and coal union officials signed an agreement on 8 September that provides for gradual increases in coal miners' wages, Interfax reported on 9 September. Starting on 1 September, average wages for those working in mining, processing, and transportation of coal will rise by 60%; by the end of the year, the increment will reach 80%. The average monthly wage for coal miners in July was 10,900 rubles. A union official said that the raises will not be funded by means of budget subsidies. Instead, mines will increase wholesale prices of coal by up to 30%--the current average price of coal is 95 rubles a ton--which should cover the pay raise. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIA ASKS PARDON FOR OFFICER CONDEMNED TO DEATH IN AZERBAIJAN. Russian authorities have asked Azerbaijan to pardon an Russian officer sentenced to death by the Azerbaijan Supreme Court's military collegium on 31 August. According to ITAR-TASS, the Russian Defense Ministry and a public committee concerned with servicemen's social rights appealed on 9 September to Azeri leaders to stay the execution of Lieutenant Evgenii Lukin. Lukin was in charge of the guard at the Baku Military School on 7 September 1991 when it was attacked by an armed group seeking to obtain weapons in the school's depot. When the attackers failed to retreat in the face of warning shots, Lukin ordered his men to shoot to kill. Three attackers lost their lives. The Russians claim that Lukin should have been tried by a Russian court. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN OFFICER DEFECTS TO FINLAND. ITAR-TASS on 9 September reported that a officer of the border guards defected to Finland on 1 September. According to the press center of the Russian Border Forces, Major Andrei Vykhrystyuk--the commander of a guard unit on the border with Finland--had been on the brink of a nervous breakdown and was drinking heavily prior to the incident. The agency report said that the major's father and wife were insisting that he be repatriated. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL Inc.) "NEW UKRAINE" CALLS FOR ORGANIZED OPPOSITION. The opposition coalition "New Ukraine" held a press conference in Kiev on 8 September devoted to the current political situation in Ukraine, DR-Press reported on 9 September. Volodymyr Filenko, the chairman of the coalition, emphasized the need to form an organized opposition aimed at gaining a majority in the parliament. Filenko also did not exclude the possibility of "New Ukraine" participating in a government of popular trust. The former economics minister, Volodymyr Lanovyi, told reporters that he intends to establish a National Center of Market Reforms. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINIAN DELEGATION IN WASHINGTON. A Ukrainian parliamentary delegation led by Ivan Plyushch, head of the Ukrainian parliament, is in Washington for meetings with top American officials, Radio Ukraine reported on 8 September. Members of the delegation are scheduled to meet with Secretary of State Dick Cheney, National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft, senators and congressmen, and other US officials. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) TURKEY PROVIDING WEAPONS TO NAKHICHEVAN? According to an unconfirmed report on 9 September by Armenia's Snark News Agency, the military council of the Ninth Corps of the Turkish army has decided, with the Turkish government's consent, to supply considerable quantities of Soviet-made weapons and combat material to the government of Azerbaijan's Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. To date, the Turkish government has publicly resisted pressure to offer military assistance to Azerbaijan. Turkish Prime Minister Suleiman Demirel visited Nakhichevan last month and promised financial and food aid worth $10 million to counter the effects of the Armenian blockade of the region. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" ESTABLISHES OWN AIR FORCE. The "Dniester republic Supreme Soviet" on 8 September formally approved the establishment of its own air force and a "department of military aviation," consisting of "airplanes and helicopters based on its territory," DR-Press reported from Tiraspol on 9 September. The report clearly refers to the aircraft of Russia's 14th Army. Some aircraft have already been turned over to the "Dniester" forces by that Army, and they took part in the "Dniester" military parade on the anniversary of the "republic" on 2 September in the presence of the Army's commander, Major General Aleksandr Lebed, DR-Press reported that day. An RFE/RL correspondent and the St. Petersburg TV program "600 Seconds" reported on 7 and 8 September, respectively, that the "Dniester republic" had warned that any Moldovan overflight of the area without "Dniester" permission would be treated as a military attack. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" OFFICIALLY REIMPOSES RUSSIAN SCRIPT ON "MOLDOVAN" LANGUAGE. The "Dniester republic Supreme Soviet" on 8 September voted in a language law reimposing the Russian alphabet on the "Moldovan" (i.e. Romanian) language in the territory under its control. As cited by Radio Rossii, the "law" requires the use of the Russian alphabet for "all situations in which the Moldovan language is used." The measure is likely to force part of the local Moldovan intelligentsia out of their jobs and out of the area. Although the law formally stipulates the equality of the Russian, Ukrainian, and "Moldovan" languages, the "Dniester authorities" promote the old policy of linguistic russification. Moldovans, who comprise 40.1% of the population, are the largest ethnic group in the territory at issue, but ethnic Russians, who form only the third-largest ethnic group (behind Ukrainians), rule the area. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN COMMANDER BLAMES BOSNIANS FOR ATTACK. On 9 September the commander of the UN forces in Sarajevo, Egyptian General Hussein Ali Abdul Razik, said that the two French soldiers were killed on 8 September by bullets fired by "irresponsible elements" who disobeyed orders of the local Bosnian commander. The shots came from positions held by Bosnian government troops, Razik said, "There is no mistake about this because visibility at the time of the attack was good." State Presidency member Ejup Ganic denied that Bosnian forces attacked the convoy. Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic stated that "it's totally illogical" that Bosnian forces would fire on "those providing relief." UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb released a statement saying that the Italian relief plane downed on 3 September was shot down in an area controlled by Croatian forces. But the statement adds "exactly how or by whom is the subject of intensive study." The statement also lays blame on Bosnian government forces for the 8 September attack on the convoy. International media carried the reports. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) VANCE SAYS RELIEF CONVOYS TO CONTINUE. UN envoy Cyrus Vance told reporters in Zagreb on 9 September that overland relief convoys to Sarajevo will continue despite the recent tragedy, which he described as "cold-blooded murder." Vance, along with EC envoy Lord Owen were in Zagreb for talks with UN, Red Cross, and Croatian officials. They will continue with stops in Sarajevo and Belgrade in an effort to secure further guarantees that overland convoys and air relief flights will not be attacked. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) IRANIAN ARMS SEIZED BY CROATIA. Radio Croatia and Western media report on 10 September that Croatian security forces have impounded an Iranian Boeing-747 aircraft loaded with arms bound for the Muslim-dominated government forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The incident occurred on 4 September. Officials seized 4,000 guns and more than one million rounds of ammunition and deported about 40 Iranians found hidden in the aircraft. The New York Times on 10 September stated that the interception of arms from Iran is the first documented evidence of military support by an Islamic country to the Bosnian government. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) PANIC STRIKES HARD. In his first interview since surviving the vote of no-confidence in the Federal Assembly on 4 September, Milan Panic, prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia, told Belgrade Radio on 9 September that he has replaced the Yugoslav negotiating team at the Geneva peace conference. Panic said the previous team had "lost all battles," a clear reference to the Socialists ,who brought Serbia-Montenegro into virtually total global isolation after being accused of fomenting war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The new team will be led by Ljubisa Rakic, former dean of Belgrade University's medical school. Panic also described the no-confidence motion as a phase of democracy, but said he was surprised at how "few details . . . and lies" his critics presented. Panic also singled out the privatization of the media as one of the most important domestic issues. Turning to the Kosovo situation, Panic said that some laws there are clearly "detrimental to Albanians and they ought to be changed immediately." He also proposed that the state provide financial assistance for classes taught privately in the Albanian language at the university, secondary, and primary school levels. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) POLAND'S FIRST POLITICAL PRISONER? On 9 September, Poland's Supreme Court turned down a request by the chief prosecutor to reconsider the case of Roman Galuszko, who was sentenced by a Cracow military court in April to 18 months imprisonment for draft evasion. Galuszko's request for alternate service on moral and religious grounds was rejected; the draft board refused to accept the Catholic faith as a valid argument against military service. This rationale has stirred controversy. In another judicial development, the Bialystok prosecutor announced on 9 September that "criminal arson" caused the fire in January 1989 that killed Stanislaw Suchowolec, an activist Solidarity priest. The communist police had ruled the death accidental. Suchowolec was one of three activist priests killed in mysterious circumstances in the period before and after the round-table talks. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIANS URGE TOKES TO END HUNGER STRIKE. Magyar Bishop Laszlo Tokes has been urged by his supporters to abandon his week-old protest fast. In a statement read on Radio Bucharest, the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania, which represents the country's Hungarian minority, urged Tokes to "preserve his strength to fight for the victory of truth and moral values." Tokes began his hunger strike in an attempt to force the authorities to identify the murderers of the 1,033 victims of the 1989 Romanian uprising. President Ion Iliescu offered last week to meet Tokes but has effectively rejected the latter's demands from the outset. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE ELECTIONS. Patriarch Teoctist of Romania said in a pastoral address that the Romanian Orthodox Church "would not express a preference for any candidate or party in the presidential and parliamentary elections" scheduled for 27 September, Radio Bucharest reported on 4 September. However, the patriarch added that this "political neutrality" did not mean "indifference from the moral and social point of view;" he urged the faithful to vote for "belief in God" and the "safeguarding of freedom," in what Reuters reported to be an appeal "for the preservation of Christianity against atheism and Communism." (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.) REMAINS FOUND IN MASS GRAVE IN ROMANIA. Western agencies report from Bucharest that a mass grave containing about 140 skeletons dating from the 1950's has been found on premises run by the Securitate, the former secret police, an Interior Ministry statement said. The remains, which appear to be from members of peasant families who opposed collectivization, were found at Caciulati, near Bucharest, according to the Association of Former Political Detainees. (Michael Shafir, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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RFE/RL DAILY REPORT No. 175, September 11, 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR RUSSIAN LEADERS BLAME JAPAN FOR POSTPONEMENT OF TRIP. Vyacheslav Kostikov, the Russian presidential press secretary, has blamed the Japanese government for the postponement of President Boris Yeltsin's trip to Japan. He told Izvestiya on 11 September that the ruling Liberal-Democratic Party wanted to exploit the issue of the Kuril islands for its electoral campaign. The first deputy parliamentary speaker, Sergei Filatov, told Ostankino TV on 10 September that the "hysterical" approach to the Kuril islands in Japan prevents the constructive resolution of the issue by the two nations' respective leaders. Yeltsin's press department denied reports that the Russian President also plans to postpone his forthcoming trip to China. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) REACTION TO POSTPONEMENT OF YELTSIN'S TRIP TO JAPAN. Viktor Alksnis and Vladimir Zhirinovsky, two leading Russian nationalists, celebrated President Boris Yeltsin's decision to postpone his trip to Japan as a victory for patriotic forces, Interfax reported on 11 September. Liberals, such as Russian Minister of Foreign Economic Relations Petr Aven, warned that the postponement could effect negotiations on Russia's foreign debt, since Japan maintained the strictest position in Russia's negotiations with major creditors. Japanese Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe told the Japanese news agency Kyodo on 11 September that Yeltsin had indicated that he plans to visit Tokyo in the beginning of 1993. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN OIL PRICES TO DOUBLE. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin told a news conference after a cabinet meeting on 10 September that the wholesale prices of energy carriers will be raised next week, ITAR-TASS, Interfax, and the Financial Times reported. The price of oil will roughly double, from 1,800-2,200 rubles a ton to 4,000-5,000 rubles a ton. This may be seen largely as a technical correction for inflation: prices throughout the economy have more than doubled since the last price increase for oil. At the current rate of exchange, the new price will represent some 14-18% of the world price. A 50% tax will be levied on income derived from sales at prices higher than the guidelines. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN INDUSTRY HEAD CRITICIZES PRIVATIZATION PLANS. Minister of Industry Aleksandr Titkin has sent a letter to President Yeltsin condemning current plans for industrial privatization, Interfax reported on 9 and 10 September. Titkin claims that the plans are exacerbating chaos in industry and accuses the State Property Commission of engaging in a "self-serving process" inconsistent with national interests. He also outlined his own variant of privatization that envisages an initial stage of industrial restructuring managed by the ministry itself. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIA TO BE SELF-SUFFICIENT IN GRAIN? Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi told a news conference in Moscow on 10 September that Russia will need to import only 12-15 million tons of grain this winter, Interfax reported. The introduction of modern technology and improved seed should obviate the requirement for grain imports in 1993, in Rutskoi's opinion. Other estimates have put the total grain imports required for calendar year 1992 at around 25 million tons. Rutskoi may later regret having made this prediction, although it is true that a smaller amount of feed grain will be needed as livestock herds have been drastically culled. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) CHERNOBYL TO REOPEN FOR A YEAR? The chairman of Ukraine's nuclear power utility, Vladimir Fuks, told The Guardian of 10 September that two of the reactors at Chernobyl will reopen in October. However, Fuks insisted that the plant will be closed down for good at the end of 1993. Subject to parliamentary approval, three pressurized water reactors will be commissioned elsewhere in Ukraine to replace the Chernobyl output. Official pronouncements on the final closure of the Chernobyl reactors have been contradictory. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) FIRST JEWISH GYMNASIUM IN KIEV. The first Jewish gymnasium (secondary school) in Ukraine opened in Kiev this school year, Nezavisimost reported on 5 September. The gymnasium, which was formerly school No. 299, has 520 students who will be studying humanitarian subjects, including the history, culture, religion, and languages of the Jewish people. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ANOTHER BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE; MORE UN TROOPS. International media report on 10 September that UN envoy Cyrus Vance and EC envoy Lord Owen met separately with the leaders of the Muslim and Serbian warring sides in Bosnia-Herzegovina. A new cease-fire agreement was hammered out, and both sides agreed to meet in Geneva on 18 September. Vance said the most important outcome of the talks is that Alija Izetbegovic, Bosnia's President, agreed to attend the conference. Izetbegovic had previously rejected all efforts at getting the Muslims to sit in the same conference room with the Serbs. On 9 September Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban agreed to participate. Vance said Boban, Izetbegovic, and Serb leader Radovan Karadzic would all be meeting in Geneva for the first time. Meanwhile, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has formally requested an additional 6,000 peacekeepers for Bosnia and proposed expanding UN relief efforts to an additional 11 regions in the republic. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) IRAN DENIES ARMS DELIVERY. At a news conference in Beijing, Iranian President Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani stated that Iran will consider sending arms to Bosnia's Muslim-lead government if diplomatic efforts fail to end the war. The Los Angeles Times reports on 11 September that Rafsanjani also dismissed as "lies" and "fabrications" US newspaper reports that Croatia had impounded a planeload of Iranian arms headed for Bosnia. However, on 10 September, Radio Croatia reported that Croatia's government officially confirmed that the Iranian arms were confiscated at Zagreb airport on 4 September. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) TURKEY URGES ACTION. Turkish media report that Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel, speaking at a meeting of Council of Europe representatives in Istanbul, urged member states to convene a summit to discuss means of ending the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Turkey, which has historic ties to Bosnia dating back centuries, fears that the conflict could touch of a Balkan-wide war. Turkey is especially concerned about the fate of Muslims in Bosnia and has offered 1,000 peacekeeping troops to assist the UN force there. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) IS LIBYA SUPPORTING "REUNIFICATION?" Belgrade media are widely speculating about an alleged proposal by Libya's leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi's support for the reunification of the former Yugoslav republics of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia with the rump Yugoslavia, made up of Serbia and Montenegro. Panic reportedly described Qadhafi's idea as "very good" and indicative of the Libyan leader's support of Panic's efforts toward establishing a Balkan economic association. Radio Serbia carried the report on 9 September. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) MUSLIM MERCENARIES? Reuters reports on 10 September that Ashark al-Aswat, a London-based Arabic-language daily, carries an interview with one Abu Abdel-Aziz, identified as the leader of foreign Muslim warriors who have gone to Bosnia to defend their faith. Abdel-Aziz (a nom de guerre) would not give his nationality and provided no estimate of the size of the foreign Muslim forces. The story was datelined "Mujahideen Headquarters in Central Bosnia." Rumors of mercenaries and other irregular fighters in Bosnia have circulated before. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL Inc.) JOVANOVIC RESIGNS; BLASTS PANIC. Vladislav Jovanovic, minister of foreign affairs of the rump Yugoslavia, submitted his "irrevocable resignation" on 10 September. In a letter sent to Prime Minister Milan Panic, Jovanovic said Panic's approach to resolving the crisis in the former Yugoslavia profoundly clash with Jovanovic's "notion of national duty and dignity," adding that "I find it impossible to continue to remain in a government that is increasingly and openly pursuing a policy opposed to the interests of Serbia and the Serb nation." Panic accepted the resignation saying that he "greatly respects" Jovanovic as a person, but also made it clear that there are differences between the two "in approach and style of conducting foreign policy." Ilija Djukic, Belgrade's ambassador to the People's Republic of China has been tagged as Jovanovic's successor. Radio Serbia carried the report. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) SUCHOCKA: FSM STRIKE "IRRATIONAL." Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka issued the government's sharpest warning yet to the strikers at the FSM auto plant. In a written response to a plea for action from one of the Solidarity regions most at risk if FSM were to close, Suchocka called the strike "completely irrational" because it was making a bankrupt of a firm with guaranteed growth prospects. The government will not permit a minority to thwart a majority with economic rationality on its side, she said. The "state of unlawfulness" in Tychy could drive the government to take "harsh measures" to restore the legal order. PAP carried the text of Suchocka's letter. Meanwhile, a two-hour warning strike called for 10 September by the Network (Solidarity locals at large industrial plants) drew only a scattered response. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN HIGH COURT RULES ON ILIESCU'S SENATE CANDIDACY. On 10 September the Supreme Court of Justice rejected an action by attorney Nicolae Cerveni against the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), the party backing Ion Iliescu's candidacy for a seat in the Senate. Cerveni contends that the DNSF's decision to field Iliescu violates the electoral law, which provides that parliament candidates be members of the party they run for. Iliescu, who is also the DNSF's presidential candidate, has no official party affiliation. Meanwhile, Radio Bucharest reports that Iliescu continues his electoral campaign in the provinces. On 10 September he visited the town of Calarasi. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIA ACCUSES DIPLOMATS OF MEDDLING. On 9 September Traian Chebeleu, a spokesman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry, suggested that diplomats in Bucharest are meddling in the electoral campaign. Rompres quoted Chebeleu as saying that his ministry has received several complaints about alleged attempts by foreign diplomats to influence the electorate. Chebeleu, who refused to say which embassies were involved in these actions, insisted that Romania welcomes foreign election observers, including members of the diplomatic corps, on the condition that they observe neutrality. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) SOLE MAGYAR OFFICIAL IN ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT DISMISSED. Radio Budapest reported on 9 September that Andor Horvath, state secretary for education and the only Romanian cabinet official of Hungarian nationality, has been dismissed from his post. No reason was given for the move. The educational sector is considered crucial by Romania's two million ethnic Hungarians who are fighting for more schools with instruction in Hungarian. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) BULGARIAN SOCIALIST PARTY TO BE EXCLUDED FROM SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL. The Bulgarian Socialist Party, successor of the Bulgarian Communist Party, reportedly will not be invited to join the Socialist International, a forum for socialist and social-democratic parties around the world. In an interview on 10 September Hans-Eberhard Dingels, chief of the international relations section of the German Social Democratic Party, informed an RFE/RL correspondent that the BSP does not meet the admission criteria. Moreover, one Bulgarian party is already affiliated with the Socialist Internationalthe Social Democratic Party. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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UPI NEWS -------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav's Panic to visit China Subject: Yugoslav foreign minister resigns Subject: Iran denies shiping arms Bosnian Muslims Subject: Vance and Owen open peace talks in Sarajevo Subject: Spassky wins game five against disappointing Fischer ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav's Panic to visit China Date: 10 Sep 92 09:25:06 GMT BEIJING (UPI) -- Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic will visit China for talks next week, the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced Thursday. Panic is to spend Sept. 14 to 16 in Beijing on a ``working visit,'' according to Foreign Ministry spokesman Wu Jianmin, who added that officials arranged the visit ``not long ago.'' ``The two sides will exchange views on the situation in the former Yugoslavia, bilateral relations and international issues,'' the spokesman said. He reiterated Chinese calls for a peaceful resolution to the fighting in the former Yugoslavia, saying, ``We hope that a proper settlement will be found through peaceful means.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav foreign minister resigns Date: 10 Sep 92 15:07:48 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Vladislav Jovanovic, foreign minister of the rump Yugoslav union of Serbia and Montenegro, resigned Thursday after criticizing Prime Minister Milan Panic for ``anti-Serbian policy,'' the Serbian official news agency Tanjug said. In a short letter to Panic, Jovanovic said he ccould no longer stay in Panic's Cabinet, which he said is ``openly acting against the interests of Serbia and the Serbs,'' Tanjug reported. ``Your approach to the Yugoslav crisis and some of your recent moves. ..are deeply against my concept of patriotism and dignity,'' said Jovanovic in his letter. Jovanovic said his resignation was ``irrevocable''. Political observers said that Jovanovic was considered to be closely associated with Serbian hard-line President Slobodan Milosevic, and that his resignation weakens Milosevic's position in the Yugoslav federation. Panic, the Belgrade-born naturalized U.S. citizen and millionaire who promised to bring U.S.-style democracy to the truncated federation and to stop the ethnic war in neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina, has not commented the resignation. Panic's confrontation with Milosevic began just after the London peace conference on the Yugoslav crisis in late August, when Panic was accused of ``selling Serbia to Western powers'' by Milosevic's ruling Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS). But Panic won a no-confidence vote last week despite the overwhelming SPS majority in the Federal Parliament. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Iran denies shiping arms Bosnian Muslims Date: 10 Sep 92 15:22:37 GMT BEIJING (UPI) -- President Hashemi Rafsanjani Thursday denied a report of Iranian arms shipments to Bosnia-Hercegovina but indicated that Iran would consider future sales to embattled Muslim forces in the war-torn country. ``I would like you to know that they have not yet requested arms from Iran,'' Rafsanjani said, but added his country would give U.N. sanctions a chance to work. He left the door open for future sales if the sanctions do not work. ``If they request arms from Iran, this is something we shall consider,'' Rafsanjani said at a news conference. According to a report in Thursday's New York Times, Croatian officials in the capital of Zagreb confiscated 4,000 guns and more than a million rounds of ammunition from an Iranian Boeing 747. The report, attributed to Bush administration sources, said Croatian officials found the war materiel and up to 40 Iranian nationals on a routine inspection of relief supplies bound for Bosnia. In the past few months Bosnian Muslims have lost much of their territory to better equipped Serbian forces, and Muslim countries are known to be disturbed by the increasingly one-sided civil war. ``The situation right now is very bad,'' Rafsanjani said. ``Only one side has all the arms, and soon the other side will have to get them from someone.'' The Iranian leader, who is on a four-day official visit to China, rejected the New York Times report, saying his government had no such airplane. ``I have not heard of any such thing,'' the president said. ``The report is a mere fabrication.'' Rafsanjani told reporters the main purpose of his trip to China, his first since assuming the presidency, was to cement close ties between the two countries. He denied persistent reports of Chinese arm sales to his country, saying the only contracts discussed were for a new subway system and for the sale of a small nuclear reactor for peaceful purposes. ``We have no military contracts to be signed here,'' Rafsanjani said. An Iranian military delegation led by army logistics chief Gen. Alastu Tuhidi arrived in China Tuesday to discuss ``the further development of friendly relations between China and Iran,'' according to China's official Xinhua news agency. Western reports have said the talks would include co-production of weapons in Iran, as well as future weapons sales by the Chinese. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Vance and Owen open peace talks in Sarajevo Date: 10 Sep 92 16:38:43 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- European Community envoy David Owen Thursday expressed horror at the Serb-inflicted devastation of Sarajevo and vowed that he and U.N. mediator Cyrus Vance would ``slowly, persistently, patiently'' end the war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The two diplomats arrived in the Bosnian capital as fighting flared on the city's fringes, and Serbian forces loosed sporadic artillery fire into civilian areas. Casualty figures were not immediately available. Owen and Vance, the co-chairmen of the Geneva peace conference on former Yugoslavia, began their visit almost seven hours later than scheduled, driving immediately to the shell-shattered city center for talks with Alija Izetbegovic, the republic's Muslim Slav president, and other government officials. Owen said he was shocked by the devastation wrought to Sarajevo by the almost incessant artillery, rocket and tank fire loosed by encircling hilltop Serbian gunners against what was once one of the most picturesque cities in the Balkans. ``You see the whole wanton destruction. I don't think I have ever seen anything so wanton, so ghastly,'' said Owen as he entered the artillery-ravaged presidency building. ``Tower blocks shot to smithereens,'' he said. ``When you realize so much of it was done from on top and not from street fighting...'' But, he expressed optimism that he and Vance could mediate an end to the war that has left tens of thousands dead and injured, uprooted more than 1 million from their homes and defied all previous international attempts at mediation. ``Slowly, persistently, patiently, we will end this,'' vowed Owen. Among the topics expected to be covered were the deaths of two French U.N. soldiers and wounding of five others Tuesday when their U.N. supply convoy came under fire on the fringe of Sarajevo airport. The U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR), France and others blamed Bosnian fighters, although witnesses and French soldiers said the convoy drove straight into a raging battle. After the meeting with Izetbegovic, the envoys traveled to the southwestern Serb-held suburb of Lukavica for a meeting with Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic, the ``president'' of a self-declared state for which extremist Serbs have been fighting for more than five months. Karadzic's forces, backed politically and financially by the neighboring communist-ruled republic of Serbia, beseiged Sarajevo to press a demand that the city be divided into ethnic districts. Bosnian forces dominated by Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Serbs and Croats, oppose the partition of the former Yugoslav republic, which won international recognition as an independent state in early April. Both Owen and Vance wore blue flak-jackets as they emerged from small, white U.N. armored cars at the entrance of the heavily guarded, shell-pitted presidency building in the center of Sarajevo. They were late because they chose to drive from Croatia's Adriatic port city of Split rather than fly following shelling Tuesday evening near the airport and last week's crash of an Italian humanitarian aid flight, which was widely believed to have been downed by missiles. The envoys' arrival coincided with fierce fighting in several areas of Sarajevo, with military sources reporting a major advance by Bosnian forces into the Serb-held stronghold of Nedzarici. The sources said the advance was marked by the raising of the republic flag on a building in the suburb, a strategic point from which Serbian fighters had been thwarting Bosnian attempts to break through their seige. Serbian gunners persisted in sporadic shelling of the city and blasted mortar rounds into the roof of the already badly damaged television headquarters building. The Bosnian government said its troops attacked Serbian forces when they tried to move heavy weapons from a hill overlooking the downtown to the Serbian stronghold of Pale, east of the city, to avoid detection by U.N. military monitors. Owen and Vance have given Karadzic until Saturday to fulfill an accord to gather in U.N.-monitored locations all of the Yugoslav army- supplied heavy weaponry that Serbian forces have been using to pummel Sarajevo and the towns of Gorazde, Jajce and Bihac. Karadzic said on Wednesday that the Serbs would complete the heavy weapons concentrations by Thursday. But, Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek, the Sarajevo sector commander of the U.N. Protection Force, Wednesday expressed skepticism that the deadline would be met. He also said he believed the Serbs had hidden large amounts of tanks and artillery from U.N. monitors. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Spassky wins game five against disappointing Fischer Date: 9 Sep 92 21:57:57 GMT PRZNO, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Former Soviet grandmaster Boris Spassky won the fifth game of his controversial re-match with former world chess champion Bobby Fischer Wednesday to take a 2-1 lead in the series. Spassky won the game after 45 moves, after Fischer sacrificed a pawn on his 24th move. Expert observers said that Fischer made the crucial mistake on his 28th move, and he then played on after losing a rook. ``Fischer made a crucial mistake on his 28th move by playing with his knight,'' said Yugoslav grandmaster Svetozar Gligoric. ``After that, Spassky came into the winning position.'' Fischer played on after losing the rook, but there was no way back and the game ended after five hours of play. Fischer began the match playing with the white pieces at 3:30 local time in the Maestral Hotel in Przno, near the plush Montenegrin resort of Sveti Stefan in southern Adriatic. Fischer began with a classical Ruy Lopez start, the same tactic he employed in game three. Spassky, now a naturalized French citizen, defeated Fischer in a previous game Sunday. Monday and Tuesday were days off. The match will continue until one of the long-time rivals achieves 10 victories. The score now stands at 2-1, after Fischer won the first game. The second and third games were drawn, and under the rules of the match, no points are awarded for draws. Fischer, who has lived a secluded life away from competitive chess for the past 20 years, still insists on being referred to as ``the chess champion of the world''. He won that title from Spassky in 1972 championship in Reykjavik, Iceland, but was stripped of it when he refused to play Soviet grandmaster Anatoly Karpov under the rules of the World Chess Federation. Fischer, 49, is also in trouble with the U.S. Treasury Department, which banned him from competing in the match in rump Yugoslavia. The Treasury's order endorsed the U.N. sanctions that ban all financial and economical transactions with the former Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro for their involvement in the war in neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina. But Fischer publicly spat on the Treasury's cease-and-desist order at a news conference Sept. 1, on the eve of the first game. He now faces a fine up to $250,000 and a maximum 10 years in jail for ``willingly and knowingly'' defying the order.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 176, 14 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR THE DECISION ON JAPAN. State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis said, during an interview on Russian TV broadcast on 13 September, that the decision to postpone Yeltsin's trip to Japan came after "discussions were held within the government, the Supreme Soviet, and finally in the Security Council... It was in line with the collective views of these three bodies that the president made his final decision to postpone the trip." It is noteworthy that Burbulis did not mention any role played by the Russian Foreign Ministry in making the decision. Nonetheless, Burbulis explicitly rejected the idea that conservatives had pressured Yeltsin into canceling the trip. For his part, Yeltsin defended the trip's postponement. Speaking to reporters upon arrival in Cheboksary on 11 September, Yeltsin said that Japan had been "too categorical" on the issue of returning the islands to Japan. "We cannot deal like that," the Russian president said. (Suzanne Crow) AMBARTSUMOV, LUKIN DEFLECT CRITICISM ON JAPAN TRIP. Evgenii Ambartsumov, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Committee on International Affairs and Foreign Economic Ties, said that Japan had taken too hard a position on the question of the Kuril Islands, and this put Yeltsin in a difficult position. Speaking on the Russian TV program "Krasnyi Kvadrat," Ambartsumov said that the question of guaranteeing Yeltsin's security was not the only consideration in calling off the visit, adding that in Russia, a negative feeling had developed about sending Yeltsin to Japan. Speaking on the same program, Russia's ambassador to the United States, Vladimir Lukin, said that the postponement of the trip could not be viewed as a great tragedy. Lukin also blamed Japan, saying that Tokyo's attempt to pressure Russia for the return of the islands brought the opposite result and stiffened Russian opinion against the move, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 September. (Suzanne Crow) HIGHER RUSSIAN STATE BUDGET DEFICIT. The Russian government is now allowing for a deficit "not exceeding" 950 billion rubles in 1992, Interfax reported on 13 September. The original budget deficit was projected at 300 billion rubles, but parliament insisted on additional expenditures for industrial subsidies and social programs. The new limit represents about 7% of GNP at current prices, and is far above the Gaidar administration's original aims and the IMF guidelines. It looks like an understatement, though because on 24 August the Russian finance minister admitted that the deficit had already risen to almost 1 trillion rubles and was heading towards a year-end total of 2 trillion rubles "which is tantamount to hyperinflation." (Keith Bush) VOLSKY, YASIN WARN GOVERNMENT. Arkadii Volsky, leader of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, is turning up the political heat on the government. Speaking at a news conference in Moscow, Volsky announced that he would call a conference of industrial managers by November to pressure the government if it does not alter its economic policy to his liking, the Financial Times reported on 12 September. Evgenii Yasin, chief economist at the institute of Volsky's group, but also an advisor to the government, had warnings of his own during the news conference. Yasin said that hyperinflation was "closer than ever" as a result of disarray in the state's financial and credit policy. He claimed that new credit emission in September will be ten times greater than in March. (Erik Whitlock). UKRAINE DEMANDS REMOVAL OF KASATONOV. The Ukrainian parliamentary Commission on Defense and Security and the Ukrainian Defense Ministry demanded on 11 September that the current commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Igor Kasatonov, be relieved immediately of his duties, Interfax reported. A statement released by the two agencies reportedly criticized both Kasatonov and the Russian Defense Ministry for resisting efforts by Ukraine to take control of two naval academies in Sevastopol. Moscow apparently wants to subordinate the schools to the CIS command and to keep them under Russian jurisdiction. (Stephen Foye) GENERALS DISMISSED FOR CORRUPTION IN BELARUS. Interfax reported on 11 September that the Belarus military prosecutor could bring charges against several top generals, including the commanders of the 5th and the 7th tank armies--identified as generals Rumyantsev and Ivanitsky--for, among other things, illegally trading military property. The prosecutor denied that Defense Minister Pavel Kozlovsky was involved in illegal activities. He also said that crime within the armed forces had more than doubled this year, attributing the rise at least in part to the disbanding of the army's military-political organs. (Stephen Foye) FIGHTING CONTINUES IN AND AROUND NAGORNO-KARABAKH. Following the total deadlock of the CSCE-sponsored preparatory Karabakh peace talks in Rome on 10 September, Azerbaijan has accused Armenia of violating the agreement on a cease-fire on the Armenian-Azerbaijani border. Armenian parliament deputy Samvel Shakhmuradyan was killed during an Azerbaijani artillery attack in Mardakert on 11 September, ITAR-TASS reported; dozens of Azerbaijanis and some Armenians were reported killed in heavy fighting on 12-13 September in the Armenian-controlled Lachin corridor that links Nagorno- Karabakh with Armenia, according to the press center of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, as cited by ITAR-TASS. (Liz Fuller) WESTERN GEORGIA STILL POLITICALLY UNSTABLE. Six representatives of the Georgian National Democratic Party were kidnapped by supporters of ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia in the West Georgian town of Zugdidi during the evening of 10 September, ITAR-TASS reported. In an interview published in Le Quotidien de Paris on 11 September, Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze stated that the parliamentary elections scheduled for 11 October have been postponed to a later (unspecified) date in Abkhazia and parts of Western Georgia because the situation there is so unstable. (Liz Fuller) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" FORGING AHEAD WITH OWN STATE STRUCTURES. Using the breathing room gained through the cease-fire agreement, and under the protective cover of the Russian troops, the "Dniester republic" is creating state structures of its own. On 11 September, Interfax and DR-Press reported that a decree by "Dniester president" Igor Smirnov established "Dniester border troops," subordinated to the "Dniester Ministry of National Security" which was created last week by the "Dniester Supreme Soviet." Tiraspol further announced that it had succeeded in creating the "Dniester republic's" own banking system, fully separate from that of Moldova, and that it is now conducting its own transactions with partners in the other CIS states, bypassing Moldova, DR-Press reported on 13 September. (Vladimir Socor) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media reported on 13 September that Serbian and Bosnian forces around Sarajevo have begun making their heavy weapons available for UN observation but that the Serbs had failed to take similar steps in three other areas of Bosnia. The republic's president, Alija Izetbegovic, said he will boycott peace talks in Geneva this week because of continuing Serb attacks against Bihac and Gorazde, where Muslims managed to drive the Serbs back just over two weeks earlier. The 14 September Washington Post reports that a UN report backs the Bosnian government's position on the death of two French soldiers at Sarajevo airport the previous week. The report says that the relief convoy drove into the middle of a firefight between Bosnian and Serbian forces, and concludes that the two were not deliberately killed by the Bosnians, as France has charged. (Patrick Moore) ANOTHER NO CONFIDENCE VOTE FOR PANIC? Radio Serbia and Politika report on 12 and 13 September that last week's resignation of the foreign minister of the rump Yugoslavia may bring about a second vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Milan Panic. According to reports, a group of deputies from the ruling Socialist Party and the ultranationalist Serbian Radical Party (SRS) will raise the motion soon, but give no indication when. SRS leader Vojislav Seselj, stated on 10 September that Panic continues "to make mistakes," and specifically criticized Panic's decision to change the rump Yugoslav negotiating team for the Geneva Conference on the former Yugoslavia. Panic described the accusations as childish and rejected the existence of a Serbian foreign policy describing it as "political Mickey Mouse." (Milan Andrejevich)
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Security Council allows 6,000 more troops in Bosnia-Hercegovina Subject: China pledges aid for former Yugoslavia despite sanctions Subject: U.N. officials say Serbian unmonitored tanks advancing from west Subject: Bosnian-Serbs blamed for attack, Izetbegovic to attend talks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Security Council allows 6,000 more troops in Bosnia-Hercegovina Date: 15 Sep 92 02:45:39 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The U.N. Security Council voted Monday to allow Secretary-General Boutros Ghali to strengthen the U.N. peacekeeping operations in Bosnia-Hercegovina by 6,000 trooops and to accept financial contribution from Western countries to the peace force. The 12-0 vote, with three abstentions, by the council also authorized the establishment of a ``no-fly'' zone in the troubled former Yugoslav republic. One U.S. official said in Washington Monday that the European Community wanted to monitor from the ground all military aircraft flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina to thwart any interference with the U.N. -led humanitarian airlift. The United States has insisted that jet fighter patrols be used to enforce the no-fly zone which was agreed upon at the European Community- United Nations conference on the former Yugoslavia in London last month. ``The EC is thinking about ground monitors,'' a U.S. official said in Washington. ``We are looking at it in terms of doing something like (air combat patrols.)'' Last week Ghali asked the Security Council to send up to 6,000 more peacekeeping troops to Bosnia-Hercegovina and to authorize them to use force in self-defense. Ghali said the new troops, possibly to be provided and paid for by NATO countries, will be scattered throughout the war-torn Balkan republic at four or five centers, in Banja Luka, Bihac, Doboj, Goradze, Mostar and Tuzla. Each center will have an infantry battalion, logistical and mine clearing units and medical evacuation groups. Their main duty would be to provide security for humanitarian operations being organized by the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees, which is spearheading the relief activities in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The 6,000 troops will strengthen the existing 14,000-strong U.N. Protection Force which was sent earlier this year to Croatia in an effort to put an end to the civil war there. There also 1,600 peacekeepers in Sarajevo whose task has been to protect the international airport for incoming humanitarian flights. The resolution said the importance of air measures, ``such as the ban on military flights'' over Bosnia-Hercegovina would reinforce the security of humanitarian activities on the grounds. The request for the additional 6,000 U.N. troops is aimed at increasing security for an expanded food convoys, which the United Nations said would be more effective in bringing larger quantities of food and medical supplies to besieged cities in Bosnia-Hercegovina before the winter than the airlift. The council authorized Ghali to accept financial assistance from troop contributors, which would ease the cash-strapped world organization. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: China pledges aid for former Yugoslavia despite sanctions Date: 15 Sep 92 10:16:21 GMT BEIJING (UPI) -- Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic on his visit to China said Tuesday Premier Li Peng had offered humanitarian aid to his country in spite of international sanctions. At a news conference at Beijing's Great Hall of the People, the millionaire businessman-turned-diplomat said that Chinese Premier Li Peng had thrown his support behind Panic's government and the upcoming peace talks. When pressed on the point, Panic admitted there had been no specific promise by the Chinese, but said they had promised support in principle. ``(Li Peng) said he fully supports the new government, which is trying to solve the problems peacefully,'' Panic said. ``Li said the Chinese government hopes parties concerned will immediately accept a cease-fire and settle their conflicts through negotiation,'' the official China Daily reported Tuesday. Panic said Li Peng had talked of sending humanitarian aid such as cooking oil and food to Serbia and Montenegro in spite of international sanctions. Panic was visiting China on a three-day ``working visit'' to secure the support of China as part of the United Nations. Since limited military and other sanctions have been placed on Belgrade, Panic has seen his country increasingly isolated diplomatically. As one of five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, China holds the power of veto over any decision on sanctions made by the council. While not committing itself to a veto, China has said it is opposed to additional international sanctions and U.N. military intervention. Panic, a U.S. immigrant who prides himself on his close relationship with the Bush administration, is the founder and chairman of the board of the California-based pharmaceutical giant ICN. The neophyte diplomat, who earlier this month emerged victorious from a no-confidence motion in Serbia's parliament and a political test of wills with hard-line Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, has wagered his political life on obtaining a peace agreement in Bosnia and establishing relations with Croatia. He said he was optimistic about the upcoming peace conference, to be held in Geneva beginning this Friday. ``An enormous amount of work has been done in the government of Yugoslavia to prepare for this conference,'' Panic said. ``I think there is no question that Serbs are now prepared to give up territory, to silence the guns, and to negotiate with Muslims and Croats,'' he said. Panic lavished praise on recent Chinese economic reforms, saying that Chinese enjoyed greater political freedoms because of their recent economic growth. ``It is much easier to change politics when you are rich than when you are poor,'' he said, adding ``The only truly free man is an economically free one.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. officials say Serbian unmonitored tanks advancing from west Date: 15 Sep 92 12:21:30 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Serbian tanks hidden from U.N. monitors Tuesday methodically leveled houses in a Sarajevo suburb in a thrust that could bring them into positions to cut the U.N.-controlled airport off from the Bosnian capital, U.N. officials said. The situation threatened to create serious problems between the Serbs and the U.N. Protection Force, which is empowered by the U.N. Security Council to use force if necessary to move humanitarian aid from airport warehouses into the city. A U.N. source said UNPROFOR had already asked Serbian leaders to guarantee the unrestricted movement of U.N. vehicles and relief convoys between the airport and downtown Sarajevo should Serbian forces gain control of the airport road. The drive was part of what senior UNPROFOR officers called the most concerted Serbian advance on Sarajevo since the early stages of the more than five-month-old war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The officers said that at least 10 Yugoslav army-supplied tanks were involved in the Serbian thrust from Dogladi, through Bare and into Adzici, Croat-dominated suburbs about 5 miles to the west of the center of the beseiged city. They said that at about 5 a.m., the Serbian tanks began firing for about 90 minutes on homes in Adzici, methodically targeting one after the other. ``They were raising them,'' said one officer. Local media reports and witnesses said Croatian civilians were fleeing Dogladi and Adzici in large numbers amid widespread destruction of homes. The Serbian advance began Monday, the officers said, coinciding with one of the fiercest bombardments launched against Sarajevo since Serbian forces moved in late March to carve a self-declared state out of the former Yugoslav republic of Muslim Slavs, Serbs and Croats. The division of Europe's newest country is opposed by forces loyal to the Sarajevo government and comprised mostly of Muslim Slavs, but also including Croats and moderate Serbs. Monday's indiscriminate barrages left scores of civilian casualties and came amid reports of an upsurge across Bosnia-Hercegovina in Serbian attacks, including air raids around the Bihac area. The U.N. officers said that just as with artillery used in Monday's barrages, the tanks in Adzici were outside the 11 zones in which Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic had agreed to gather all Serbian heavy weaponry for U.N. observation by noon Saturday. Ten other Serbian tanks, also outside the U.N.-observed ``concentration areas,'' unleashed pre-dawn barrages Tuesday from the Serbian base of Lukavica into Bosnian-controlled Butmir, a housing colony opposite the airport, the officers said. Karadzic consented at least month's London peace conference to place under U.N. monitoring all Serbian heavy weapons around Sarajevo, Bihac and the towns of Gorazde and Jajce. The U.N. officers said they were concerned by the Serbian advance on Adzici because if it continued, it could bring the tank-backed Serbian forces into the mostly Croat suburb of Stup, from where they would be able to cut the road linking the airport and downtown Sarajevo. The airport, which has been under U.N. control since June 29, is the base of the U.N.-supervised humanitarian relief operations for Sarajevo and other areas of the war-ravaged republic. The fall of Stup carries other implications as the suburb has served as a buffer zone in which Sarajevo residents have been able to purchase for hard currency food and fuel from Croats in league with the Serbs. The Serbian advance along Sarajevo's western boundary is apparently aimed at retaking ground lost in recent weeks to Bosnian forces fighting to break through the blockade of the city before the harsh Balkan winter sets in. A Bosnian commander, Zlatko Lagumzia, said he had lost 10 men in fierce fighting Monday against Serbian forces backed by two tanks in the western suburb of Ilidza. He said he was forced to order his units to retreat, although official government statements claimed Bosnian troops had held their ground. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic on Sunday decided against attending a new round of peace talks set for Friday in Geneva, in part because of what he alleged was the deployment around Sarajevo of 100 new Serbian tanks. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnian-Serbs blamed for attack, Izetbegovic to attend talks Date: 15 Sep 92 12:13:51 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- The co-chairmen of the Geneva conference on the former Yugoslavia Tuesday accused Bosnian-Serb forces of being responsible for an air attack Monday on the town of Bihac, a U.N. spokesman said. The two chairmen, Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen, have written to Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic condemning the attack in which four unidentified planes attacked the town with rockets and cluster bombs. U.N. spokesman Fred Eckhard told a news conference that Vance and Owen had concluded that Serbian forces must have been responsible. ``Although the co-chairmen recognize that the Bosnian Serbs are not the only source of the current hostilities, they are the only ones with the aerial capability to mount attacks of this kind,'' U.N. spokesman Fred Eckhard told a news conference. ``The co-chairmen deplore these attacks and have told Mr. Karadzic so in a letter,'' Eckhard said. ``They have called on him to cooperate in the fullest possible way with the peace process and the agreements signed in London.'' Meanwhile, in an unexpected turnaround, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic said he will after all be attending the talks in the Swiss capital later this week, the U.N. official said. The Muslim Slav president, who earlier said he would not attend the Geneva talks, has changed his mind after a personal plea from Owen and Vance, Eckhard said. The spokesman said Croatia and the Serbian federal government would also be represented. Radovan Karadzic will also attend the talks, Eckhard said. The conference in Geneva follows the London conference on the former Yugoslavia. It is scheduled to bring leaders of the main ethnic factions involved in the conflict together in Geneva Friday. A news conference by Vance and Owen scheduled for Tuesday was postponed for 24 hours and Eckhard said he hoped they would have more details then.
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Subject: Yugoslav camp detainees arrive in Britain Subject: U.N. general says Serbs ignore weapon requests Subject: Russia drops opposition to barring Belgrade from U.N. Subject: U.N. says Italian relief plane shot down by missile near Sarajevo ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav camp detainees arrive in Britain Date: 15 Sep 92 20:11:43 GMT LONDON (UPI) -- Sixty-eight sick and injured detainees from Serb-run camps in Bosnia-Hercegovina were flown into Britain Tuesday in what is planned to be the start of an ongoing evacuation of civilian prisoners from the republic, officials said. The detainees, who flew into Stansted airport north of London before being moved to hospitals in the area for medical treatment, could be joined by their families at a later date, the International Committee of the Red Cross said. The detainees, all men, appeared gaunt as they walked or were carried on stretchers down the airplane steps to be received by a fleet of 25 ambulances. The prisoners were being held at the Manjaca and Trnopolje detention camps near Banja Luka in northwest Bosnia-Hercegovina, an ICRC spokesman said. They were handed over to ICRC officials in the region, before being flown by a specially chartered plane direct to the United Kingdom, an ICRC official said. ``These pepole were examined by ICRC doctors and selected based on their health condition. Some of them were cancer victims or had similar diseases not necessarily caused by the life in the camps,'' said Jack McIver, political advisor at the EC monitoring mission in Zagreb. The British government has agreed to allow the detainees' relatives to join them at a later date, the ICRC said. The airlift was organized in line with an agreement at the London peace talks on the former Yugoslavia, which guaranteed the unconditional release of all civilian detainees. The ICRC said it had not yet received full information about detention camps and prisoners, but added that it ``regards today's operation as the first step in this release process.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. general says Serbs ignore weapon requests Date: 16 Sep 92 19:13:03 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Serbian forces have ignored repeated requests to abide by an accord to place all of their heavy weapons under United Nations monitoring as they pursue an advance in Sarajevo's western suburbs, the U.N. commander in the Bosnian capital said Wednesday. ``The Serbs have a military goal and they want to achieve it by all means, and it is very difficult to convince them to put all heavy weapons in concentration areas,'' Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek of the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) said in an interview. Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic agreed at last month's London peace conference to place all of his tanks, cannons and large mortars under U. N. monitoring in 11 locations around Sarajevo, and publicly guaranteed that he had done so by a Saturday noon deadline. The plan was designed as a first step toward ending the more than five-month war pitting Serbs determined to capture a self-declared state against Bosnian forces comprised mostly of Muslim Slavs, but also including Croats and moderate Serbs, who oppose the partition of the former Yugoslav republic. But, Razek said that Serbian forces failed to abide by the accord, pounding Sarajevo on Monday for nine hours with both big guns gathered in the so-called ``concentration areas'' and others hidden from UNPROFOR. Serbian forces also persisted Wednesday in using secretly retained heavy weapons, including 10 tanks, in an ongoing attempt to smash through Bosnian forces holding the western, mostly Croat suburbs of Dogladi, Bare and Adzici, Razek said. Razek said he had made numerous requests to Serbian commanders to fulfill their London agreement and place all of their heavy weapons under U.N. monitoring. Asked what answers he received, Razek replied: ``The shelling tells you.'' He noted that the Bosnian military was not obliged to place its heavy weapons under U.N. ``supervision'' until UNPROFOR provided a written guarantee that the Serbs had done so with all of their guns of more than 82mm. ``Up until now, frankly, I can't say that,'' Razek said. ``I cannot give them (the Bosnian military) a written statement.'' Razek said he was scheduled to hold talks Thursday with Serbian leaders on the issue at which he would again formally request they observe the London agreement. ``I am going to discuss with them specifically if they are serious in implementing this process or not,'' he said. The talks were to take place a day before the start of a new round of peace negotiations between the warring factions in Geneva under the co- chairmanship of U.N. special envoy Cyrus Vance and European Community mediator Lord David Owen. The Serbian advance in the western outskirts of Sarajevo began on Monday under the diversionary cover of the bombardment of the city, one of the worst of the war. Explosions and machine gun fire echoed throughout the day and into the night Wednesday from the dust-shrouded area, located only about 3 miles west of the center of the capital. On Tuesday, U.N. officials said, Serbian tanks systematically blasted Croatian homes to the ground in Adzici. Razek said he believed the thrust was intended to retake ground captured by Bosnian troops struggling to break the more than five-month- old siege by Serbian forces seeking to divide Sarajevo into ethnic districts. The offensive was being overseen by a Serbian general who was appointed to the Sarajevo area less than two weeks ago, said Razek, who declined to disclose the officer's name. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Russia drops opposition to barring Belgrade from U.N. Date: 16 Sep 92 19:27:39 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- Russia no longer opposes denying Serbia and Montenegro the United Nations' seat once occupied by Yugoslavia, an administration official said Wednesday. The Union of Serbia and Montenegro, the unrecognized successor states to Yugolsavia, claim Belgrade's seat in the United Nations. But the United States and the European Community, as a result of Belgrade's relentless siege of Bosnia-Hercegovina, have pressed the United Nations to deny Serbia and Montenegro the de-facto recognition that would come with representation British Ambassador David Hannay told the opening session of the U.N. General Assembly Tuesday that ``it is anomalous and unacceptable that representatives of...Serbia and Montenegro should continue to participate in the work of United Nations.'' Russian Ambassador Yuli Vorontsov said that denying Belgrade the seat would hurt U.N. efforts to broker peace in the war-torn Balkans, with which Russia has always had close strategic and philosophical ties. Only the five permanent members of the Security Council, to which Russia belongs and thus has veto power over any action, can approve the measure. But an administration official speaking under conditions of anonymity said that the Russians have now dropped their opposition to the plan. ``I don't think they are a problem,'' the official said. ``Their position has evolved. We're working on language to achieve this goal.'' State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said Wednesday the United States was consulting on a resolution with the other four permanent members of the Security Council -- China, France, Russia and Great Britian -- to ``achieve our objective of denying Belgrade's claim.'' Boucher said that Serbia and Montenegro should apply for U.N. membership if they want to join the 179-member body. ``We do not consider Serbia-Montenegro to be the continuation or the sole successor to the former Yugoslavia,'' he said. ``We firmly believe that Serbia and Montenegro should be required to apply for membership in the United Nations and should meet the criteria for admission before being admitted.'' The United Nations has admitted the former Yugoslav republics of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia and Slovenia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. says Italian relief plane shot down by missile near Sarajevo Date: 16 Sep 92 19:41:51 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The Italian relief plane downed near Sarajevo this month was destroyed by a heat-seeking missile or an improved version of the U.S.-made Stinger missile, the U.N. refugee agency said Wednesday. The preliminary report of the investigation by the Italian government said the destruction of the plane, which killed four crew members on Sept. 3, was caused by a heat-seeking missile SA9, or SA16, or an improved Stinger missile, the U.N. Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva said. The plane, a G-222 aircraft which was carrying blankets for refugees in Sarajevo, crashed 17 miles south of the capital of Bosnia-Hercegovina and witnesses reported seeing at least two missiles fired at the plane, one of which hit it. The downing of the plane forced the suspension of the U.N.-led humanitarian airlift campaign to bring badly needed food and medical supplies to Sarajevo and besieged cities in the Balkan republic before the winter. ``The results (of the investigation) obtained so far suggest without any doubt that the aircraft G-222 had been struck at least by one missile that had probably been provided with infra-red guidance,'' the report said. The report said the crash area was mountainous and there was no evidence of any involvement of radar emissions or sophisticated radio- controlled or radar-based missiles units. It concluded that the missile must have been easily transportable. The report did not indicate which side in the conflict in Bosnia- Hercegovina was involved in the downing of the plane. A news report from Islamabad, Pakistan, suggested last week that a Stinger missile might have been involved in the crash. The report said Muslim elements in Afghanistan may have given the Stingers to Muslim Slavs in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The United States supplied the deadly accurate Stinger missiles to the rebels during the war against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. The UNHCR said refugee commissioner Sadako Ogata met in Geneva on Wednesday with representatives from the United States, Britain, Italy, Canada, France, Germany, Norway and Sweden to discuss the investigative report and the possible resumption of the humanitarian airlift. Ogata is expected to recommend the resumption by week's end. The agency has increased the number food convoys to Sarajevo and other Bosnian cities since the suspension of the airlift which brought about 200 tons of food in daily. The Security Council on Monday allowed Secretary-General Boutros Ghali to send up to 6,000 new U.N. peacekeeping soldiers to Bosnia- Hercegovina. Their main task will be to provide security for the food convoys. There are currently 1,600 U.N. troops guarding the Sarajevo airport. In a related development, the Bosnian U.N. Ambassador Muhamed Sacirbey said at news conference that he was concerned that a recent statement issued by U.N. forces in Sarajevo was a ``ploy to force my government to negotiate from a position of diplomatic weakness.'' The U.N. statement, released Sept. 9, found Bosnian forces had ``deliberately perpetrated'' four attacks on the U.N. peace-keeping forces in which three U.N. soldiers were killed in the past month. Among the dead were two Frenchmen who were killed in an attack against an unarmed food convoy on Sept. 8 at the Sarajevo airport. Sacirbey called the U.N. statement ``repulsive as well as inaccurate and inconsistent with our obvious objectives.'' He objected that an official statement had been made before all the incidents could be investigated. Sacirbey pointed to reports about the attack on the French convoy that contradicted the U.N. version of the incident. The reports said the convoy had been caught in crossfire between the two militias. ``Clearly our troops were not trying to shoot or kill or injure any U.N. troops,'' Sacirbey said. The ambassador said the statement implied an effort to ``reach a quick negotiated end (to the Yugoslavian conflict) that for Bosnia- Hercegovina could mean capitulation.''
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 177, 15 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR WARNINGS OF HYPERINFLATION IN RUSSIA. Somewhat belatedly, top Russian officials have been warning of the very real possibility of hyperinflation. President Yeltsin told regional officials in Cheboksary on 11 September that supporters of cheap credits and unrealistic social programs are pushing Russia into the abysss of hyperinflation, according to Reuter. Evgenii Yasin warned on the same day that hyperinflation had not yet arrived but that it was closer than ever before, Biznes-TASS reported. And Sergei Vasiliev, in an interview with The New York Times of 15 September, laid the blame for looming hyperinflation squarely on the acting chairman of the Russian Central Bank, Viktor Gerashchenko. (Keith Bush) PLAUSIBILITY OF WARNINGS. The generally accepted definition of hyperinflation is a rise in prices of 50% or more a month. This can well happen in October, in the opinion of Anders Aslund,quoted in the same New York Times article, "and once you hit hyperinflation, it destroys most economic institutions." Indeed,the imminent increase in the controlled wholesale prices of energy-carriers will cause a substantial leap in the overall price index. But, as the article suggests, these warnings are probably aimed primarily at creating a sense of emergency and at organizing public pressure on the parliament, the Congress of People's Deputies, and the Russian Central Bank to act more responsibly. (Keith Bush) RUSSIA TO RECEIVE MORE US FOOD AID. The Department of Agriculture announced in Washington that the US is makinganother $1.15 billion in loans available to Russia for foodimports this winter, according to Western news agencies. Most of the aid, $900 million, is in the form of loan guarantees for creditors providing import financing. The Los Angeles Times on 15 September said that the Yeltsin government had lobbiedWashington to approve the food aid early, before winter got underway. Last year Russia began urgently appealing for Western assistance only after the winter's food supply crisis hadalready developed. Since the beginning of 1991, the US has reportedly provided Russia with $5.75 billion in food credit. (Erik Whitlock) KHASBULATOV ON POSSIBILITY OF CONFEDERATION. Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said during his trip to Kyrgyzstan that he believes the establishment of an interparliamentary assembly of CIS states, which will become official at the summit of CIS state leaders in Bishtek on 25 September, is the beginning of the creation of a new confederation of former Soviet republics. The assembly is scheduled to become an independently operating organization with the right to dispute decisions made by the leaders of CIS states. Interfax quoted Khasbulatov as saying that Ukraine's absence in no way affects the work of the interparliamentary assembly because Ukraine will join the assembly at a later stage. (Alexander Rahr) "DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA" PREPARED TO FIGHT. The Coordinating Council of the "Democratic Russia" movement has issued an appeal to the Russian people to fight attempts by the old nomenklatura forces to halt privatization and reform, DR-Press reported on 11 September. The St. Petersburg regional section of the Democratic Party of Russia decided to support "Democratic Russia" and to distance itself from the central leadership of the Democratic Party of Russia, headed by Nikolai Travkin, which had formed a coalition with the Civic Union. Meanwhile, the leadership of the Civic Union decided to join a nationwide campaign for the organization of a referendum on private ownership of land. (Alexander Rahr) RUSSIA ASSURES US ON BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS. U.S. State Department spokesman Richard Boucher on 14 September said that Russia had given assurances that it would end "all aspects" of its biological warfare program. Western press accounts of his statement indicated that the pledge had been given during talks between American and Russian representatives in Moscow on 1011 September. Boucher said that on-site inspections were among the measures agreed by both sides. Last month American and British government sources expressed doubts that the Russian program had been terminated despite President Yeltsin's earlier order banning the production of biological weapons. (Doug Clarke) RUSSIANS BALK AT SOME CONVENTIONAL ARMS INSPECTIONS. Richard Boucher said on 11 September that Russia had refused allied arms inspectors access to parts of some military facilities inspected during August and September under the terms of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty. That treaty became legally binding on the signatories on 17 July 1992. According to Western agency reports, Boucher acknowledged that the treaty was a complex one and that problems during its implementation were "probably inevitable." He indicated that the Russians had barred inspectors from entering some storage, administrative, and other facilities in garrisons said to be housing military equipment limited by the treaty. (Doug Clarke) GORBACHEV TO ATTEND SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS. Mikhail Gorbachev will attend the next Socialist International as a guest of honor, "Vesti" reported on September 14. (The Congress is scheduled to open today in Berlin.) About 70 parties from various states of the world have applied for membership and are waiting for their application to be reviewed at the Congress, "Vesti" noted. The list includes a number of Russian political parties, among them the Social Democratic Party of Russia, which includes a number of prominent politicians, such as Oleg Rumyantsev, the author of the official draft of the new Russian Constitution and an ardent Gorbachev critic. (Julia Wishnevsky) SUPREME SOVIET TO RECONSIDER DEFENSE LAW. The chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet Committee on Legislation, Mikhail Mityukov, told ITAR-TASS on 14 September that the "law on defense" will be considered once again by the parliament at its upcoming session. On 10 August, Yeltsin refused to sign the law, which had been approved by the Supreme Soviet on 26 June, because, among other reasons, it limited his authority to appoint the defense minister. Mityukov said that members of his committee supported Yeltsin's proposal that the President be granted sole authority to name the defense minister, the chief of the General Staff, and the commanders of all service brancheswithout the approval of the Supreme Sovietand that the President himself should submit for approval to the Supreme Soviet plans for the composition, structure, and strength of the Russian armed forces and its leadership. (Stephen Foye). KOBETS NAMED TO NEW POST. Army General Konstantin Kobets has been named chief military inspector of the Russian armed forces by Boris Yeltsin, Interfax reported on 14 September. Kobets, 53, was a deputy chief of the USSR General Staff (for communications), and his role in organizing the defense of the Russian government building during the failed August coup catapulted him into a leading role in the post-coup Soviet and Russian armed forces. He subsequently served as chief (and then chairman) of the RSFSR State Committee for Defense and Security, as a military advisor to Yeltsin, and as a Deputy Chairman of the Russian State Commission for the Creation of a Russian Defense Ministry. It is unclear what powers he will exercise as chief military inspector. (Stephen Foye) STATE OF RUSSIAN TANK FORCES. The chief of Russian armored forces, Col. Gen. Aleksandr Galkin, said in Krasnaya zvezda on 12 September that the most modern machinesT-726's and T-80'sconstituted only 25% of the current total Russian tank fleet. He nevertheless expressed optimism that design work in tank production was moving ahead at an acceptable pace, and that the value of the tank forces would not be underestimated during the creation of a new, highly mobile and professional Russian army. Galkin's remarks were summarized by ITAR-TASS on 12 September. (Stephen Foye) "SOVIET PEOPLE"A REALITY? Researchers at the Institute of General Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences claim that the "Soviet people," long the mainstay of the Brezhnev-Suslov nationalities policy, really exist. The researchers say that their studies show that "the Soviet people"a concept despised by many former Soviet citizens and seen by many as a cover for Russification policiesis not an artificial ploy and that there is a single genetic code for the "Soviet people." Consequently, they argue, today's "dispersion in national apartments," that is, the independence of the former republics, is "only a temporary historical-geographical fluctuation." The report was cited by Arkadii Volsky, President of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, interviewed in Pravda of 9 September, in support of his argument that empires like the Russian and the Soviet ones do not disappear "without leaving a trace." Volsky stressed, however, his realization of the fact that "the restoration of the Soviet Union at present is excluded." (Roman Solchanyk) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COURT RULES PRUNSKIENE COLLABORATED WITH KGB. On 14 September after three months of hearings, the Lithuanian Supreme Court ruled that former Prime Minister Kazimiera Prunskiene had consciously cooperated with the KGB, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. The ruling was based on information supplied by the parliament commission investigating KGB activities, including her pledge to cooperate signed on 8 June 1980. The court noted that Prunskiene did not present evidence disproving the commission's documents. The parliament is empowered to suspend her as a deputy and schedule a vote of confidence in her district, but is unlikely to do so since new Seimas elections will he held on 25 October and Prunskiene had announced several months ago that she will not run again. (Saulius Girnius) HEAVY SHELLING OF SARAJEVO. On 14 September the BBC said that Serbian artillery subjected the Bosnian capital to some of the worst shelling of the war. The 15 September Washington Post quoted UN personnel as saying that this showed that the Serbs had not revealed all their big guns to UN monitors and that both sides seem to be fighting a conventional war for strategic advantage before winter arrived in October. Serbian aircraft apparently based at Banja Luka dropped cluster bombs on Bihac, and fired air-to-ground missiles as well on 14 September. Western news agencies also quoted UN sources as saying that the Serbs heavily shelled Gradacac, Brcko, and Bosanski Brod. Meanwhile in Croatia, the 13 September Novi vjesnik gave extensive coverage to the second anniversary of Croatian antiterrorist units. (Patrick Moore) UN TO INCREASE ROLE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. On 14 September the Security Council voted to send up to 6,000 more troops to protect humanitarian efforts in the troubled republic in addition to the 1,500 UN forces already there. The BBC on 15 September said that the vote was 120-3, with China, India, and Zimbabwe abstaining. Canada, Britain, and France will contribute and pay for the bulk of the new land forces, while the US will offer air and sea support. Washington, London, and Paris failed to agree in time on the modalities of a no-fly zone for Bosnia, so no decision was reached on that issue. UN spokesmen have sa&id that Serbian aircraft shadow UN relief flights to Sarajevo to minimize chances of being shot at by Bosnian or Croatian forces. (Patrick Moore) PANIC IN MOSCOW AND BEIJING. On 13 September Milan Panic, the prime minister of the rump Yugoslavia, began a three-day visit to Moscow and Beijing. Panic is seeking support from both countries in order to prevent a possible vote on expulsion by the UN Security Council later this month. In Moscow Panic met with Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Kolokolov, who told ITAR-TASS that Panic gave him the impression that his government "really is trying to resolve the conflict." In Beijing Premier Li Peng said that all former Yugoslav republics and the rump Yugoslavia "should have their own place within the United Nations and other international organizations," stressing that "Yugoslavia's expulsion would have serious consequences for all." But the Chinese leader did not explicitly say whether China will support the rump Yugoslavia's claim to a UN seat. Li Peng also said China is concerned over the worsening situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina and expressed deep sympathy with the people there. Panic also requested from the Chinese "humanitarian aid with oil." Xinhua and Radio Serbia carried the report. (Milan Andrejevich) CRISIS CONTINUES IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. A team of CSCE experts arrived in Skopje on 11 September to determine whether monitors ought to be posted to the Macedonian-Serbian border in an effort to check the possible expansion of the wars of Yugoslav succession. It is not clear whether the observers would be military or civilian, but the head of the mission, Robert Frowick, an American, noted that posting observers would "demonstrate the support of the international community for the territorial integrity of . . . Macedonia," Reuters and BTA report. The border between the Republic of Macedonia and the predominantly Albanian Kosovo region of Serbia is especially volatile. In a related story, other Western agencies report that the Republic of Macedonia's only oil refinery was shut down on 12 September because 70,000 tons of crude oil were blocked at the port of Thessaloniki, apparently as part of ongoing Greek pressure to force the new republic to drop the word "Macedonia" from its official name. (Duncan Perry) BULGARIA'S EXILED KING SEEKS A COMEBACK. Simeon II, who departed Bulgaria at the age of 6 following the onset of communism, said in a Madrid interview on 14 September that a return of the monarchy is in Bulgaria's best interest. He noted that the legislature could create a grand national assembly and restore himwithout the need of a popular referendum. The former king is a businessman in Spain, where he lives with his family. He has been low-key about pressing for his return to Bulgaria in order to give the legislature and the population time to consider the prospect. Simeon has a following in Bulgaria and a monarchist political party exists; however, he does not seem to have majority popular support and certainly does not have the support of a majority in the parliament. Simeon is married to a wealthy Spaniard and has five children, none of whom speaks Bulgarian. (Duncan Perry) GANEV ASSUMES UNGA PRESIDENCY. Bulgarian Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev was elected president of the UN General Assembly and takes over that post officially on 15 September, Bulgarian and Western sources note. Ganev has energetically pursued a policy of integrating Bulgaria with Western countries and has succeeded in drawing Bulgaria closer to Europe; it joined the Council of Europe during his tenure in the Foreign Ministry. Ganev is 37 years old, a lawyer by training, and speaks Russian and English. (Duncan Perry) ILIESCU MEETS POPE. Romanian President Ion Iliescu was received on 14 September by Pope John Paul II at his summer residence Castel Gandolfo. Radio Bucharest, which described the private interview as a "tete-a-tete," noted that Iliescu is the first foreign official to see the pope after his surgery in mid-July. John Paul expressed hopes that Romania will completely restore democracy and religious freedom and that relations between the Vatican and Romania will further develop. Iliescu later met in Rome with Italian president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, with whom he discussed mutual ties and prospects for Romania's association with the EC. Rome was the last leg on Iliescu's three-day visit to Spain and Italy. (Dan Ionescu) ROMANIA'S RUMP COMMUNIST PARTY BACKS ILIESCU. A spokesman for Romania's reborn communist party, the Socialist Labor Party, announced at a press conference on 14 September that his party has decided to support incumbent president Ion Iliescu in the 27 September presidential race. Reuters quoted the spokesman as saying that his party "will not field its own presidential candidate in order to preserve the unity of the left wing." In a press statement the SLP praised Iliescu for alleged "tolerance and transparency" during his term in office, saying he tried "to defuse tension and conflicts and strengthen the role of democratic bodies." Iliescu, a former communist, was a high-ranking party official before falling out of favor with late dictator Nicolae Ceausescu in 1971. (Dan Ionescu) ROMANIAN ASSOCIATION WITH THE EC. On 14 September a Romanian delegation began a new round of negotiations in Brussels on association with the European Community. In an interview with Radio Bucharest, delegation leader Napoleon Pop said that the two-day talks will focus on the text of some 10 articles (out of a 124-points association agreement) dealing with Romanian exports of agricultural products, iron and steel, and textiles to EC countries. (Dan Ionescu) WARSAW SOLIDARITY HOLDS PROTEST MARCH. Several thousand members of Solidarity's radical Mazowsze region marched through Warsaw on 14 September. The protesters said their aim was to pressure the government and the parliament into providing an economic program satisfactory to workers. The Mazowsze region's firebrand leader, Maciej Jankowski, threatened a general strike as a last resort that would determine whether "the elites will send us packing or we will send the elites packing." Other demonstrators claimed that this would be the "last peaceful demonstration" by unionists in Warsaw and shouted, "We want facts, not pacts" and "No more thieving privatization." (Louisa Vinton) HUNGARIANS GET COMPENSATION FOR COMMUNIST SEIZURES. The head of the national compensation office, Tamas Sepsey, told MTI that his agency has ruled on 202,340 claims for compensation for property seized by the communist regime and has paid out some 9.5 billion forint. He reported that only 130,000 of the 830,000 applicants for compensation wish to use the compensation vouchers to buy land; during the first two weeks of land auctions 86 people received land. Sepsey said that Hungarians living abroad are also eligible for compensation but most of them do not know about the opportunity. He promised to provide more information about compensation through Hungarian embassies. (Edith Oltay) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 178, 16 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR SITUATION IN TAJIKISTAN. Authorities in Kulyab Oblast have accused opposition forces of killing nine people and taking ten hostages in a gun battle on 14 September, ITAR-TASS reported the following day. The invaders apparently came from Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, which has been attacked repeatedly by fighters from Kulyab who support deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev. Ostankino TV's evening news reported on 14 September that Tajikistan's leading Muslim cleric, Kazi Akbar Turadzhonzoda, has protested the decision of opposition-controlled Tajik TV to stop rebroadcasting Russian TV programs. The head of Tajik TV claimed that Russian reporting on events on Tajikistan was distorted. The kazi agreed, but objected to "an information famine." (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) SITUATION IN ABKHAZIA STILL "EXTREMELY COMPLICATED". The tripartite commission charged with monitoring the Abkhaz peace agreement met in Adler on 15 September and drew up an accord on the disengagement of Abkhaz and Georgian forces in north-west Abkhazia and a new ceasefire agreement to take effect at midnight on 15 September, ITAR-TASS reported. Addressing the State Council in Tbilisi, Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze said that he had informed Russian President Boris Yeltsin by telephone that Abkhazia was violating the ceasefire agreement. Shevardnadze characterized the situation in Abkhazia as still "extremely complicated" and stated that Georgia's military contingent in the region would be strengthened. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA REJECTS UN EXPULSION OF YUGOSLAVIA. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky said on 15 September that Russia opposes the idea of isolating rump Yugoslavia by expelling it from international organizations such as the United Nations. He noted that Russia could use its veto power during a vote at the UN to block the expulsion of Yugoslavia, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September. This statement is in line with remarks made by Milan Panic in late July, apparently based on discussions during the CSCE summit in Helsinki. Panic was quoted by Izvestiya on 31 July as saying: "President Boris Yeltsin promised me that if necessary, Russia will use its veto one hundred times in the UN Security Council to oppose a resolution on the exclusion of Yugoslavia." (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIS INTERPARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY OPENS. The Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS has gone into its first session in Bishkek, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September. Parliamentary delegations from Armenia, Belarus, Kazhakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan--the CIS states which have signed the agreement on the creation of the Interparliamentary Assembly--are participating. A delegation from Uzbekistan, which also signed the agreement, did not arrive for the first session. The parliamentary delegations are being headed by the speakers of the parliaments of the CIS member states. The Assembly will discuss the development of interstate relations inside the CIS, the role of parliaments in the social protection of the population, and general economic problems. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) KHASBULATOV ELECTED HEAD OF INTERPARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY. Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov has been elected Chairman of the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September. Khasbulatov will preside over the work of the Assembly for one year. It has also been decided that St. Petersburg will become the seat of the Interparliamentary Assembly. The statute of the Assembly was adopted and agreement has been reached on the creation of permanent Assembly commissions on cooperation in legal, economic, humanitarian, ecological and military affairs. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) BANKER WARNS AGAINST RUSSIAN DEBT REDUCTION. The managing director of the prestigious Washington-based Institute of International Finance, Horst Schulman, announced at a news conference that offering Russia debt relief would be a mistake. According to a RFE/RL correspondent reporting on 16 September, Schulman asserted that such action would send a very unfavorable message to both creditors and debtors around the world: "in the face of what is clearly [a] very unsatisfactory performance," debt relief would be viewed as "an entitlement program" for Russia. In Schulman's opinion, Russia has not done enough to pay its foreign debts. He cited Russia's reluctance to raise domestic prices for oil, a policy which would restrict domestic demand and free up supplies for hard-currency sales. (Erik Whitlock/Robert Lyle, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN FARMERS DEMONSTRATE. Farmers gathered outside the Russian government building in Moscow to demand economic assistance, various Russian and Western news agencies reported on 15 September. In particular, the demonstrators called for more investment in the agricultural sector, tax and debt relief, as well as low-interest loans. Reports variously estimated the number of participants at between four hundred and two thousand. According to ITAR-TASS, the demonstration lasted an hour and a half. The protest follows a similar action in August that was viewed as largely ineffective. Interfax quoted demonstrators as saying that this was their "last soft action," and that they would use more serious methods in the future if the government did not respond to their demands. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) VOLSKY CRITICIZES PRIVATE BUSINESS SPECIALISTS. President of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, Arkadii Volsky, stated that about one and a half million specialists are duplicating various intellectual and business activities in countless fictitious enterprises, Voice of Russia reported on September 13. Although these people have created an enormous number of foundations, analytical centers, consulting bureaus, and middleman companies, the result of all this activity is next to zero, Volsky was quoted by Voice of Russia as telling Patriot (no.35). Voice of Russia accused Volsky of being a high-level KGB officer, a charge it has made frequently in the past. (Victor Yasmann,RFE/RL, Inc.) COMMUNIST PARTY HEARINGS RESUME WITH EXPERT TESTIMONY. After a six-week recess, the Russian Constitutional Court resumed the hearings on the status of the communist party on 15 September. Opening the session, court chairman Valerii Zorkin said that 13 legal experts would testify on whether the communist party is a true political party and whether the Russian Communist Party (RCP) is independent from the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU), Interfax reported. Zorkin noted that six of these experts have given written opinions supporting the Russian president's ban, while seven other experts contend that the ban was illegal. The court is also expected to examine the question of who owned and disposed of party property. Meanwhile, Valentin Kuptsov, the former RCP first secretary, asked the court to legalize the party temporarily until the court reaches a verdict, Russian and Western agencies reported. (Carla Thorson, RFE/RL, Inc.) NATIONALIST PARTIES RESUME PICKETING OF OSTANKINO. On 15 September, representatives of extreme Russian nationalist parties resumed their picketing of the Ostankino TV station demanding daily broadcast time on Russian TV, ITAR-TASS reported. Their picketing of Ostankino first started this past summer, and it led to the opposition obtaining broadcast time on a monthly basis; now they want more. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN HOLDS TALKS WITH TATARSTAN PRESIDENT. On 15 September, Russian President Boris Yeltsin held talks in Moscow with the Tatarstan President, Mintimer Shaimiev, ITAR-TASS reported. The agency quoted Yeltsin's press office as saying the two presidents discussed preparations for a draft treaty on the division of functions between the Russian central and Tatar authorities. The RuRFE/RL, Inc.)ar authorities agreed in July to prepare a treaty on Tatarstan's sovereignty and its union with Russia. (Vera Tolz, RFE ORDERS FOR MILITARY HARDWARE TO GROW. ITAR-TASS reported on 11 September that state orders by the Russian government for military hardware in 1993 will be higher than in 1992. No specifics on the orders were provided. The increase was attributed to the need to maintain the scientific and intellectual level of the defense sector, and to reduce the effects of Russia's general economic decline. The decision was reportedly reached at a closed-door meeting of Russian government officials and leaders of the military industries on 10 September. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA OFFERS TO SELL WARSHIPS TO THE PHILIPPINES. A spokesman for the Philippine Navy said on 11 September that Russia had offered to sell fast attack craft, corvettes, and minesweepers to the Philippines. According to the Chinese Zinhua news agency, the spokesman said that the offer had come during a meeting that day in Manila between a Russian delegation and the chairman of the Philippine Navy's weapons board. The agency also quoted Philippine Air Force chief, Brigadier Gen. Leopoldo Acot, as saying that a proposal to purchase MiG-29 jet fighters from Russia was being "carefully studied." (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT OPENS. The sixth session of the Ukrainian parliament opened on 15 September against a background of unresolved economic problems and the opposition's determination to force new parliamentary elections and the dismissal of the present government. Western news agencies reported on 15 September that Prime Minister Vitold Fokin, in a message read to the lawmakers, warned that the economy is in an "extremely deep crisis." Fokin said that the government's new economic reform plan was still being discussed and would be presented to parliament no later than 28 September. The lawmakers were met by protesters at the parliament, which has become almost traditional for each new parliamentary session. (Roman Solchanyk RFE/RL, Inc.) BELARUS TO RATIFY CFE TREATY. Belarus President Stanislav Shushkyevich told German leaders on 15 September that his government would ratify the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty by the end of the year. Shushkyevich was visiting Bonn and his remarks were reported by Western agencies. The treaty, signed by the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the former Warsaw Pact--including the successor states to the USSR--sets limits on five categories of conventional weapons allowed between the Urals and the Atlantic. The agreement came into force on 17 July 1992 even though two of the 29 signatories, Armenia and Belarus, had not yet ratified it. They were given 120 days to complete the process. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV PROMOTES ECONOMIC COOPERATION. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev told a meeting of industrialists in Alma-Ata that political ambition is prevailing over economic rationalism in the CIS, and he will propose to the CIS summit in Bishkek that supragovernmental structures be created in the Commonwealth, Russian TV reported on 14 September. On 15 September, the Russian economics minister, Andrei Nechaev, and the chairman of Kazakhstan's State Economics Committee, Tleukhan Kabdrakhmanov, signed a protocol on economic cooperation between the two countries, ITAR-TASS reported. This agreement provides for prognoses of socio-economic development, cooperation in currency and credit policy, and various joint mining and environmental projects. Nechaev did not lend encouragement to a pet project of Nazarbaev, the creation of a supranational currency authority. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) "DNIESTER" MOLDOVAN TEACHERS TO STRIKE FOR LATIN SCRIPT. Most teachers in Moldovan schools controlled by "Dniester" Russian authorities are protesting against the recent "Dniester" edict on languages, which imposes the Russian alphabet on the "Moldovan" (i.e. Romanian) language in place of the Latin alphabet (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 10 September). The teachers have announced plans for a general strike beginning on 20 September, Radio Rossii and DR-Press reported on 14 and 15 September, respectively. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" CONTINUES CREATING STATE STRUCTURES. The "Dniester republic Supreme Soviet" decided to set up a customs system for the would-be republic, Interfax reported on 11 September; it began functioning on 15 September, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on the 16th. The same source reported that Moldova's television relays located on the left bank of the Dniester have been taken over by the "Dniester" authorities. On 14 September, Interfax reported that the "Dniester republic" intends to introduce its own citizenship. Since 2 September, using the breathing spell gained through the ceasefire and the protective cover of Russian troops, ostensibly in Moldova to carry out impartial peacekeeping duties, the "Dniester republic" has also proceeded to set up a government with full-fledged ministries, including those of Defense and State Security; announced the establishment of its own air force and border troops, and the intention to create its own professional army; it has also formed its own banking system. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVA FEELS CHEATED. An unnamed senior official of Moldova's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, representing Moldova on the Joint Control Commission which nominally supervises the Russian peacekeeping forces on the Dniester, "expressed concern over certain activities of that body...The presence of the peacekeeping forces is being used by the Tiraspol leaders to consolidate illegal state structures in the Dniester area." The Moldovan official called for "a rigorous control of the [Russian-Moldovan ceasefire] convention by international bodies...to avoid arbitrary or hostile interpretations," Rompres reported on 13 September. The statement, the first of its kind from Moldova since the convention was signed on 21 July, appears to reflect the apprehension that Snegur's gamble in accepting the deployment of Russian peacekeeping troops in Moldova in exchange for Russian promises to restrain the "Dniester" secession, is backfiring against Moldova. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE EC MOVES TO EXCLUDE SERBIA-MONTENEGRO FROM UN. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the US, and Islamic Conference member states will apparently join Britain and the EC in taking steps this week to bar Serbia-Montenegro from holding the former Yugoslavia's seat in the UN and related organizations. International media reported on 15 and 16 September that it is not yet clear whether Russia will agree to such a ban. Serbia-Montenegro call themselves "Yugoslavia" but the state remains internationally unrecognized, largely because its creation is widely regarded as an attempt by the Belgrade authorities to claim much of the legitimacy and assets of Tito's now defunct federation. For its part, Serbia-Montenegro says that it does not see how it can continue to participate in a UN-backed peace process if that organization excludes Belgrade from its work, the BBC said on 16 September. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) "NO-FLY ZONE" OVER BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA? International media also report that the Security Council is expected to consider stetting up a "no-fly zone" on the Iraqi model over the troubled republic. Of the combatants, only Serbian forces have aircraft, and they have been accused of shadowing UN relief flights as a way of obtaining cover on bombing missions against Bosnian and Croatian forces. Peace envoys Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen on 15 September deplored Serb air attacks the previous day on four Muslim-controlled towns in Bosnia, Western news agencies report. UN peace-keeping operations chief Marrack Goulding said that the attacks show how urgent it is to set up the "no-fly zone." Meanwhile, 68 badly injured Bosnian refugees were taken by air from Banja Luka to London for treatment. The Red Cross had selected them from numerous inmates of Serbian "detention centers." (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) CROAT-MUSLIM CONFLICTS IN BOSNIA. Radios Serbia and Slovenia report on 14 and 15 September that there has been a rise of clashes between Croatian and Muslim militia in towns in Herzegovina. In the Bosnian towns of Prozor and Vitez, local education officials decided that instruction in primary schools will be based on those in Croatia. Muslims have protested the decision saying Muslim children would not attend schools modeled on those of another state. The majority population in Vitez is Muslim, but all authority is in the hands of the Croats. On 14 September Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina reported the republic's Constitutional Court passed a decision saying that the establishment of the "Croatian Community of Herceg-Bosna" on 18 November 1991 was illegal. The Bosnian authorities have also earlier condemned successionist moves by Serbian groups. Vecerniji list on 15 September, however, quoted Bosnia's vice president as playing down reports of tensions between Muslims and Croats. (Milan Andrejevic, RFE/RL, Inc) MACEDONIAN BORDER SECURITY TIGHTENED. As a response to the ongoing Bosnian war and fear that it might spread to the Republic of Macedonia, the Skopje government has decided to strengthen security along its 240-km border with Serbia, Reuters and Makpres report. The move came just after a CSCE mission recommended patrols along the border to help head off expansion of the war there. Evidently only main highways until now have had border checkpoints. Military personnel will soon begin construction of defense facilities along the border according to Nova Makedonija. The CSCE patrols, which would augment the frontier guard force, may be composed of civilian observers. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, INC.) SERBIAN PREELECTION SCENE. On 14 September round-table talks between the rump Yugoslav government and opposition parties resulted in the adoption of parts of a declaration on the electoral system and the financing of upcoming elections. The adoption of these documents will be placed on the federal assembly's agenda on 18 September. The remaining aspects of the declaration referring to the role of the media are also slated for debate soon. Meanwhile, Zoran Andjelkovic, a leading official in the ruling Socialist Party (SPS) stated on 15 September that Slobodan Milosevic, in addition to his candidature for SPS chairman, will run as "the SPS candidate in the forthcoming elections for the most responsible state functions in the republic." Andjelkovic did not elaborate. Radio Serbia carried the reports. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) DEMONSTRATIONS OVER HUNGARIAN TV PRESIDENT. According to a 14 September Radio Budapest report, two demonstrations are being organized involving Elemer Hankiss, the president of Hungarian TV. Hankiss was dismissed by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall earlier this year, but President Arpad Goncz refused to sign the dismissal order. The first demonstration--against Hankiss--is organized by the Committee for Free Hungarian Information, which includes some journalists, members of the World Federation of Hungarians Fighting in 1956, and some chapters of the Hungarian Democratic Forum and the Christian Democratic Peoples' Party. The demonstration will start next Saturday and, organizers say, will last until Hankiss remains in office. The second demonstration--in support of Hankiss--is organized by artists and reportedly more resembles a picnic than a political event. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc.) ROMANIA TIGHTENS VISA RULES FOR THIRD WORLD. Romanian Interior Minister Victor Babiuc announced on 15 September that Romania will tighten visa regulations for 24 countries in an effort to curb illegal immigration. Under the new rules, citizens of those countries need an invitation from a Romanian citizen or firm, and these must assume financial responsibility for the visitors. Albania is the only European country on the list; the others are mostly Arab and Third World countries. Western agencies quoted Babiuc as saying that many foreigners are using Romania as a springboard to the West. There are currently some 30,000 foreigners in Romania who have overstayed their tourist visas. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) NATIONALIST PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BESIEGED IN TIMISOARA. Some 2,000 protesters jeered Romanian presidential candidate Gheorghe Funar in Timisoara. Funar, the mayor of Cluj, is running on the ticket of the Party for Romanian National Unity (PRNU), the political arm of the extreme nationalist Vatra romaneasca ("Romanian Hearth") organization. The protesters shouted "Communist" and "Fascist" and threw fruit and vegetables at Funar while he was laying a wreath at a monument outside the cathedral in Timisoara to honor those killed in the December 1989 revolution. Many carried signs hailing the Democratic Convention, the main opposition alliance. Radio Bucharest carried a PRNU statement condemning the incident. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBUNOVS IS LATVIA'S INTERIM HEAD OF STATE. On 15 September the Supreme Council ruled that the chairman of the Supreme Council will serve as head of state until the Saeima (parliament) convenes. Saeima deputies are still to be elected and an election date has not been set, though elections are expected to take place in the fall of 1993. The functions of the head of state are representational. This decision supplements the law on the duties and functions of the Supreme Council that was adopted on 5 August and does not grant new powers to Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs, Radio Riga reports. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) PRESIDENTIAL POLL IN LITHUANIA. On 15 September BNS reported on the results of a poll conducted in late August and early September by the Sociological Research Laboratory of the University of Vilnius. The leading candidate for president is parliament chairman Vytautas Landsbergis with 31% of the poll, followed by Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party chairman Algirdas Brazauskas with 19% and Lithuanian chargi d'affaires in Moscow Egidijus Bickauskas with 5%. When asked who they would like to see in the new parliament, 20% of the respondents mentioned Brazauskas, 18%--Landsbergis, and 12%--Bickauskas. BNS gave no margin of error for the poll. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) IMF APPROVES FIRST CREDIT FOR LATVIA. On 15 September Latvia became the first of the former USSR republics to achieve a full stand-by arrangement with the International Monetary Fund, making it eligible to draw loans of up to about $81 million over the coming year. The credit is meant to support a comprehensive economic reform that includes continued price liberalization and a speeded-up privatization process. The IMF says that without outside help Latvia's "decline in output and employment could be significantly larger than anticipated," RFL/RL correspondent reported on 16 September from Washington. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) DIFFICULTIES WITH LITHUANIA-RUSSIA TRADE AGREEMENT. During a meeting in Moscow on 18 September, Lithuanian Prime Minister Aleksandras Abisala and Russia's acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar were expected to sign a long-term trade agreement. On 15 September, citing unofficial sources, BNS said that the meeting had been postponed to 22 September at Lithuania's request. Deputy chairman of the Lithuanian Parliament Ceslovas Stankevicius, who heads the state delegation for negotiations with Moscow, had earlier told BNS that although agreements on mutual accounting and payments were ready for signing, Russia's proposals on trade required further discussion since Russia suggested quotas and licenses that would allow it to introduce certain limitations that were unacceptable since Lithuania wanted a real "free trade agreement." (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) EC TALKS ABOUT BALTS. The European Parliament in Strasbourg has delayed a vote on commercial and trade agreements with the Baltic States by one month. Europarliament socialist delegate Gary Titley from the UK told an RFE/RL correspondent on 15 September that the vote was delayed because of concern over Estonia's constitutional referendum, citizenship law, and election law. Officials from the Europarliament Secretariat, however, told the RFE/RL Estonian Service on 16 September that the delay is "purely technical." The draft agreement was submitted to the Foreign Trade Commission, which must approve all agreements before they are considered by the parliament. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) ESTONIA'S JOBLESS RALLY FOR "HUMAN RIGHTS." About 1000 demonstrators rallied in support of "human rights" in Narva on 15 September, Estonian TV reports. The demonstration, organized by a group calling itself the Estonian Association of the Unemployed, demanded that the government "restore economic ties with Russia and CIS member states in order to cut unemployment" in formerly all-union factories, BNS reports. Unemployment in Estonia is currently at an all-time high of 0.5%. Over 90% of Estonia's current trade is with CIS member states. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH GOVERNMENT SAVORS VICTORY IN FSM STRIKE. As the FSM auto plant began preparations to resume production, Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski commented that "for the first time, a strike has ended in something other than a victory for the strikers; this time, the public and its democratic state won out." The strikers abandoned all wage demands and accepted the terms of an agreement negotiated between the management and the trade unions on 29 July, shortly after the strike began. This gives them limited raises as soon as Fiat takes over the plant. Workers will also receive loans from local authorities. Management has agreed not to take disciplinary action against strike participants, and to consider rehiring the 347 strike activists fired during the strike. Both sides agreed to help speed Fiat's assumption of control. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND'S ECONOMY GROWS, BUT SO DOES DEFICIT. Poland's industrial output in August was 6.8% higher than in August 1991, the Main Statistical Office reported on 14 September. Industrial production for the first eight months of 1992 was just 0.8% below last year's level. Economists from the Main Trade School reported that Poland had not experienced the typical summer slowdown in economic activity. Prospects for the rest of 1992 are good: firms and banks report that new orders are up, while indebtedness and inventories are down. Investment in machines and equipment rose in August for the first time in a year. Deputy Finance Minister Wojciech Misiag said on 14 September that the government had already decided to ask the Sejm to revise the 1992 budget to deal with the larger than predicted deficit. Misiag said a 30 trillion zloty ($2 billion) shortfall was likely. PAP reported that the unemployment rate at the end of August was 13.4%. More than one-third of the unemployed are not entitled to benefits. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH DEFENSE MINISTRY OPPOSES LUSTRATION. Deputy Defense Minister Bronislaw Komorowski told the Sejm's defense commission on 15 September that passage of the "decommunization" laws now under consideration would mean "the loss of virtually the entire command structure of the Polish army." Only two generals--one the military bishop, the other an academic worker--would survive the process. Noting that 14,000 officers had been removed in 1990-91, ministry officials argued that further cuts would undermine Poland's defense capability. Proponents of lustration charged the defense ministry with attempting to remove the army from parliamentary supervision, but a majority of the Sejm commission seemed to agree that the armed forces deserved special treatment. The commission thus asked to participate in deliberations on the six draft bills now before the Sejm. (Louisa Vinton RFE/RL, Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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UPI NEWS, 17.09.1992. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fischer defeats 'tired' Spassky for 4-2 lead Subject: Philippines to close its Yugoslav embassy Subject: War is hell for dogcatchers, too Subject: Fierce fighting in Sarajevo on eve of Geneva talks Subject: Serbia threatens to topple Yugoslav prime minister ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fischer defeats 'tired' Spassky for 4-2 lead Date: 17 Sep 92 01:50:09 GMT PRZNO, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Former U.S. chess champion Bobby Fischer defeated an admittedly tired Russian opponent Boris Spassky with only 21 moves Wednesday, taking a 4-2 lead in their 20th anniversary rematch. Spassky, who is having trouble sleeping and was said by experts to have missed a winning position in a previous game, asked after Wednesday's loss that their next game be delayed until Saturday. ``I feel tired, I will ask for the postponement of the 10th game,'' Spassky said after Wednesday's three-hour contest. ``I need two days rest.'' International chess master Nikola Karaklajic was highly critical of Spassky's play Wednesday. ``This ninth game was unbelieveable,'' he said. ``Spassky blundered.'' Fischer leads by four games to two, with three draws, in the $5 million contest at the Mestral Hotel in Przno, near the southern Adriatic resort of Sveti Stefan in the Yugoslav republic of Montenegro. Spassky, who complained that he has been waking up at 4 a.m., visited a doctor after Wednesday's game and was given medicine to help him sleep. The doctor, Ljubo Zivkovic, also persuaded Spassky to change his diet. Fischer also changed his diet earlier in the series after reportedly realizing his eating habits were hurting his concentration. ``Boris is very tired,'' Spassky colleague Alexander Nikitin said Wednesday. ``The last three games he played far from his shape. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Philippines to close its Yugoslav embassy Date: 17 Sep 92 08:46:09 GMT MANILA, Philippines (UPI) -- The Philippines Thursday announced plans to close its embassy in war-shattered former Yugoslavia to protest alleged human rights abuses by Serbian forces against Bosnian Muslims. ``We deplore what has happened there to the point that...we are going to close down that embassy,'' Foreign Secretary Roberto Romulo told reporters. ``The exact timing has to be worked out, but we will make the appropriate formal notices today.'' The Philippines had previously recalled its ambassador to Yugoslav on Aug. 19, warning that Manila would close the facility altogether if the situation worsened. International groups accuse Serbian guerrillas -- armed by the Yugoslav central army -- of abusing captured troops in Bosnia- Hercegovina, a former Yugoslav republic. Serbian forces have been waging a five-month war against Bosnia- Hercegovina, which declared independence from Yugoslavia earlier this year. The European Community and other groups have labeled Serbia the primary aggressor in the conflict. Earlier this month, the Philippines joined the 108-member Non-Aligned Movement in condemning alleged Serbian abuses against Bosnians. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: War is hell for dogcatchers, too Date: 17 Sep 92 15:32:41 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Two teen-aged girls watched tearfully as Bambi thrashed in a vain struggle to escape the bite of steel wire snares looped around his throat and rear haunches. But Bambi's heart-wrenching howls and the girls' pleas for mercy failed to deter his captors. They hauled the dog to their truck from his adopted home in the war-ravaged city, a park between two shell-shattered apartment blocks. ``We've lost everything and now they are taking our dog,'' wept Aida, 16. ``We like Bambi.'' The cries of the doomed sandy-haired mutt were muffled behind a door at the rear of the truck. ``Everyone here gives him food,'' said Jana, 17. For Sarajevo's four-man band of dogcatchers, Bambi's capture was a tiny blow in their battle to contain a dangerous population explosion of stray dogs. The strays are potentially potent sources of disease in the besieged Bosnian capital. Aida admitted reluctantly that perhaps it was best the popular neighborhood pooch be put to sleep. ``He has been lethargic lately, and maybe he is sick. We all love him and feed him, but maybe it is better to take him away,'' she said. Aside from shelling and snipers, the canine problem is the most serious faced by the sanitation department in the five-month-old Serbian siege. The blockade has severely restricted food supplies, reducing city garbage by an estimated 45 percent. At the same time, sanitation officials and workers said, the food shortage is forcing residents to loose their pets to forage on the devastated streets. Many dogs, they said, also are finding their way into Sarajevo from outlying villages abandoned by residents who fled the fighting or were uprooted by Serbian ethnic cleansing. Before the war, between 70 and 80 strays were caught each week in Sarajevo and put to sleep by injection, said Vinko Raguz, manager of public sanitation in the municipal sanitation department. ``The weekly average is now about 100 to 110 dogs,'' he said. ``Now, many are running in packs.'' ``The colonies of dogs are forming in the forests and the edges of the town controlled by the Serbs,'' said Mirsad Kebo, the sanitation department director. ``So, we can't go in and catch them.'' Ivan Ilic, a member of the dogcatching squad, said he and his colleagues have been finding many pure-bred dogs among the ratty strays they snag with the looped wire snares strapped on their wrists. ``We've seen valuable dogs, all kinds,'' he said. ``Poodles, cocker spaniels, German shepherds are the most.'' All of the canines, no matter their pedigree, are difficult to handle because of the food shortages, Ilic said. ``They are more dangerous because they are hungry,'' said the 20-year veteran dogcatcher. ``They have had no food, or not the same selection of food as they had before the war.'' ``They are thin, but sometimes we find dogs in good shape, which means they have just been kicked out,'' he explained. Another problem is a lack of manpower. ``Before the war, we had two teams, but less dogs,'' observed Nikola Dodik, another squad member. ``There are at least three times more dogs than there were before.'' The dogcatchers, like the hundreds of thousands of other people in Sarajevo, have not been immune from the ethnic hatreds that led to the war in the former Yugoslav republic. The team is comprised exclusively of Croats because the Serbian dogcatchers all joined the Serbian forces encircling the city. One of them, Ratko Rakic, was seen recently on the television channel of the self-declared Serbian state by his former workmates. He was shown manning an artillery piece, they said. ``I like catching dogs. I would never shoot a gun,'' said Ilic. None of the dogcatchers have been killed or injured, and they are escorted by the police when they have to enter dangerous areas. ``We have to go to such places when people call us,'' explained Ilic. ``The dogs enter the hallways of apartment buildings because they are scared by shelling. But, then people can't get out of their homes.'' ``Also at mating time, as many as 15 of them collect in one hallway,'' said Ilic. The squad spends each day patroling different streets, parks and alleyways in its yellow truck, constantly on the prowl for strays. When one is sighted, the team stops and alights. Each member is armed with a wire snare. They fan out in a circle with studied practice, and then move in on their quarry with ruthless efficiency. Many dogs sighted on a recent patrol proved too wily, slipping quickly between the hunters and darting away. In one case, an irate family refused to allow the team to take away a litter of newborn puppies from an apartment building stairwell. ``I don't want to fight with people,'' said Franjo Ilic, Ivan Ilic's brother and fellow dogcatcher. Bambi posed no challenge, watching unsuspectedly with droopy, bloodshot eyes until it was too late. ``We feel sympathy for these dogs, but now they are disturbing normal life in the town,'' said Ivan Ilic, himself the proud owner of a Macedonian sheep dog, a shaggy 110-pound giant. ``They have gone without vaccinations,'' he continued. ``They are very fertile soil for infections.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fierce fighting in Sarajevo on eve of Geneva talks Date: 17 Sep 92 17:46:56 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- The U.N. headquarters came under attack Thursday as fierce fighting and Serbian barrages convulsed Sarajevo throughout the day, igniting fires that filled the sky with smoke and darkened hopes for progress on the eve of new peace talks. No U.N. personnel were injured in the fifth attack on their building since Aug. 6. Despite the violence, the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) announced the international humanitarian airlift into the Bosnian capital may resume with a test flight Sunday by one of its aircraft. Infantry clashes and shelling erupted at about 6 a.m. in several areas less than a mile from the center of the Bosnia-Hercegovina capital, and in western suburbs that have borne the brunt of a 4-day-old attempted advance by tank-backed Serbian forces. UNPROFOR said Serbian forces persisted in using heavy weapons deployed outside 11 U.N.-monitored areas despite Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic's guarantees that all of his Yugoslav army-supplied big guns had been gathered in those zones. The fighting came a day before a new round of internationally mediated negotiations in Geneva on ending the war pitting extremist Serbs bent on carving a separate state out of the republic and Bosnian forces opposed to the division of the newly independent former Yugoslav republic. Bosnian troops mostly comprise Muslim Slavs, but also include Croats and moderate Serbs. UNPROFOR narrowly escaped a major disaster when two shells slammed into its headquarters in a telecommuniations engineering center in the western suburb of Alipasino Polje. A 30 mm anti-aircraft round crashed at about 11 a.m. through a wall and exploded into an empty third-floor office, spraying shattered masonary and wood paneling across the carpet and breaking glass in neighboring rooms. A 122 mm tank round plowed a short time later through the front of the largely glass building, exited a rear window, pounded down a fire escape and rolled into a parking lot without exploding, U.N. officers said. It was later carried a safe distance away and detonated by French army sappers. ``There was a good chance there could have been some casualties had it exploded,'' said New Zealand Col. Richard Grey. ``Once again the PTT building has been shelled. It got direct fire and also has been shelled by tanks,'' Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek, the Sarajevo sector commander of UNPROFOR, told a news conference. He said UNPROFOR has been unable to determine those responsible, and he renewed an appeal to the warring factions to ensure the safety of the contingent assigned to protect humanitarian aid operations. ``I should express my concern to both sides,'' said Razek. UNPROFOR has suffered at least four dead and 46 injured since May. Regarding the fighting, Razek said that U.N. military monitors had observed at least 420 heavy artillery rounds fired between 7 a.m. and 4 p.m., all of them by Serbian gunners. Of the total, he said, only 158 were loosed from Serbian heavy guns gathered in the so-called U.N.-monitored ``concentration areas.'' The rest, he said, came from weapons the Serbs have maintained outside the zones in violation of an agreement Karadzic made at last month's London peace conference to place all tanks, artillery and large mortars under U.N. observation. Razek also said that he had been instructed by UNPROFOR headquarters to inform the warring sides of Sunday's scheduled flight of an ordinary U.N. plane into Sarajevo airport. ``It is a test flight. It would be encouraging for a resumption of the normal flights,'' he said. If the flight goes without a hitch, he said, a final decision will be made on restarting the U.N.-supervised airlift of food and medicines for the estimated 500,000 people trapped in Sarajevo by encircling Serbian forces. The airlift was suspended Sept. 3 after an Italian cargo plane en route to Sarajevo was downed in a missile attack, killing four crewmen. Responsibility for the attack has not been determined. U.N. High Commission for Refugees officials said they were already planning for a resumption of the airlift, saying it was vitally needed as truck convoys on which they have been relying have not been able to meet the city's daily food needs. Much of the fighting and shelling focused on the residential areas of Hrasno and Alipasino Polje and the western suburbs of Ilidza, Stup, Nedzarici, Bare and Dogladi. At one point, at least six different blazes were seen pouring out huge pillars of black smoke, which mingled with clouds of dust drifting slowly over the city's western skyline. Serbian rounds scored direct hits on apartment buildings and the already severely damaged fortress-like television station in Alipasino Polje. The Health Ministry said that during the 24-hour period that began at 1 p.m. Wednesday at least nine people were killed and 60 others wounded in Sarajevo. They were among a total of at least 31 dead and 198 wounded across the republic, the ministry said. Sarajevo radio said Serbian multiply launched rockets and mortar rounds burst on the fringes of the mosly Muslim Slav old city, and in Hrasno, Mojmilo, and Alipasino Polje. U.N. sources said Serbian tanks hidden from U.N. monitoring loosed rounds at the predominantly Croatian suburbs of Stup and Dogladi, the main focus of the ongoing Serbian armor-backed thrust. The advance, which began Monday under the diversionary cover of a 9- hour-long Serbian bombardment of Sarajevo, appeared designed to reclaim land recently lost to Bosnian forces, who are intent on breaking the 5- month-old Serbian siege of the city. The fall of Stup would give Serbian tanks control of the road linking downtown Sarejevo with the U.N.-controlled airport. Thursday's fighting came on the eve of a new round of peace talks slated to begin in Geneva. Foreign countries plan to mediate negotiations between militant Serbs -- who are attempting to carve out a self-declared state -- and Bosnian forces, who oppose partition of the former Yugoslav republic. Most Bosnian troops are Muslim Slavs, but some Croats and moderate Serbs are also fighting on the Bosnian side. Thursday, U.N. Protection Force officials said Serbian forces continued to employ heavy weapons withheld from U.N. monitoring, in violation of an agreement reached at last month's international peace conference in London. Under the pact, Serbian guerrillas agreed to concentrate all of their heavy weapons in areas monitored by the U.N. However, the U.N. Thursday reported Serbians firing tanks and cannons deployed outside the monitored areas. U.N. sources also said Serbian gunners in at least one of 11 U.N.-monitored areas also joined in. Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek, the Sarajevo sector commander of U.N. peacekeepers, was scheduled to meet Thursday with Serbian military chief Gen. Ratko Mladic to discuss the apparent violations. However, U.N. sources said Serbian forces later announced Mladic would be away from the area until next week. In an interview Wednesday, Razek said Serbian leaders had ignored repeated U.N. requests to comply with the weapons-concentration agreement. ``The Serbs have a military goal and they want to achieve it by all means and it is very difficult to convince them to put all heavy weapons in concentration areas,'' Razek said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbia threatens to topple Yugoslav prime minister Date: 17 Sep 92 18:58:27 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- The battle between the Serbian government and prime minister of the rump Yugoslav federation of Montenegro and Serbia, Milan Panic, intensified Thursday with a ruling Socialist Party leader threatening to call a new vote of no-confidence in Panic's leadership. The move follows Panic's plan to get United Nations membership for the new truncated Yugoslavia, a move seen as threatening the former Yugoslavia's old seat in the world body. Serbian politicians believe the move would destroy any legitimacy Belgrade might retain as the seat of government of a federated Yugoslavia. The Serbian-controlled rump Yugoslavia has not applied nor has it been recognized by the European Community or the U.N., as were the three other former Yugoslav republics of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia- Hercegovina. Panic, who returned to Belgrade Wednesday night from a ``working visit'' to China with a stopover in Moscow, said he planned to ``propose to the government that it adopt a decision to apply for membership of the new Yugoslavia in the United Nations and other international organizations.'' ``I deeply believe we don't have much choice (but to seek membership in the U.N.),'' Panic told the Belgrade-based news agency Tanjug. Panic said clinging to old Yugoslavia's seat in the U.N. would only lead to humiliation, and that the seat would eventualy be lost anyway. ``The 'verdict' is already prepared and secured,'' he said, adding that Yugoslav membership in the U.N. has already been questioned by the Europian Community and United States. President of the Socialist Party of Serbia, Borisav Jovic, said Panic, by planning to ask for U.N. membership for the new rump Yugoslavia, ``objectively suppports demands by some countries to exclude Yugoslavia from the United Nations.'' Jovic said a ``question of further confidence of the Socialist Party must be placed in the government of Mr. Milan Panic.'' He added that the Belgrade government could not ``give up the policy of preserving the continuity of Yugoslavia.'' In a separate statement, the Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic said Panic's plan would further internationally isolate the new rump Yugoslav union of Serbia and Montenegro. The Serbian Prime Minister, Radoman Bozovic, held an emergency session of his Cabinet Thursday morning and issued a statement warning that ``the revocation of international continuity would lead Yugoslavia to a state of formal isolation.'' The statement recalled conditions that other East European communist countries had to comply with in order to be internationally recognized and said bluntly that it would be ``unacceptable'' for the rump Yugoslavia. Bozovic's government listed a number of ``unacceptable conditions.'' These included a special minority status for Serbia's provinces of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Sandzak where large numbers of ethnic Albanians, Hungarians and Muslim Slavs reside. Panic survived a no-confidence vote in the rump Yugoslavian parliament on Sept. 4, after he warned lawmakers the federation would face further isolation if it fired him. Panic, a Belgrade-born U.S. millionaire, left his Californian pharmaceutical plant and went to Belgrade at the invitation of Serbia after U.N. sanctions were imposed on the republic on May 30. The United Nations slapped the sanctions on Serbia for its involvement in the the ongoing war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Panic was sworn in as prime minister on July 14 and promised to introduce Western-style democracy and a free market economy to the republic.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 179, 17 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR ABKHAZ UPDATE. Georgian troops and Abkhaz National Guardsmen clashed near the Black Sea town of Gagra on 16 September despite the new ceasefire agreement due to take effect at midnight on 15 September, Reuters reported quoting local journalists. Under the terms of the new agreement, all troops subordinate to the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus must leave Georgian territory within ten days. The first plenary meeting of the CIS inter-parliamentary assembly in Bishkek issued a statement expressing concern that the armed conflict in Abkhazia could spread to neighboring states and calling for the disengagement of troops and an immediate ceasefire, ITAR-TASS reported. It also called on CIS member states to provide humanitarian aid to Abkhazia. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) KAZAKH-MEDIATED KARABAKH PEACE TALKS FAIL. A meeting in Alma-Ata on 16 September between Armenian and Azerbaijani working groups ended in deadlock after the Azerbaijani delegation announced that it was not empowered to conduct negotiations and proposed a meeting between the Presidents of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, ITAR-TASS reported. The Armenians agreed in principle on the condition that the Azerbaijani side first respond to the ceasefire proposal made on 25 August by Italian mediator Mario Raffaelli. A further round of talks was scheduled for early October. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) FALL IN RUSSIAN TRADE VOLUME CONTINUES. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations reports that the volume of foreign trade over the first eight months of this year is 27% less than that of the same period last year. The report, carried by ITAR-TASS on 16 September, indicated that trade with former socialist countries (former members of the COMECON trading group) remains the weakest, down 48%. Trade with developed industrial and developing nations was down 21% and 20% respectively. This year's trade deficit at the end of August was $200 million, which is an improvement over the deficit of $700 billion at the end of July, but way down from last year's January-to-August surplus of $6 billion. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) LIBERAL REFORMISTS ATTACK GAIDAR. Two leading Russian reformers have attacked the leadership of acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar. Grigorii Yavlinski told the Italian newspaper La Stampa on 16 September that the "center"--by which he meant the Russian leadership--has already lost control over the political and economic processes at the periphery. According to him, Russia will soon disintegrate if the executive does not change its policy and reestablish its lost authority in the regions. Meanwhile, the Russian Minister of Economics, Andrei Nechaev, told Ostankino TV on the same day that his ministry has provided Gaidar's cabinet a new economic project because Gaidar has no clear reform concept of his own. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) FORMER SOVIET DISSIDENT'S TESTIMONY STRICKEN BY CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. On 16 September, former Soviet dissident, Pyotr Abovin-Egides, testified as an expert witness on behalf of the communist party (CPSU), Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. In a rousing defense of the CPSU, he attacked Russian President Yeltsin as well as former Soviet President Gorbachev and the coup leaders, arguing that, thanks to them, "the West won the third world war without a single shot." Abovin-Egides said the ban should be lifted since it "sows cruelty and hatred, intolerance of ideology, extremism, bitterness, confrontation and social disparity." After a short recess, however, the court struck the dissident's testimony from the record because Abovin-Egides had failed to speak about the issues and had abused his rights as an expert witness by making ideological rather than legal arguments. Court Chairman Valerii Zorkin repeated an earlier warning to both parties in the case on the inadmissibility of anti-constitutional proclamations and political evaluations. (Carla Thorson, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA SUPPORTS PANIC, UN MEMBERSHIP FOR RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. Following talks on 16 September with the prime minister of Serbia-Montenegro, Milan Panic, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told reporters that Russia wants "the new Yugoslavia, that of Milan Panic, to receive international recognition and to occupy a worthy place in the family of civilized free peoples." Kozyrev added that Russia fully supports Panic's intention to apply for a UN seat for the "new Yugoslavia," and he stressed that Russia will do everything possible to see "full membership of a peaceful democratic Yugoslavia at the United Nations." (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUTSKOI ON KOZYREV. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi is quoted by Interfax on 15 September as saying that Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev will remain in his job. Two months ago, Rutskoi had openly declared that he insists on the dismissal of Kozyrev. But he asserted that other reform-minded government members may be replaced at the next parliamentary session which is opening on 22 September. Rutskoi stated that the atmosphere at the session will be "tense" because of "conflicting opinions over developments in the Russian economy." (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN DECREE ON TAIWAN. Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on 15 September on "Relations Between the Russian Federation and Taiwan," ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September. The decree was issued, according to its text, because of "differing interpretations of the position of the Russian leadership with regard to Taiwan." To clarify the Russian position, the decree states: "In its policy, Russia proceeds from the premise that only one China exists and that Taiwan is an indivisible part of it. Because of this, Russia does not maintain official interstate relations with Taiwan." (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIS INTERPARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY ENDS FIRST SESSION. The first session of the newly created Interparliamentary Assembly of CIS states in Bishkek ended with the adoptation of an Assembly statute and the formation of five Assembly Commissions: for legal affairs, economics and finance, social politics and human rights, environmental problems, and security, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September. Ruslan Khasbulatov said that his election as first chairman of the Assembly demonstrates that the other CIS states trust Russia. He stated that the Assembly is scheduled to become a supranational parliamentary organ which will "neutralize many of the negative processes characteristic of the CIS." (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIS SUMMIT DELAYED. The leaders of Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus have decided to postpone the next summit of CIS state and government leaders which had been scheduled for 24-25 September to 9 October, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September. According to a statement issued by the Kyrgyzstan president's press service, CIS leaders want to further examine some documents which will be discussed at the summit in Bishkek. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN BUSINESSMEN CALL FOR PARLIAMENT DISSOLUTION. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 16 September, the co-chairman of Russia's Party of Economic Freedom, Konstantin Borovoi, said his party supports the dissolution of the Russian Congress of People's Deputies and the parliament, Interfax reported. He said a constituent assembly should be set up instead. Borovoi accused the congress and the parliament of blocking economic reforms in Russia. He said he believed that at the next session the Congress would try to force Boris Yeltsin to resign. Borovoi said his party supports the idea of holding a referendum on the dissolution of the congress. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.) MINISTERS VISIT NUCLEAR TEST SITE. Pavel Grachev and Viktor Mikhailov, the Russian Ministers of Defense and Atomic Energy, respectively, arrived on 16 September at the nuclear test site on the arctic island of Novaya Zemlya. They joined the Commander in Chief of the Russian Navy, Admiral Feliks Gromov, who had arrived the day before. ITAR-TASS reported that the purpose of the visit was to investigate both the state of the technology at the test site and to inquire into problems facing personnel stationed on the island. Since the shutting down of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site in Kazakhstan, Novaya Zemlya has been viewed by the Russian government as the likely main site for any future nuclear arms tests. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) MORE SQUABBLES OVER BLACK SEA FLEET. Accordin to Interfax reports on 15 and 16 September, a disagreement has broken out between Ukrainian and Russian military authorities over the disposition of two Naval academies in Sevastopol. Ukraine apparently wants to take control of the schools, while Russian officials contend that previous agreements place the academies under CIS jurisdiction. Interfax also reported on 16 September that Black Sea Fleet commander Igor Kasatonov has protested what he says are attempts by Kiev to transfer parts of the Kerchensko-Feodosisky naval base to Ukrainian jurisdiction. On the same day, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet from 1983-1985, Aleksei Kalinin, said on Sevastopol radio that Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantyn Morozov ought to be dismissed for what he described as illegal actions leading to the weakening of the fleet. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN TROOPS TO LEAVE CUBA BY MID-1993. The Cuban government announced on 16 September that the Russian troops still stationed in Cuba will be withdrawn by the middle of 1993. Western agency accounts quoted the official announcement as saying the presence of the troops had lost its meaning. The Soviets had what was known as a "training brigade" stationed in Cuba as well as a number of military advisors and a large intelligence facility. When the formal talks on withdrawing these troops began in September 1991, there were some 8,000 Soviet military and intelligence personnel in Cuba. In February of this year the Russians announced that the "training brigade" had been unilateraly cut from 2,800 to 2,150 men. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA TO PAY INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY DEBTS. Western agencies reported that Russia promised to pay its outstanding debts to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The announcement was made to the agency's board of governors on 16 September at their meeting in Vienna. As the legal successor to the Soviet Union in the IAEA, Russia must also pay outstanding contributions for 1991. The reports said that Russia is responsible for around 13% of the agency's yearly budget of $186 million, or some $24 million per year. Russia would loose its voting rights in the agency should the debts remain unpaid. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT COMPANY FORGES AMERICAN TIES. The Russian Yakovlev Design Bureau has established a joint collaborative business alliance with an American aircraft engine manufacturer, Textron Lycoming's Turbine Engine Division. According to a 15 September company press release at the Farnborough air show in England, the American company will initially supply turbofan engines to replace the present engines on the small YAK-40 regional airliner. Lycoming could also supply the engines for the next-generation YAK-48 executive business aircraft. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) "RUKH" LEADERSHIP MEETS. The leadership of "Rukh" met on 12 September and decided to convene a session of its Grand Council on 19 September, DR-Press reported on 13 September. The Grand Council will discuss questions related to the convening of the Fourth Congress of "Rukh," which should be held at the end of October. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) GERMAN "REBIRTH" SOCIETY IN UKRAINE. The "Rebirth" society, which groups together members of the German minority in the former Soviet Union, held its official presentation in Kiev on 15 September, Radio Ukraine reported. The Kiev branch of "Rebirth" works closely with the German Cultural Union, which has forty-two centers in the former Soviet Union. The group's aim is to unite all Germans interested in their history and culture. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) ECONOMIC IMPACT OF WAR IN TAJIKISTAN. The turmoil and fighting in Tajikistan during the last four months has caused a serious worsening of economic conditions in the country. ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September that a lack of fuel in Dushanbe has caused interruptions in public transport and in deliveries of food to the capital. Tajikistan may be in for a difficult winter. Foreign correspondents have reported seeing crops neglected in the fields while rural people were fighting for or against the now-deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA TOPS THE CSCE PRAGUE MEETING'S AGENDA. Representatives of the 52 states participating in the CSCE process convened in Prague on 16 September for a three-day meeting. An RFE/RL corespondent reports that the meeting will hear reports by special investigators on the situation in Serb-controlled detention camps, and on the possibility of the civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina spilling over into the Serbian province of Kosovo and the independent Republic of Macedonia. CSTK reports that Macedonia's application to join the CSCE process was rejected at the meeting. The meeting will also focus on the situation in Moldova and Nagorno-Karabakh. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) MAZOWIECKI ON FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. Speaking at a press conference in Prague on 16 September, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, former Polish prime minister and currently a special UN rapporteur for human rights in former Yugoslavia, said that human rights are being widely violated on the territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Muslims in particular are victims of wide-spread human rights abuses as well as of ethnic genocide. According to Mazowiecki, the situation is most serious in concentration camps and besieged towns. Mazowiecki proposed the creation of an independent press agency, which would inform about the situation in former Yugoslavia in an objective manner. He warned that the conflict could easily spread to Kosovo, Vojvodina, and the Sandzak. Mazowiecki ruled out military intervention in Bosnia but suggested that UN peacekeeping troops be strengthened so that they can intervene when needed. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITTLE-KNOWN SIEGE OF NORTHERN BOSNIAN TOWN CONTINUES. The 17 September Washington Post reports that Serbian forces around Sarajevo continued "their three-day-old tank offensive" against the Bosnian capital on 16 September, despite UN pleas to register the tanks with monitors. The Croatian media in recent days, for their part, have also been reporting on the months-old siege of Gradacac in northern Bosnia, which is on the strategic route connecting Serbia with Serb-held areas of Bosnia and Croatia but where there are no Western correspondents. Croatian military and local Muslims have successfully resisted intensified Serbian shelling, which has destroyed over 80% of the mainly Muslim town, including its landmark medieval tower and central mosques. The local Croatian commander said that the spirit of Croat and Muslim defenders was good. Elsewhere, Slobodna Dalmacija on 16 September said that Cardinal Franjo Kuharic consecrated Herzegovina's new archbishop on 13 September in Neum, with Muslim leaders, including the Mufti of Herzegovina, in attendance. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) BOSNIAN CROAT LEADER REJECTS COURT DECISION. Mate Boban, president of the self-proclaimed state of Herceg-Bosna and chairman of the Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, said that a ruling by the Constitutional Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina annulling a decision by the Croats to form their own republic in Bosnia-Herzegovina is "completely unconstitutional." The "Community of Herceg-Bosna," established in November 1991 and comprising municipalities in the south of Bosnia-Herzegovina where Croats are the majority population, declared itself an independent state on 3 July. Sarajevo Radio quoted Boban on 15 September as saying that his party will "ignore" the court's ruling. Srecko Vucina, spokesman for the Croatian Defense Council (HVO) in Mostar, indignantly rejected the ruling, which he says "seeks to discredit everything that the HDZ and HVO have done so far in the defense of the area around Mostar and Herceg-Bosna." (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) HIGH-RANKING ROMANIAN OFFICIAL IN BELGRADE. Teodor Melescanu, a state secretary in the Foreign Affairs Ministry, arrived in Belgrade on 16 September. In an interview with Radio Bucharest, Melescanu said that he discussed issues of mutual interest with officials in Belgrade, including recent Western initiatives to exclude the Yugoslav rump state from the UN. In a separate development, Traian Chebeleu, a spokesman for the foreign ministry, reafirmed his country's willingness to accept foreign observers to monitor the traffic to and from Serbia and Montenegro. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY PROTESTS LEBED STATEMENT. On 16 September spokesman Traian Chebeleu said a recent statement by Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of the 14th Russian Army in Moldova, may cause serious harm to Romanian-Russian relations. On Moscow's "Ostankino" TV on 14 September Lebed reportedly described the Romanian flag as "the flag of [Marshall Ion] Antonescu and Romanian fascists." Chebeleu said he finds such statements "irresponsible and insulting" to Romania. Romanian Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase summoned the Russian ambassador to Bucharest to protest Lebed's statement. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH PRIVATIZATION MINISTER UNDER FIRE. The Sejm voted on 17 September to consider a motion to dismiss Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski, who served in the same post for most of 1991. The motion was submitted by the Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN) on the basis of a report by the Supreme Chamber of Control (NIK), Poland's central auditing institution. The government coalition parties say they will oppose the motion, and Solidarity deputies condemned the KPN's attack on Lewandowski as "a political game." NIK officials admitted on 16 September that their criterion for evaluating the ministry's performance was the letter of the law, not economic rationality. They also conceded that their inspectors were not experts in privatization. Lewandowski has argued that legal shortcuts were unavoidable in a system where private business was just taking root. The Sejm is also scheduled to debate the government's mass privatization program. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH GOVERNMENT SETS "PACT" TIMETABLE. Meeting with union representatives on 16 September, labor ministry officials proposed that negotiations on the government's draft "pact on state firms" conclude by the end of the month. Signing would be possible by the end of October. The labor ministry recommended that the unions send a joint representation to the talks; this would be a major departure for Solidarity, which has refused to negotiate in tandem with the former procommunist OPZZ federation. The government's economic committee recommended setting as a target the production of at least 50% of GDP (excluding agriculture) by private firms by the end of 1994. The committee also recommended shutting down seven of Poland's 26 steel mills by 2002, which would eliminate 80,000 jobs. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT EVALUATES LAST TWO YEARS. In a speech to Parliament on 16 September, Prime Minister Jozsef Antall drew a positive balance of the performance of his government during its first two years in office, MTI and Radio Budapest report. He stressed in particular that the legal framework needed for a state based on the rule of law has been created through the parliament's legislative activity and that the government has successfully adjusted its foreign and economic policy to the changing international environment. Antall admitted that economic problems remain and that the government has to take unpopular measures in switching from a command to a market economy. He stressed, however, that his government has been able to keep the country solvent and has launched the largest and most successful privatization program in all of Eastern Europe. (Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.) ESTONIAN ELECTION UPDATE. The Estonian Ministry of Internal Affairs plans no special security measures in northeastern Estonia for the 20 September parliamentary and presidential elections. Deputy Minister Juri Kaljuvee told BNS on 16 September that he does not expect any provocations that day because local authorities "have realized that the prospects for international cooperation are better in Estonia than in Russia." Meanwhile, Lennart Meri, a presidential candidate and former foreign minister, has received a positive response from Council of Europe Secretary-General Catherine Lalumihre on the establishment of a special international commission to look into charges against his father, diplomat Georg Meri. Lennart Meri proposed convening a special commission after widespread reports last week that Georg Meri was a KGB operative in the interwar period. In his letter to Lalumihre, Lennart Meri said that the charges brought against his father "are absolutely false, but have been arranged in order to undermine my [presidential] candidacy," BNS reports. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT SESSION. At its 15 September meeting the Supreme Council two deputy speakers, Laima Andrikiene and Ceslovas Jursenas, were reelected, Radio Lithuania reports. Two laws--on competition and on the bankruptcy of enterprises--were passed and will go into effect on 1 November. Economics Minister Albertas Simenas noted that the purpose of the competition law is to prevent the formation of monopolies and thus allow consumers. to purchase goods at lower prices. An agency will be formed to monitor prices and a council composed of producer, consumer, and government representatives will apply sanctions when necessary. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIAN MODERATE MOVEMENT. On 16 September representatives of the Moderate Movement held a briefing at the Parliament, BNS reports. The movement intends to present a general list of 27 candidates for the Seimas elections who will also compete in single mandate districts. The list is headed by parliament deputy Eugenijus Gentvilas and includes in its top ten Albertas Simenas, Minister without Portfolio Stasys Kropas, and Zigmas Vaisvila, a former deputy prime minister. The movement's election program calls for 350 of the largest enterprises not to be privatized. Smaller businesses would be privatized under this plan, and foreign investors would be given the right to purchase the land on which the enterprise stands. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) STOLOJAN PLEDGES MORE SECURITY IN THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN. At a cabinet meeting on 16 September, Romanian Prime Minister Theodor Stolojan ordered increased security for presidential candidates. The move followed an attack on nationalist candidate Gheorghe Funar in Timisoara the previous day. Funar, who runs on the ticket of the Party for Romanian National Unity, had to be rescued by police from a crowd of about 2,000 jeering protesters. In a separate statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest, the government deplored the incident and urged the Timisoara police to identify the culprits. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) PARFENOV TRIAL STARTS IN RIGA. The trial of Sergei Parfenov, former deputy commander of OMON units in Riga, opened on 16 September, Radio Riga reports. Parfenov is charged with abuse of power and will have to answer for attacks against civilians by members of OMON, a special force under the jurisdiction of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, in Sigulda and the Vecmilgravis section of Riga in 1990 and Ainazi in 1991. Parfenov, who considers himself a Russian citizen and his supporters in Tyumen region want the case to be tried in Russia, while the Latvian authorities, who obtained his extradition from Tyumen, believe that the trial should be held in Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) BALTIC COUNCIL APPEALS TO CSCE. Leaders of the three Baltic States have appealed to the CSCE to not let up pressure for withdrawal of Russian troops from their territories because of the recent Russian-Lithuanian agreement for early pullout, BNS reports. In the joint communiqui issued by the Baltic Council after its 16 September Tallinn meeting, council members state that the Helsinki Declaration requirements can be considered fulfilled only when agreements [similar to that with Lithuania] are concluded and the whole of the Russian military has left all the Baltic States. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIAN SUPREME COUNCIL ON RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. On 15 September the Supreme Council adopted guidelines for further negotiations with Russia regarding the withdrawal of troops. Diena of 15 September says the document calls for the unconditional withdrawal of all troops by the end of 1993; the recognition that Latvia has borders that have been fixed and recognized by international treaties (especially the Latvian-Russian peace treaty of 11 August 1922); no naturalization of new citizens as long as a foreign army is present in Latvia; and the necessity of Russian forces in Latvia to act according to regulations approved by the Supreme Council. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIAN-POLISH DEFENSE ACCORD SIGNED. On 16 September in Riga Polish Minister of Defense Janusz Onyszkiewicz signed a military cooperation accord, Radio Riga reports. Details were not reported. During his three-day visit to Latvia, Onyszkiewicz met with Latvian officials and saw military training facilities at Sigulda and the naval harbor in Liepaja. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) DUBCEK'S CONDITION STILL SERIOUS. Two weeks after the car crash in which he broke his spine, ribs, and pelvis, Alexander Dubcek, leader of the 1968 Prague Spring and former chairman of the Czechoslovak parliament, is still too ill to have further surgery. Dubcek underwent an operation on his spine immediately after the 1 September accident. A statement from the Prague hospital treating Dubcek, released by CSTK on 15 September, says that another operation, as well as long-term rehabilitation, can take place only after stabilization of the patient's condition and after he is transferred to a specialized clinic. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 180, 18 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR KULYAB APPEALS FOR CIS TROOPS. The authorities in Tajikistan's Kulyab Oblast, a stronghold of support for deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, have appealed to the leaders of the Central Asian states and Russia to send CIS troops to stop the fighting in Tajikistan, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 September. Nabiev had asked for a CIS peacekeeping force prior to his fall. The opposition found the request provocative, but in recent days several government and opposition figures have suggested that CIS military help may be necessary to restore stability in the country. On 17 September, the government asked a CIS division stationed in Tajikistan to help local Internal Affairs forces guard important installations; the same day, ITAR-TASS reported that Kulyab guards had taken control of the Nurek dam. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHEVARDNADZE CRITICIZES ABKHAZ MONITORING COMMISSION. Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze travelled to Sukhumi on 17 September, where he criticized as "ineffective" the tripartite commission set up to monitor the 3 September Abkhaz ceasefire agreement, Interfax reported. Shevardnadze complained that fighters subordinate to the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus still remain in Abkhazia. Speaking on Georgian television, Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani stated that Georgia "will use force" if the troops in question do not leave Georgia within ten days, Radio Rossii reported. A Turkish foreign ministry spokesman stated on 17 September that Turkey will send 15 tons of food aid and medical equipment to Muslims in Abkhazia, Western agencies reported. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY WARNS GEORGIA. A statement issued by the Russian Defense Ministry on 17 September charged that Russian troops and civilians in Georgia were being repeatedly attacked by Georgian units, and warned that Russian forces reserve the right to fight back. In particular, the Defense Ministry has blamed Georgia for a helicopter attack that occurred last month on a hydrofoil carrying Russian refugees and vacationers. While the Defense Ministry claims to have "irrefutable proof" that Georgia was behind the attack, Georgia has denied involvement. The exchange was reported by ITAR-TASS and Western agencies. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN DECREE RAISES ENERGY PRICES. Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a much-anticipated decree raising basic energy prices, various Russian and Western news agencies reported on 17 September. Prices on oil products will double from the current price of 1,800-2,200 rubles. Coal prices will rise 30%. According to ITAR-TASS, the decree also eliminates the ceiling on oil prices, replacing it with a tax structure that discourages setting prices in excess of 4000 rubles. The report was not clear on details of the new price-setting rules. To soften the impact on consumers, the decree calls on the government to raise price subsidies for household energy consumption, transportation, and basic agricultural goods. Commenting on the inflationary impact of the decree, government economic advisor Aleksei Ulyukaev said that the government predicted an economy-wide increase in prices of 20-25%. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) GERASHCHENKO WARNS OF DRASTIC BUDGET CUTS. Outspoken Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko claims that the government may be forced to make big cuts in spending in October, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 September. He said that the government had as yet only collected 40% of the revenue planned for the year. Therefore, he asserted, "we may be forced to simply restrict the expenditure side of the budget and keep it within the limits of collected revenues." Gerashchenko suggested that the budget cuts would be across-the-board and include social programs. The government has recently predicted a 1992 year-end deficit of about 1 trillion rubles, significantly higher than the one approved in its original budget. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) GOVERNMENT UNDER ATTACK. Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar was quoted by the Russian TV program "Vesti" on 17 September as saying that the government has lost its ability to maneuver. Gaidar's first deputy, Vladimir Shumeiko, told journalists that some personal changes will soon be conducted in the government, Ostankino TV reported on 16 September. The right-wing parliamentary opposition bloc "Russian Unity" demanded the convening of an extraordinary congress which would replace the government, according to ITAR-TASS on 17 September. The foreign edition of ITAR-TASS's newspaper 24 reported on 17 September that a decree for the appointment of Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi as prime minister has already been prepared by President Yeltsin. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) STANKEVICH FOR COALITION GOVERNMENT. Presidential advisor Sergei Stankevich told Rossiiskie vesti on 17 September that he favors the establishment of a coalition government which would include representatives of the Civic Union and the democrats, but he did not rule out the possibility of forming a more right-wing coalition without the democrats. He criticized Gaidar's government for its adherence to macroeconomic theories, and said he supported the more cautious reform approach of the Civic Union. He listed his major political achievements as follows: successfully convincing President Yeltsin to adopt policies that strengthen the Russian state, solving the crisis in the Trans-Dniester region, and drawing greater public attention to the problems which Russians are experiencing in the non-Russian former Soviet republics. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) GAIDAR ON INCREASING ARMS EXPORTS. Prime Minister Egor Gaidar, currently touring various cities in Russia, said in Tula that the government would permit increased arms exports, according to Russian news agencies on 16 and 17 September. Gaidar suggested that weapons producers would be allowed to directly contract with foreigners for the sale of output, as long as the deals in question were not covered by state orders and were approved by the government. He emphasized that increasing the opportunities for sales abroad would not mean weakening government control and supervision of weapons exports. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) LAWYER DEFENDS COMMUNIST PARTY IN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. Speaking on 17 September at the Constitutional Court hearings on the Communist Party, Defense Attorney Boris Lazarev said Yeltsin's decrees first suspending and then banning the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Russian Communist Party were illegal, since at the time of their adoption only the Soviet Supreme Court had the right to make decisions on the status of political parties. ITAR-TASS quoted Lazarev as calling Yeltsin's leadership "incompetent." Lazarev also rejected the accusation that the CPSU was "unconstitutional." The lawyer argued that there was no legislation in the country defining the "constitutional responsibilities of parties" at the time when Yeltsin's decrees were adopted. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.) CORRUPTION IN RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY? Vasilii Lipitsky, leader of the People's Party of Free Russia, commonly known as "the party of [Vice-President] Aleksandr Rutskoi," has appealed to President Yeltsin and the Russian parliament, requesting that they investigate corruption in the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Writing in the 37th issue of Megapolis Express, Lipitsky says that representatives of his party had been unable to attend the current session of the Socialist International in Berlin, to which they had been invited, because the Foreign Ministry failed to provide them exit visas. Instead, they were advised to seek visas in a private "co-operative" firm, run by foreign ministry officials who sell exit visas for their private gain. The party, Lipitsky writes, refused to be served by such a "co-operative" out of principle. (Yeltsin's decree on the fight against corruption forbids governmental officials from becoming involved in commercial activities.) (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) KHASBULATOV FAVORS GENERAL CIS CITIZENSHIP. The Chairman of the Interparliamentary Assembly, Ruslan Khasbulatov, favors the establishment of a common citizenship on the territory of those CIS member states who support the new Assembly, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 17 September. He also suggested that the Russian Foreign Economic Bank should take complete control of all CIS foreign currency accounts. Meanwhile, the Russian first deputy parliamentary speaker, Sergei Filatov, revealed in an interview with Moskovskie novosti (no.38) details on his political battle against Khasbulatov at the most recent Congress. Filatov attacked Khasbulatov for building a personal dictatorship in the parliament, and hinted that the speaker may soon be replaced. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) LUKYANOV SAYS COUP LEADERS SHOULD HAVE BEEN MORE DECISIVE. Former Soviet parliament chairman, Anatolii Lukyanov, who is now in jail on charges of participating in the attempted coup last year, gave an interview to Nezavisimaya gazeta on 17 September. Lukyanov said that he would act more decisively if the August events were repeated today. He said that the Committee for the State of Emergency, which tried to seize power after putting Gorbachev under house arrest in August 1991, was poorly conceived and organized. (Lukyanov was not a member of the committee). Lukyanov said the committee's actions were not a coup but rather an attempt to rescue the Soviet socialist system. He said that he still supports "full-blown Soviet power and a renovated Soviet federation." (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.) NO RUSSIAN NAVAL BASE AT NOVOROSSIISK. Black Sea Fleet commander Admiral Igor Kasatonov said on 16 September that Russia has no plans to build a naval base in Novorossiisk because the port there is inadequate for heavy naval traffic. His comments come as Russian access to Ukrainian Black Sea ports is becoming increasingly limited and follows the evacuation of Russian naval personnel from the Georgian Black Sea port of Poti. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOROZOV ON UKRAINIAN MILITARY REFORM. Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov said in an interview in Krasnaya zvezda on 17 September that Kiev intends to build two operational commands on the basis of the three existing military districts in Ukraine. He also said that a new service -- the Air Defense Troops -- would be formed by combining two currently existing force branches (presumably the Air Force and Air Defense Forces. See Krasnaya zvezda, 5 September). The interview was summarized briefly by "Novosti." This past summer the commander of the Ukrainian Air Defense Forces, Lt. Gen. Mikhail Lopatin, had criticized proposals to subordinate his forces to the Air Force (see Krasnaya zvezda, 1 August). (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENTARIANS WANT TO KEEP MISSILES. At a conference in Washington on 16 September, members of the Ukrainian parliament indicated that Ukraine might balk on its pledges to transfer ex-Soviet long range ballistic missiles to Russia for destruction. According to a UPI account of the meeting, parliamentarian Yurii Kostenko said Ukraine must retain these weapons on its territory for "national security reasons." The Ukrainian legislators told the conference that the republic needed the considerable amount of hard currency that the enriched uranium in the warheads would bring on the open market. (The United States has recently agreed to buy the enriched uranium from Russian nuclear weapons in a deal that some experts estimate might ultimately be worth $5 billion.) Other CIS representatives at the conference cautioned that the Ukrainian statements were not those of the government. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) COMPETING DEMONSTRATIONS IN KIEV. On 16 September, the second day of the new parliamentary session in Kiev, Ukrainian lawmakers arriving for work were greeted by demonstrators and pickets defending opposite points of view. DR-Press reports that in the morning war and labor veterans with red flags and portraits of Lenin were demanding an improvement of their overall situation. They were joined by activists from the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the "Toiling Ukraine" Association. Several hours later demonstrators from "Rukh" arrived with the national blue and yellow flag and stayed until the end of the day. In the meantime, the parliament discussed a package of economic legislation. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) UN OBSERVERS INVITED TO TAJIKISTAN. The UN delegation that arrived in Tashkent earlier in the week in response to an urgent plea from Uzbek President Islam Karimov has received an invitation from the government of Tajikistan to visit that country as well, Khovar-TASS reported on 17 September. Karimov had asked the UN to send representatives to examine the destabilizing influence in the Central Asian region of recent events in Tajikistan. The invitation from the Tajik government promises that the visitors will be given an opportunity to meet leaders of a variety of political parties and movements. The Tajik authorities are presumably eager to present their version of events to the outside world. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV MEETS WITH KAZAKHSTAN'S GERMANS. On 17 September, on the eve of his official visit to Germany, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev met with representatives of the country's German population and reiterated promises to do everything possible to make continued residence in Kazakhstan a more attractive option than emigration, KazTAG-TASS reported on 17 September. The German representatives requested that Nazarbaev raise the issue of assistance promised earlier by German government officials which has not materialized; they would also like to be able to travel to Germany without a visa. Nazarbaev earlier said that an autonomous German region would not be set up in Kazakhstan. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IZETBEGOVIC PROTESTS SERB ATTACKS. The BBC on 17 September said that the Bosnian president urged the UN to take action in the wake of Serb air attacks on four Bosnian cities or towns. The Security Council is expected to discuss soon proposals for setting up a "no-fly zone" over the troubled republic, where only the Serbs have aircraft. Meanwhile, the Serbian bombardment of the Bosnian capital entered its fourth day, and Sarajevo Radio said that it was the worst shelling since the Serbs began the war in Bosnia in the spring. The 18 September Washington Post quotes the UN commander in Sarajevo as saying that "this is not the atmosphere to implement the UN mandate." Both sides seem to be trying to consolidate their positions before winter sets in next month. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS TO OPEN IN GENEVA. International media report that the latest round of UN- and EC-sponsored negotiations is slated to start on 18 September, with mediators meeting separately with each of the three warring sides. There has been much public posturing in recent days, especially by Serbian and Muslim leaders. The Muslims threatened at one point to boycott the gathering, while the Serbs say they will press for a partition of the republic, which is a nonstarter for the Muslims. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman is known to be mistrustful of the Muslims and supportive of partition, but most Croatian politicians argue that no lasting peace is possible without the Muslims, and that Croatia's own state interests require Zagreb to insist on the sanctity of existing frontiers. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) IS "ETHNIC CLEANSING" SPREADING TO THE SANDZAK AND VOJVODINA? The 9 September Split independent weekly Nedjeljna Dalmacija reported at length on moves by Serbian irregulars in Montenegro to intimidate local Muslims with the at least tacit cooperation of Montenegrin authorities. Most of the action has taken place in the ethnically mixed Sandzak area, but Muslims and Albanians have also been forced to flee Podgorica, the capital, for safer havens. Serbs blame the tension on "Islamic fundamentalists," but the paper said that the pressures seem to be coming almost exclusively from the irregulars, many of whom are outsiders who drift in and out from the front in Bosnia. Elsewhere, on 17 September Western news agencies carried related stories, with one account saying that 69,000 out of 400,000 Muslims had fled the Sandzak in the face of "provocations." Other accounts told of similar moves directed at the ethnic Hungarians in Vojvodina. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) ATTEMPT TO EXPORT ARMS TO FORMER YUGOSLAVIA STOPPED. Czechoslovak TV reported on 17 September that a private Czechoslovak firm, Ikona Frydlant, attempted to export five Soviet-made MI-8 attack helicopters to former Yugoslavia, most likely to Croatia. At least one of the helicopters was obtained in Poland. The shipment was stopped by Czechoslovak authorities. An official at the Ministry of Foreign Trade said that under Czechoslovak law the company's officials cannot be punished but the helicopters can be confiscated. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) BULGARIAN, MACEDONIAN OFFICIALS MEET. Bulgarian Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov met with a delegation of officials from the Republic of Macedonia led by Vice President Jovan Andonov on 17 September, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. Present for the discussions, which focused on trade and other economic issues, were Rumen Bikov and Aleksandar Pramatarski, Bulgarian ministers of trade and industry, respectively, and Petrush Stefanov, minister of economics of the Macedonian republic. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER TO BUCHAREST. On 16 and 17 September Milan Knazko, minister of international relations and vice-president of the Slovak government, paid an official visit to Romania. Knazko held talks with Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase, Trade and Tourism Minister Constantin Fota, and other Romanian officials. He was also received by Prime Minister Theodor Stolojan. The talks focused on political, economic and cultural cooperation. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) GERMANY TO SEND BACK ROMANIAN ASYLUM-SEEKERS. The German Interior Ministry announced on 17 September that Bucharest agreed to take back thousands of Romanian citizens who failed to obtain political asylum in Germany. Western agencies said that German Interior Minister Rudolf Seiters will sign an agreement on the deportation next week in Bucharest. Deportations will begin on 1 November. So far this year, more than 43,000 Romanian citizens--of whom about 60% are Gypsies--have applied for asylum in Germany. Romania declared itself ready to accept even those refugees who had destroyed their identity papers in order to prevent repatriation. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIANS PROTEST SOCCER INCIDENT IN BRATISLAVA. According to CSTK, 16 people were injured on 16 September in Bratislava during a European Championship Cup match between Slovan Bratislava and Ferencvaros Budapest. It was not clear how many injuries were caused by police called in to suppress fights between Slovak and Hungarian fans, but CSTK described the police action as "brutal." 250 policemen took part in the action. The Hungarian Foreign Ministry made an official protest to Czechoslovakia. Hungarian Foreign Ministry spokesman Janos Herman told MTI that video films and eyewitness accounts indicate that the Slovak police indiscriminately beat up and seriously injured many of the estimated 7000 defenseless Hungarian fans. Some Hungarian police officials who witnessed the incident, however, defended their Slovak colleagues saying that Hungarian fans provoked the police action. (Jiri Pehe & Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.) LEWANDOWSKI SURVIVES DISMISSAL VOTE. Voting on 18 September, the Sejm narrowly rejected a motion to dismiss Polish Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski. The vote was 189 to 174 with 36 abstentions; the abstentions counted as "no" votes. The postcommunist and patriotic-fundamentalist opposition parties banded together in the attack on Lewandowski. The KPN, which sponsored the motion, had based its charges on a state audit for 1991 that criticized the privatization ministry for undervaluing state assets and overspending on foreign consultants. The KPN did not conceal, however, that its larger aim was to bring privatization to a halt. The close vote reveals the fragility of the government's parliamentary base and suggests that new challenges from supporters of state socialism are likely. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH GOVERNMENT COUNTERS COALITION SPECULATION. Although cabinet members admit that the government needs 30 more votes in the Sejm to secure a stable majority for its programs, the prime minister's press secretary told Polish TV on 17 September that "the government is not considering expanding the coalition." Jan Maria Rokita, minister for public administration, said the same day that "we aren't going to beg anyone for help." The government has nothing against expanding the coalition to include the Center Alliance or the Peasant Party, he said, but the initiative would have to come from the parties themselves. The Center Alliance, which had walked out on the original coalition at the last minute in July, met outside Warsaw earlier in the week to debate--apparently inconclusively--whether to join the hard-line opposition or parley for a place in the government. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) SAVOV UNDER ATTACK IN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. Stefan Savov, president of the Bulgarian National Assembly, is under fire from opponents in the Bulgarian Socialist Party and the predominantly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms, an RFE/RL corespondent reports. Savov, who has been accused by his detractors of bias and intolerance regarding those who do not share his views, is currently the head of the Democratic Party, an organization which is part of the ruling Union of Democratic Forces coalition. The proceedings could begin against him as early as 18 September and will likely generate bitter debate. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS ON RETURN OF KGB FILES. On 16 September the two delegations discussed the return of KGB files, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. The deputy chairman of the commission to return KGB archives, Sajudis chairman Juozas Tumelis, noted that although the talks were long and boring, they were positive since Russia no longer disputes Lithuania's right to have them. Expressing concern that the files on the so-called "national defenders" might be used to prosecute these agents for genocide, Russia said that they should remain in Russia under joint control. Lithuania, however, would only agree to this if they were kept in a third country. Groups of experts are to prepare a protocol on limiting access to the files, especially for journalists, for the next meeting, scheduled for 2 October. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS FROM LITHUANIA. The Lithuanian government commissioner for army withdrawal problems, Stasys Knezys, noted that Russia has started serious preparations for its troops to leave Lithuania by asking permission to take out equipment and other property, BNS reported on 17 September. Household goods are removed first, followed by military cargoes and fighting equipment. Battle equipment has been taken apart and removed only from missile complexes such as those near Klaipeda and Vilnius. Knezys noted that the number of Russian troops has decreased by 12,000 since the beginning of the year due to Lithuania's efforts not to allow new recruits. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) ELECTION CONTROVERSY HEATS UP. A three-member team of investigators appointed by rival election coalitions in Estonia has found no evidence of KGB collaboration among the four candidates standing for president in the 20 September elections, BNS reports. The investigative commission, however, confirmed the authenticity of documents suggesting that the father of presidential candidate Lennart Meri was a high-level KGB agent. Meri denies charges that his father, interwar diplomat Georg Meri, was a collaborator, but the commission's findings have rocked the Lennart Meri campaign just three days before elections. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) BALTIC ADMISSION TO CE EXPECTED AFTER ELECTIONS. The Baltic States are expected to be admitted as full members of the Council of Europe after they hold new parliamentary elections. Currently they have a guest status. The decision to admit each country separately came at the request of the EC Executive Commission after it had considered a report critical of Estonia's treatment of its Russian minority, according to RFE/RL correspondent's report of 15 September. Latvian Supreme Council deputy Andrejs Pantelejevs told the press on 16 September that the Baltic States can hope to become EC members sometime in 1993, but not simultaneously, since the pace of political development in each country is different. He also noted EC objections to capital punishment, which is still allowed in the Baltics, BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) NATO TO TRAIN BALTIC OFFICERS? An Estonian defense official says that NATO is willing to help train Baltic officers. According to BNS of 17 September, Deputy Chief of the General Staff Col. Raul Luks said NATO officials had issued Estonia invitations for five officers to study at the organization's schools in Rome and Stuttgart. Luks was given the invitations at a NATO seminar held this week in Brussels. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIA RATIFIES ACCORD WITH CE. On 16 September the Latvian Supreme Council ratified an accord with the European Community on commercial and economic cooperation. The ten-year agreement signed on 11 May, grants Latvia most-favored-nation status in trade with EC member states and can be renewed every year automatically if neither side objects. On 16 September the Latvian Supreme Council also ratified the 1 March 1954 Hague Convention which, among other things, restricts the use of weapons, BNS reports. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) SKODA PLZEN TO STOP PRODUCTION. CSTK reported on 17 September that Skoda Plzen, the largest heavy-engineering plant in the Czech Republic, will cease production on 1 October because of lack of cash. According to plant officials, the shortage is caused partly by the fact that Czechoslovak State Railways owes the company 1.3 billion koruny that cannot be collected. The company itself owes 4.4 billion koruny and creditor banks have refused to postpone the payment. Earlier this year, Skoda Plzen successfully concluded several joint venture deals with Western companies, including the German firm Siemens. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND'S STRIKE BALANCE. With the resumption of production at the FSM auto plant in Tychy on 17 September, relative labor peace returns to Poland. FSM's management rehired all those fired for organizing the 55-day strike there. Poland's statistical office reports that the August strike wave did not affect the overall level of industrial production, which in August exceeded 1991 levels for the fifth month running. Thirty strikes ended in August, including twelve in the copper mining and smelting industry. Some 30,000 workers took part. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka met with Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski on 17 September to open talks on the "pact on state firms." Krzaklewski said that Solidarity would not negotiate jointly with the former official OPZZ federation, a measure the government hoped would save time. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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UPI NEWS, 21.09.92. --------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav peace chief warns Bosnian Serb leader Subject: Fighting, shelling resume in Sarajevo after day-long break Subject: Serb-organized protests by women, children block aid convoy Subject: Bosnia-Hercegovina rejects ``ethnic cleansing' Subject: Bosnian leader urges U.N. to enforce terms of London peace conference ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav peace chief warns Bosnian Serb leader Date: 21 Sep 92 14:58:28 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- U.N. mediator Cyrus Vance warned Radovan Karadzic, leader of the Bosnian Serbs, during the weekend that continued fighting in Sarajevo may bring peace efforts to a halt, U.N. sources said Monday. Fred Eckhard, spokesman for the U.N., said he could not confirm the report although he said that Vance and Karadzic met in what he described as a ``one-on-one situation'' Sunday. ``But it is clear that if the fighting in Sarajevo continues the search for a political solution is going to intensify as the fighting intensifies,'' Eckhard told a news conference. ``This could be a last spasm of fighting or it could be a renewed and more deadly flareup -- we just don't know. But it is not going to make the climate in the political talks easier.'' Karadzic left Geneva Monday along with other delegates, although all three factions involved -- Serbs, Croats and Muslims -- promised to keep delegations in place to continue talking with U.N. official Martti Ahtisaari. Ahtisaari will continue talks through the week, while Vance and Lord David Owen, the European Community's mediator, will fly to Greece Tuesday for a one-day visit to discuss the crisis in ex-Yugoslavia, Eckhard said. Eckhard said this was part of a program under which Vance and Owen would visit all neighboring states of the former republic to discuss its future in the wake of its breakup. Meanwhile, the U.N. High Commission for Refugees said it was awaiting replies from the 19 nations involved in its airlift to Sarajevo before deciding whether to resume aid flights. All three parties involved in the conflict agreed Saturday that security guarantees would be given to U.N. aircraft flying into and out of of Sarajevo airport. But a UNHCR spokesman said High Commissioner Sadakao Ogata was consulting with the 19 and would not announce when the airlift would be resumed before she had agreement from all of them. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fighting, shelling resume in Sarajevo after day-long break Date: 21 Sep 92 16:22:20 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Heavy fighting raged Monday around Sarajevo, shattering a one-day lull in serious strife and cutting power to most of the city in what the Bosnian government charged was a Serbian breach of a new internationally brokered accord. Shellfire and infantry duels began around 8 a.m. across the tree- studded ridgelines and slopes of Zuc mountain, which divides the Bosnian-controlled northern verge of Sarajevo and Serb-held areas around the town of Vogosca, and raged throughout the day. Fighting and shellfire also flared in several neighborhoods near the downtown and convulsed hotly contested western suburbs near the U.N.- controlled airport, witnesses and news reports said. The Health Ministry said that at least 22 people were killed and 64 others injured in Sarajevo during the 24-hour period ending at 1 p.m. They were among at least 55 people who died and 296 others who were injured around the war-torn republic. Shortly after 10 a.m., electricity was cut to most of the town. The Bosnian government blamed the disruption on the destruction of a 110- kilowatt feeder cable by Serbian forces bent on ``using electricity...as a method of pressure against the citizens of Sarajevo.'' There was no independent confirmation of the charge. The allegation was made by Energy and Industry Minister Rusmir Mahmutcehajic in a letter to U.N. special envoy Cyrus Vance and European Community mediator Lord David Owen, the co-chairmen of the ongoing Geneva peace talks. Matmutcehajic said the alleged Serbian act violated an accord reached in Geneva on Sunday in which the warring Bosnian factions agreed to safeguard electricity and water sources. He urged Vance and Owen to work for a return of electricity to Sarajevo, which recently enjoyed a restoration of power after U.N.- brokered repairs to Serb-sabotaged supplies. The clashes and shelling also preceded the resumption in Geneva of the latest round of internationally mediated talks on ending the war that began when extremist Serbs, backed by neighboring Serbia, set out in late March to capture a self-declared state. The division of the newly independent former Yugoslav republic is opposed by Bosnian forces, dominated by Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Croats and Serbs. But, they maintain an uneasy alliance with Croatia-backed ultra-nationalist Croats seeking an autonomous enclave. U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) officials were awaiting word from Geneva on a final decision on the resumption of humanitarian aid flights that were suspended when an Italian military plane was shot down Oct. 3 as it approached Sarajevo. Larry Hollingsworth, the chief UNHCR coordinator for the city, said the city's population of an estimated 500,medicines available to the city, which has been under Serbian blockade for more than five months. UNPROFOR sources confirmed serious fighting along the front spanning Zuc mountain, where fierce clashes erupted on Friday as Serbian units apparently sought to drive back Bosnian forces bent on breaking the siege of the city. Nirmin Silajdzic, a Bosnian officer in the frontline suburb of Hotonj on the eastern edge of Zuc, said Serbian gunners laid down intense artillery barrages in advance of a ``wave'' of infantry attacks, which he claimed were beaten back. ``They can't manage to get through our lines,'' he said. Witnesses said fighting then erupted around Stup, a western suburb that tank-backed Serbian units have been trying to capture for just over a week in an apparent attempt to consolidate their grip on the potentially weakest point in their blockade. UNPROFOR officers said artillery rounds flew over the top of their headquarters on the western side of the city. Explosions and gunfire marked outbreaks of clashes in Hrasno, located about a half-mile from the city center, and Sarajevo radio said Serbian shellfire hit parts of the downtown and the suburbs of Mojmilo and Dobrinja. Tens of thousands of people have been killed and injured and in excess of 1 million others uprooted by the war. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serb-organized protests by women, children block aid convoy Date: 21 Sep 92 15:00:53 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Local Serbian authorities organized protests by women and children to prevent a U.N. aid convoy from reaching a beseiged Muslim Slav town in a new tactic that has prompted a review of relief delivery plans, a U.N. official said Monday. ``It's easy to stop a convoy with women and kids, and it's very difficult to do anything about it,'' said Larry Hollingsworth, the chief U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) coordinator in the Bosnia- Hercegovina capital of Sarajevo. ``The implications are very worrying,'' Hollingsworth said in an interview. He said that because of the incident, UNHCR is reconsidering plans to send desperately needed food and medicines this week to Jajce, 105 miles northwest of Sarajevo, a predominantly Muslim Slav town under intense Serbian attack for weeks. ``We have to step back and watch,'' he said. Hollingsworth said that he set out Friday to lead a convoy of seven relief-bearing trucks and nine support and U.N. military protection vehicles to Srebrenica, a Muslim Slav town about 50 miles east of Sarajevo. Murat Effendic, a Srebrenica official based in Sarajevo, said Serbian fighters for more than five months have encircled and bombarded the town, where at least 37,200 people are trapped with little food or medical supplies. Leaders of the self-declared state for which extremist Serbs are fighting agreed to allow the UNHCR convoy into Srebrenica. After driving virtually all night, Hollingsworth said, the convoy was forced Saturday morning to abandon its original route by mines laid on a road outside the Serb-controlled town of Milici. The column detoured via Serb-held Bratunac, where ``we were stopped on the main street by a large group of women dressed in black and children,'' Hollingsworth said. ``They began to shout 'Why no food for us? Why should you feed people who are killing us?' There were about 100 women and children. They blocked the road completely and we just couldn't get through,'' Hollingsworth recounted. He said the protesters demanded they be given the relief supplies carried on half of the aid-bearing trucks. ``We went back to Milici to try again. When we got there, a bridge was absolutely jam-packed with kids,'' he said. ``They were shouting 'Go away, go back.' They were about five-years-old and up. They were being orchestrated by two women in uniforms.'' ``We tried to reason with them, but it was no use and the convoy returned to Sarajevo,'' he said. Hollingsworth said the protests were organized by local Serbian leaders in an unprecedented tactic of the more than five-month-old war to prevent U.N. relief supplies from reaching Muslim Slav recipients. ``We had approval from the topmost Serbian authorities to get in and I have no doubt that they wanted us to get in. The protests were orchestrated by local Serbs,'' Hollingsworth said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnia-Hercegovina rejects ``ethnic cleansing' Date: 21 Sep 92 17:04:33 GMT Geneva (UPI) -- The government of Bosnia-Hercegovina told United Nations mediators Monday it rejects ``ethnic cleansing'' on its racially-mixed territory and pledged that all racial groups would be proportionally represented in state bodies in the future. The pledge was made in a document handed by the Bosnia-Hercegovina delegation to Cyrus Vance, the chief U.N. mediator in talks now going on here on the future of the former Yugoslavia. Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic told a news conference later the document was proof of his country's good faith in the talks, largely bogged down in mistrust for the past two weeks. ``Bosnia-Hercegovina is an independent, sovereign and internationally recognized state of peoples with equal rights -- Croats, Muslims, Sedrbs and all others,'' he said. ``We all have to live together.'' Silajdzic spoke as Vance and Lord David Owen, the European Community mediator in the talks, continued their round of meetings with representatives of the Serbian community in Bosnia-Hercegovina, the Croatian minority and with the government itself. The talks are a spinoff of the larger UN-EC peace conference which has been going on here since early September. Vance had earlier met with Radovan Karadzic, leader of the Bosnian Serbs. U.N. sources said he had warned no meaningful progress was possible until the fighting stops in Sarajevo. Fred Eckhard, the U.N. spokesman, said it was hard to tell whether the shooting which was going on Sunday night and early Monday was simply the residue of previous fighting or a new outbreak. Meanwhile United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Sadako Ogata continued her consultations with the 19 nations involved in the U.N. Sarajevo airlift, on whether they are prepared to resume regular flights ore not. A test flight by a U.N. plane Sunday made it safely but U.N. sources said despite the fact Mrs. Ogata had won written promises from all three warring factions in Bosnia-Hercegovina on Saturday that they would respect a resumed airlift, some countries are still wary of resuming flights. An Italian plane on U.N. business was shot down, apparently by a missile, two weeks ago, halting the airlift. Mrs. Ogata's office said she was hoping to resume it ``momentarily'' but did not yet have the agreement of all 19 countries concerned. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnian leader urges U.N. to enforce terms of London peace conference Date: 21 Sep 92 21:41:05 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The president of Bosnia-Hercegovina appealed Monday for the United Nations to either enforce the terms of the London peace conference among the former Yugoslav republics or lift sanctions against his country ``to allow us to defend ourselves.'' President Alijah Izetbegovich told the U.N. General Assembly he wanted to create a constitutional commission that would include all ethnic and religious groups in his embattled republic to write a constitution for a multi-ethnic society that would be a ``living and breathing Jackson Pollack painting.'' He rejected the partition of his republic into warring enclaves of Serbs, Croatians and Muslim Slavs as ``impractical and immoral,'' and said if the United Nations could not enforce the terms of the London peace conference ``then I ask you to allow us to defend ourselves,'' a reference to the U.N. arms embargo in the region. Izetbegovich's emotional appeal came amid a day of speeches to the General Assembly by leaders from around the world, including one by President Bush, who joined many other officials throughout the day in discussing issues related to the war in the Balkins. Iranian Foreign Minister Ali-Akbar Velayati, whose Islamic government strongly supports Muslim Slavs in Bosnia-Hercegovina, told the General Assembly that the Bosnian Serb attacks on Muslims were ``crimes...with few parallels in the post World War II.'' Velayati called for the Security Council to put an end to the Serbs' ``aggression'' and urged the Bosnian people to defend themselves. He also said Iran would welcome any move to end the ``fratridical bloodshed'' in Afghanistan and called for talks to settle communal disputes in Azerbaijan and Armenia. President Bush called Monday for the world body to strengthen its ability to ``prevent, contain and resolve conflicts across the globe'' and offered to provide U.S. logistic and training facilities to assist the peace-keeping effort. But Bush, in a 30-minute address to the General Assembly, did not mention whether he intended to pay the $733 million the United States owes to the United Nations, which is facing a severe cash and personnel shortage to carry out its peace-keeping operations. Bush's remarks raised eyebrows in the hall because except for small observer missions, the United States has never taken part in U.N. peace- keeping activities since 1945, in part because the success of the U.N. peace-keeping operations depend upon neutrality. The majority of peacekeepers come from Nordic countries, Canada and non-aligned countries. The U.S. president, making his fourth appearance before the General Assembly, strongly endorsed Secretary-General Boutros Ghali's ``Agenda for Peace,'' which calls for the establishment of a standing army to sent be immediately to areas where a conflict threatens to explode. The standing army, to which each country would contribute one infantry battalion, would be placed under United Nations command. Each country would be called to defray the cost of maintaining the battalion, thus easing the United Nations' cash crunch. ``I welcome the secretary-general's call for a new agenda to strengthen the United Nations' ability to prevent, contain and resolve conflicts across the globe,'' Bush said. ``I call upon all members to join me and take bold steps to advance that agenda,'' he said. The first speaker to the podium Monday was Brazilian Foreign Minsiter Celso Lafer. Brazil has been the traditional first speaker to open the political debate of the assembly, which this year comprises 179 member states. Lafer as well as Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Mock voiced support for Ghali's Agenda for Peace. More than 40 heads of state and government, and scores of foreign ministers have asked the right to speak in the first three weeks of the 47th General Assembly session. The war in Yugoslavia, reform of the United Nations and economic woes in developing countries will receive particular attention from the assembly.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 182, 22 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR ISKANDAROV WARNS TAJIK GROUPS TO STOP FIGHTING. On 21 September, the chairman of Tajikistan's Supreme Soviet, Akbarsho Iskandarov, issued a warning to the leaders of armed groups that are still fighting each other in the countryside, ITAR-TASS reported. Iskandarov, who is the acting president of the country, threatened that if the fighting does not stop by 24 September, force will be used to disarm the opposing sides. He did not say what force would be used--Tajik militiamen have been ordered to stay out of the fighting and the country has no armed forces of its own--but in the last week various government and opposition figures have suggested that a CIS peacekeeping force might not be a bad idea after all. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) KARABAKH UPDATE. The situation in Nagorno-Karabakh remains unclear, with Azerbaijani and Karabakh defense officials making contradictory claims over casualty figures in recent days and control of the Lachin corridor linking Karabakh with Armenia. Interfax quoted Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan as stating that a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh would be "a good prerequisite" for a meeting with his Azerbaijani counterpart Abulfaz Elchibey. Addressing the UN General Assembly, Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati criticized the Security Council for not sending observers to monitor Iranian-brokered ceasefire agreements in Karabakh earlier this year. Velayati said the Karabakh conflict can only be solved through negotiations, preserving the territorial integrity of both states involved, according to an RFE-RL correspondent's report. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA CONCERNED AT ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE VIOLATIONS. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Aleksandr Rozanov told a press conference in Moscow on 21 September that Moscow is "most profoundly concerned" that Abkhazia and Georgia are not complying with the terms of the 3 September Abkhaz ceasefire agreement, ITAR-TASS reported. Georgian deputies to the Abkhaz parliament accused the Abkhaz of "totally ignoring" the ceasefire. Meanwhile Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani extended the curfew in Sukhumi for a further month and appointed Colonel Gubaz Urashvili as city commandant to replace Giorgi Gulua. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) CONFLICT IN PARLIAMENT. Right-wing factions in the Russian parliament, organized in the "Russian Unity" bloc, plan to remove President Boris Yeltsin and his reformist government from power, Western news agencies reported on 20 September. "Russian Unity" intends to form a government of national confidence and hold parliamentary elections next year. The democrats in the parliament prefer to defend Yeltsin and impeach the conservative parliamentary speaker, Ruslan Khasbulatov. The Civic Union seeks a centrist role and opposes the removal of Yeltsin or Khasbulatov. Meanwhile, acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar predicted that he would survive an expected onslaught at the forthcoming session of the parliament. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) KHASBULATOV ATTACKS GOVERNMENT. The speaker of the Russian parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov, attacked the government on the eve of the opening of parliament. In an interview with Ostankino TV on 21 September, he strongly criticized Deputy Prime Minister for Privatization, Anatolii Chubais, for "ignoring laws adopted by the parliament." The liberal deputy Viktor Sheinis has warned of a "personal dictatorship" by Khasbulatov. He told ITAR-TASS on the same day that Khasbulatov wants to transform the parliament into a "ministry for adopting laws." The first deputy speaker, Sergei Filatov, accused Khasbulatov of creating a new administrative-command system through the parliament, Radio Rossii reported on 20 September. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) AVEN, MOZHIN ON YEAR-END ECONOMIC FIGURES. Minister of Foreign Economic Relations, Petr Aven, and senior negotiator on debt issues, Alexei Mozhin, told reporters in Washington that Russian industrial production can be expected to fall 30% by the end of 1992, according to Western news agencies on 21 September. The figure represents an accelerated decline from the 13-15% drop from the period between last June and this June, 21.5% from July to July, and 27.5% from August 1991 to August 1992. Aven and Mozhin also said that September's inflation rate in Russia was 20%, much higher than the 7-8% officially reported for July and August. Despite the increase, Aven claimed, by year-end a 9% inflation rate was a "realistic figure." (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) GAIDAR CALLS FOR STRICTER FINANCIAL POLICIES. Russian Prime Minister Egor Gaidar has added some detail to his call last week for tougher fiscal and monetary policies. According to Interfax on 21 September, Gaidar said at a conference in Moscow that since April, national financial policy has been too lax. He devoted particular criticism to the Central Bank for overly expansionary credit policies, and to Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko personally for interfering in strictly governmental affairs. "I would like the Central Bank president to understand that he is responsible not for investment policies, nor for socialist economy..., but for monetary and credit policies," he said. Gaidar reportedly also expressed his support for requiring Russian exporters to sell all their hard currency revenues to the state at some fixed exchange rate. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV, OTHER LEADERS, TO TESTIFY IN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. The Constitutional Court has agreed at last to call former CPSU leaders to testify at the current hearings that will decide the legality of President Yeltsin's decree banning banning the activities of the Communist Party and confiscating its property, Russian TV newscasts announced on 21 September. The leaders invited to testify include former CPSU General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, former leader of the Russian Communist party, Ivan Polozkov, former Politburo members Egor Ligachev, Nikolai Ryzhkov and Aleksandr Yakovlev, and the Director of the KGB and former Minister of Internal Affairs, Vadim Bakatin. The "Novosti" anchor reminded the audience of an earlier interview with Mihail Gorbachev, during which the former General Secretary had declared that he would never testify at the hearing, even if he were delivered to the court in handcuffs. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN COULD SUSPEND BUT NOT BAN THE COMMUNIST PARTY, EXPERTS SAY. Three of the four legal experts who have testified since the Constitutional Court resumed its hearings on 15 September (Boris Lazarev, Yurii Eremenko and Aleksei Mitskevich) have agreed that only the first of the three decrees issued by President Yeltsin on the Communist Party was justified. The decree, issued by Yeltsin the day after the attempted coup against Gorbachev on 23 August 1991, stated that the activities of the Soviet and Russian Federation's Communist Parties would be suspended until the court investigated their involvement in the coup. Two other decrees, dated 25 August and 6 November, 1991 respectively, announced the confiscation of the party's property and a ban of its organizational activities. According to the experts, only the Russian Supreme Court, not the president, who is merely the chief executive in Russia, is entitled by law to ban public organizations and confiscate property. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN TO SIGN DECREE ON DEVELOPING DISPUTED ISLANDS. Sakhalin regional government chief Valentin Fedorov has told a Japanese newspaper that Russian President Boris Yeltsin intends shortly to sign a decree promoting the development of the four southern Kuril islands claimed by Japan. Fyordorov's interview was carried by the Asahi Shimbun on 21 September, and was reported by UPI. He told the newspaper that Yeltsin's decree would allow firms on the islands to dispose independently of their products and would simplify the procedures for setting up corporations, including joint ventures, on the islands. On 18 September Nagao Hyodo, an official of the Japanese Foreign Ministry, warned Russia that a plan for a Hong Kong firm to develop tourist facilities on one of the islands was "unacceptable." He also expressed concern about a reported deal in which an Austrian company would build a golf course on another of the disputed islands. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) "GORBACHEV" CAR STOLEN. One of the three "Volga" cars of the Gorbachev Foundation has been stolen, according to "Novosti" of 20 September. The "Novosti" anchor cited a Moscow police official as suggesting that the crime must have been an inside job, perpetrated by a person familiar with the workshift of the Foundation's guards. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) JOUSTING OVER BLACK SEA FLEET CONTINUES. The press center of the Ukrainian Navy in Sevastopol said on 21 September that 50 officers from the Higher Naval Academy in that city had taken the oath of loyalty to Ukraine, bringing the number of officers that have sworn loyalty to Ukraine to about 50% of the total. At the Sevastopol naval engineering school, the rate was reported to be over 60%. The figures were reported by Interfax. It also reported that Russian and Ukrainian working groups were scheduled to resume negotiations concerning the fleet on 23 September. On 18 September, Interfax had said that the talks were scheduled to reopen on 21 September. (Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc.) MEETING OF UKRAINIAN AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTERS. The foreign ministers of Ukraine and Russia, Anatolii Zlenko and Andrei Kozyrev, met in New York on 20 September, ITAR-TASS reported. The two diplomats exchanged views on world affairs and problems confronting the current session of the UN General Assembly. Special emphasis was placed on preparation of the Ukrainian-Russian treaty and economic relations between the two countries. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE (AGAIN) THREATENS TO RESIGN. Having threatened in late July to resign if Georgian troops used force to quell armed resistance in Mingrelia by supporters of ousted President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Eduard Shevardnadze again stated on 21 September that he would step down if ongoing violence threatens to jeopardize the parliamentary elections scheduled for 11 October, according to Radio Tbilisi. Shots were fired during the night of 21-22 September at the State Council headquarters in Tbilisi but noone was injured, ITAR-TASS reported. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) PONTIC GREEKS FLEEING ABKHAZIA. Ethnic Greeks, of whom there were 14,664 in Abkhazia at the time of the 1989 census, are fleeing Abkhazia and other southern regions of the former USSR in whole families to escape persecution, according to a statement released in Athens by the Pan-Hellenic Union of Pontic Fugitives and summarized on 21 September by ITAR-TASS. The homes of many Greeks in Sukhumi have been attacked by Georgian troops. The Greek government has so far ignored repeated requests from the refugees for assistance. Greek emigration from the USSR last year stood at approximately 2,000 per month. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) ACTING PREMIER APPOINTED IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajikistan's acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov has appointed Abdumalik Abdullodzhanov acting Prime Minister to replace Akbar Mirzoev, who resigned in August, ITAR-TASS reported on 21 September. Mirzoev was a native of Kulyab Oblast and a close associate of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev. The 43 year old Abdullodzhanov is apparently one of the new Tajik entrepreneurs--he has been general director of a holding company called "Non" (Bread). (Bess Brown , RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV IN GERMANY. On 21 September, the first day of his official visit to Germany, Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev told KazTAG and TASS correspondents that he had met not only with German President Richard von Weisacker, but had discussed financial help to German-populated regions of Kazakhstan with Economics Minister Juergen Moelleman, and technical assistance in reorganizing Kazakhstan's banking system with the head of the Deutsche Bank. The bank is interested in investing in extractive industries in Kazakhstan. An agreement was signed with Siemens to build medical equipment and telecommunications equipment factories in Kazakhstan. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN-MOLDOVAN TROOP TALKS. The second round of bilateral talks on the status and terms of withdrawal of Russia's 14th Army from Moldova, held on 16 and 17 September in Chisinau, "ended without any results," Interfax reported. Moldovan delegation head and ambassador to Russia, Petru Lucinschi, told the Moldovan media that future negotiations will be "lengthy and difficult" and that the chief gain thus far is Russia's consent to negotiate at all and recognition that its troops are based in a sovereign state. Lucinschi indicated that Moldova would agree to a withdrawal of Russian troops by 1994 but that Russia would not discuss any dates as yet. President Mircea Snegur assured the Russian delegates that the Moldovan army would welcome in its ranks officers and NCOs of the 14th Army after the latter's withdrawal. Snegur also urged the inclusion of "Dniester" Russian leaders in the talks since they will eventually have to persuade their people to accept the Army's withdrawal. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA LINKS WITHDRAWAL T0 ADDITIONAL ISSUES. Russia's ambassador to Moldova and chief delegate to the troop talks, Vladimir Plechko, told the Moldovan media on 17 September that the talks are based on the Yeltsin-Snegur convention of 21 July on settling the conflict in eastern Moldova and on "other issues pertaining to interstate relations." The statement confirms earlier indications that Russia seeks to link an eventual withdrawal of the troops to the Dniester conflict and other issues and obtain concessions from Moldova on those issues. Russia also confirmed the decision, taken at the first round of talks in August, to withdraw a pontoon unit (nominally a regiment but currently down to battalion strength) from Bendery on the right bank of the Dniester. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT REACHES OUT TO GAGAUZ. In a conciliatory gesture of a kind that has previously been spurned, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur travelled to Comrat raion to meet with "Gagauz republic Supreme Soviet Chairman" Mikhail Kendigelyan and with the chairmen of the Soviets of the three raions in which the Gagauz form majorities or pluralities of the population, Moldovapres reported on 18 September. While the agenda of the talks was kept confidential, Moldova's Presidential Office told a RFR/RL Research Institute correspondent that Snegur offered the Gagauz administrative-territorial autonomy in the form of a "national county" within Moldova. The concept has been under discussion for some time by a special joint commission of the Moldovan parliament and government. Snegur invited Gagauz representatives to Chisinau for negotiations on this basis in the coming days. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) GAGAUZ MILITANTS ERECT "BORDER" AGAINST MOLDOVA. The militant Gagauz "self-defense detachments" commanded by Ivan Burguji, which have been armed by ex-Soviet troops stationed nearby, and which conducted several successful guerrilla attacks on Moldovan authorities this year, have begun erecting a "border" to separate the territory of the "Gagauz republic" from Moldova. The armed detachments guard the "border," illegally subjecting travellers to checks and searches. Moldova's Presidential Office feels that the move is an effort to torpedo Snegur's negotiations with the Gagauz. Although politically marginal among their people, the "self-defense detachments" have previously frustrated attempts by Gagauz moderates to reach a compromise with Chisinau. (Vladimir Socor , RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE PANIC AT THE UNITED NATIONS. Western agencies report that Milan Panic, Prime Minister of the rump Yugoslavia, arrived in New York on 21 September and met overnight with the foreign ministers of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The meeting, arranged by Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev at the Russian Mission, heard Panic discuss a new peace proposal. Panic will be allowed to appeal his country's status to the UN General Assembly on the 22nd. In accordance with the UNSC recommendation of the 20th, however, the assembly is expected to vote in favor of excluding "Yugoslavia." US President Bush addressed the UNGA on 21 September at the start of its three-week debate on the crisis in the former Yugoslavia. Bush called for strengthening UN peacekeeping operations and offered the use of US military facilities for the training of UN troops. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL, Inc.) NEW FRAMEWORK FOR BOSNIA PROPOSED. On 21 September Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic proposed a new constitutional framework for the republic to the Geneva conference on Yugoslavia. The plan would preserve Bosnia as a single state but decentralize some functions to different regions. This is an apparent attempt to appease Bosnian Serbs, who have called for partition of the republic along ethnic lines, Western agencies report. Relief flights have still not been resumed into Sarajevo, where severe fighting continues. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL, Inc.) NEW CHIEF MUFTI IN BULGARIA. On 19 September Fikri Sali Hasan, the 29-year-old regional mufti for Kardzhali, was chosen as grand mufti of Bulgaria, Radio Sofia reports. His appointment was announced at the conclusion of the National Conference of the Muslim Faithful in Bulgaria, where 665 representatives of congregations from throughout the country selected him. Hasan's appointment brings to an end the conflict between reformers and those who had supported Nedim Gendzhev, the former grand mufti, who had been appointed during the communist years. Gendzhev was accused of working for the state security apparatus and was criticized for his passivity throughout the late 1980s when the government attempted to force the Bulgarization of ethnic Turks. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK FEDERAL ASSEMBLY TO DEBATE BREAKUP. The Czechoslovak parliament is scheduled to debate a draft law on possible modes of division of the Czechoslovak federation. The law provides for four different ways of dissolving the federation, and the debate will proceed along lines worked out by the two republics' leaders, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus and his Slovak counterpart, Vladimir Meciar. It remains highly questionable, however, that Parliament will approve legislation, which would require the support of a three-fifths majority. Not only are large groups among the opposition expected to vote against dissolution, but individual representatives of the ruling parties are said to favor a nationwide referendum on the future of Czechoslovakia rather than having Parliament decide. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) REGISTRATION OF SEIMAS CANDIDATES COMPLETED. The deadline for registering candidates for Lithuania's 25 October Seimas elections was midnight 20 September. The chairman of the Main Election Commission Vaclovas Litvinas announced that 8 political parties and 18 sociopolitical movements have formally registered, Radio Lithuania reports. There will be more than 800 candidates competing for the 70 seats distributed proportionally, and more than 400 candidates for the 71 single-mandate seats. Various right-wing coalitions that signed the "Accord for a Democratic Lithuania" on 19 September will at times compete against each other in the single-mandate districts since their component parts have registered 126 candidates. The lists of candidates will be published in the newspapers on Friday. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) ANTALL DEFENDS CSURKA. Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall said in a interview with Newsweek that the uproar surrounding recent allegedly racist and anti-Semitic statements by Istvan Csurka, one of six vice presidents of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum, has been overblown and it is only a domestic political issue. Antall also said that he does not believe Csurka is a Nazi and that the statement Csurka published in late August represents his own personal opinion. Csurka is a writer, a Hungarian enfant terrible, "a devilish child in political life who has a fancy for taking risks," continued Antall. In the same interview, Antall said that Hungary will do everything possible not to become involved in the Yugoslav crisis but strongly supports autonomy for Hungarians living in the Serbian province of Vojvodina. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) NEW DIRECTIONS FOR HUNGARIAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES. Tibor Fuzessy, minister in charge of intelligence, counterintelligence, and antiterrorism, said that Hungary is redirecting its attention to neighboring countries instead of the West, MTI reports. This is necessary because these countries are vigorously building up their spy networks in Hungary. Hungarian agents, earlier employed in the West, are being relocated to the neighboring countries, Fuzessy said. Also, despite the cleanup in the security agencies, most staff is left over from the communist past due to the special nature of the work. New personnel in the agencies will come only after years or even decades, Fuzessy said. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT IN ISRAEL. Arpad Goncz met on 21 September with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin during the Hungarian president's four-day official visit in Israel, MTI reports. At a joint press conference Goncz stressed that Hungarian Jews now living in Israel are a most important bond between the two countries and said that, despite the appearance of some "old and dusty ideas," no responsible political force in Hungary tolerates anti-Semitic or racist ideas. Rabin said that Israel is worried about recent extremist and sometimes anti-Semitic incidents in Europe, from which Hungary is not exempt, but expressed hope that they are only the actions of a small minority. Goncz also met with Jerusalem's mayor, and visited the Holocaust Memorial Park, the Knesset, and Bethlehem. In the evening Goncz was received at a reception hosted by Israeli President Chaim Herzog. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) ILIESCU QUIZZED ON RADIO BUCHAREST. As part of his campaign for reelection in the 27 September election, Romanian President Ion Iliescu was interviewed on Radio Bucharest on 21 September by four journalists from some of the country's main dailies. Speaking about his time in office, he described his decision to outlaw the Romanian Communist Party, taken at an anticommunist meeting on 12 January 1990, as "a moment of weakness" (the decision was reversed on the following day). But Iliescu was unrepentant about his role in the wave of violence from mid-June 1990, claiming that he had shown "patience, calm, self-control, and emotional balance." (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) STOLOJAN MEDIATES LABOR CONFLICT. On 21 September Romanian Premier Theodor Stolojan received members of a commission investigating the labor conflict between the railway trade unions and the board of directors of Romanian Railways. Four union leaders are currently on a hunger strike to protest the signing of a collective labor contract as well as their dismissal after having organized two strikes in May. The four have refused food for more than one month and recently announced their decision to refuse liquids as well; doctors say this may lead to rapid death. The commission informed Stolojan that the decision of Romanian Railways to dismiss the union leaders is illegal, but the railway administration insists it acted in accordance with the law. (Dan Ionescu , RFE/RL, Inc.) 10,000 SOVIET TROOPS STILL IN POLAND. Polish officials announced on 10 September that the withdrawal of former Soviet troops is proceeding according to plan. Some 10,000 soldiers remain, along with 63 armored carriers, 5,000 other vehicles, 4 transport planes, and two helicopters. All combat planes and tanks are already withdrawn. Gen. Zdzislaw Ostrowski, the Polish government's plenipotentiary for the former Soviet troops, said that most conflicts with the Russian forces had ended with the departure of Gen. Viktor Dubynin, now serving as Russian chief of the general staff. Still, the Russian side is failing to keep Poland informed about the exact strength of its forces. The biggest problem, Ostrowski noted, is dealing with the more than 7,000 buildings and bases vacated by the Russian forces. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIANS REQUESTED TO FILL OUT WEALTH INVENTORIES. The Hungarian government is instructing taxpayers to fill out a wealth inventory by 30 November 1992, Nepszabadsag reports. The move was made to clamp down on widespread tax evasion, a main reason for the present growing budget deficit. The wealth inventory will not have direct tax benefits, but rather will serve as a base to establish increases in incomes in the future and make the work of the tax authorities easier. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIA'S FOREIGN TRADE MINISTER RESIGNS. Latvian Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis announced on 18 September the resignation of Minister of Foreign Trade Edgars Zausajevs. The official explanation is that Zausajevs had taken a new job, although Godmanis did not say what his new job is, Diena reports. It is not known who will replace Zausajevs. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIA'S ECONOMIC RELATIONS WITH TAIWAN. Upon his return to Riga on 17 September, Godmanis reported to the press on his visit to Taiwan. His delegation focused on economic relations and signed an accord guaranteeing the protection of foreign investments in Latvia. Taiwan expressed interest in using Latvian ports to expand trade in Europe. While Latvia does not expect to upgrade diplomatic relations with Taiwan, consular relations will be inaugurated in the near future, BNS reported on 18 September. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) FOOD PROCESSORS' DEBT TO LATVIAN FARMERS GROWS. According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture, food processing plants under state jurisdiction are badly in debt to the farmers who supply them with milk and meat. On 11 September the debt was estimated at 1 billion rubles and by 18 September the amount had grown to 1.3 billion rubles, Diena reports. Minister of Agriculture Dainis Gegers noted that a credit of 600 million rubles was allocated to food processing plants early in June so that they could repay the existing debts and begin prompt payments to the farmers. Noting that the credit must be repaid by 1 October, Gegers said he is deeply concerned about the situation and does not rule out the possibility of calling for the resignation of some plant directors. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIAN ELECTRICITY PRICES UP IN OCTOBER. On 11 September the government decided to raise prices on electricity in mid-October, largely due to demands by countries exporting energy to Latvia for payment in hard currency. Prime Minister Godmanis said that Latvia will have to pay 120 million German marks a year to Estonia for imported electricity. He noted that the economic crisis is likely to worsen, since many enterprises are already unable to pay for their energy needs, BNS reported on 14 September. (Dzintra Bungs , RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIAN ECONOMIC STATISTICS. On 21 September Radio Lithuania reported a Statistical Department announcement that for January-August 1992 sales of industrial production decreased by about 45% from the previous year, resulting in losses of about 127 billion rubles. The average monthly wage in August 1992 as compared with the same period in 1991, however, increased more than ninefold to 7,668 rubles with the greatest increase (512 rubles) occurring in the last month. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Hal Kosiba & Charles Trumbull The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc. 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or in Europe: Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648 Internet: Pubs@RFERL.ORG Copyright 1992, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 183, 23 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR SITUATION IN TAJIKISTAN. On 22 September deputies of Tajikistan's Supreme Soviet went to the town of Kulyab to negotiate with supporters of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, who are fighting opposition forces in the southern part of the country, AFP reported from Dushanbe. The same source had reported the previous day that Dushanbe residents had demonstrated all day in front of the Supreme Soviet building, demanding arms to protect themselves against attacks by pro-Nabiev forces. Also on 21 September the independent daily Charogi ruz criticized the appointment of Abdumalik Abdullodzhanov as interim prime minister, accusing him of corruption and association with Tajikistan's economic mafia. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN AGREE ON CEASEFIRE. At a meeting in Sochi on 19 September the defense ministers of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia signed an agreement on a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh and along the Armenian-Azerbaijani frontier and a two-month moratorium on military activity in the region, according to Krasnaya zvezda of 23 September. The ceasefire is to take effect at midnight on 25 September after which Armenia and Azerbaijan have pledged to begin the "phased withdrawal" of troops from the area. Observers from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan will monitor the ceasefire. Whether representatives from the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic participated in the meeting and whether Karabakh defense units consider themselves bound to comply with the ceasefire is not clear. A three-day ceasefire along the border between Nakhichevan and Armenia was agreed on 22 September, Azerinform reported. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) GAIDAR REPORTS ON STATE OF THE ECONOMY. Russian Prime Minister Gaidar presented a dim evaluation of the Russian economy to parliament on 22 September, various Russian and Western news agencies reported. Gaidar said that from August 1991 to August 1992 industrial production had fallen 27%. In the agricultural sector, although grain production is up from last year, cattle and poultry stock have dropped substantially. Milk production is down 17% and eggs 12% from last August's levels. Unemployment was officially 300,000 in August and expected to quintuple by year-end. Gaidar also confirmed that the budget deficit stood at 101.3 billion rubles at mid-year, which is 7.5% of GNP, higher than the 5% promised the IMF. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUBLE DOWN, INFLATION UP. The ruble dropped 14.7% in value against the dollar on 22 September, according to various Russian and Western news agencies. The dollar reached 241 rubles, up from the 205.5 at the previous Thursday's trading on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange. The direct cause of the change was attributed by some observers to the recent announcement of energy price increases. Recent reports have also borne out expectations of increased inflation, a significant factor in exchange rate fluctuations. Russian government officials have said September's inflation rate is running at 20%, up from July-August's 7-8%. Prime Minister Gaidar told parliament on 22 September that consumer prices had risen 15 times between last August and this August. This is significantly higher than the officially reported thirteen-fold increase from June 1991 to June 1992. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA SUSPENDS CREDITS TO UKRAINE. Prime Minister Gaidar, speaking before the Russian parliament on 22 September, said that the Central Bank is suspending ruble credits to Ukraine, according to ITAR-TASS. Gaidar said credits would not be forthcoming until the two states worked out an agreement on trade payments. The controversy over Russian credit to other CIS republics erupted earlier this week, when reform parliamentarians accused the central bank of giving away Russia's "national wealth" by lending Ukraine hundreds of billion of rubles. According to Western news agencies, Ukraine government officials are very displeased over the suspension. First Deputy Finance Minister Viktor Ilyin is quoted as saying that "The action will lead to an even greater crisis because Ukrainian firms are likely to stop supplying Russian customers." (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) MINISTRY OF FINANCE FORECASTS YEAR-END FOOD PRICES. A report published by the Ministry of Finance suggests what the Russian consumer may expect in food prices by the end of 1992. The forecasts of what appear to be retail trade prices were reported by ITAR-TASS on 22 September. Beef is to rise to 160-220 rubles per kilogram as compared to the recent 84 rubles (reported by Ekonomika i zhizn, no. 36). The price of a liter of milk is predicted to increase from 12 to between 15 and 19 rubles. Butter can be expected to rise to 225-280 rubles/kilogram from last month's 189. Wheat bread may cost 37 rubles, up from 24 rubles. The report says that the 23-fold increase in procurement prices for grain over last year is the primary culprit for the general rise in food prices. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA TO JOIN IMF BOARD. Russia has gained a seat on the IMF Board of Governors, an RFE/RL correspondent reported in Washington, D.C. on 23 September. Approval for Russia's inclusion in the Board was granted on Tuesday at the annual meeting of the IMF/World Bank in Washington. Konstantin Kagolovsky, an ambassadorial-level official with the Russian government's department for relations with international financial organizations, is expected to represent Russia on the board. (Erik Whitlock/Robert Lyle, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUTSKOI CHALLENGES REFORMERS. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi told Delovoi mir on 19 September that although he remains loyal to President Boris Yeltsin, he--together with other leaders of the Civic Union--will put pressure on the executive branch to adopt the Civic Union's alternative economic reform program. Rutskoi said he favors the introduction of a market system through a strengthening of law and order and the reestablishment of economic ties between former the Soviet republics. He accused democrats in Yeltsin's entourage of having made several attempts to isolate him from the president in the months before the Sixth Congress last April, but he indicated that after the Congress, his access to the president has improved. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) KHASBULATOV'S SECRETARIAT. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov has set up a personal secretariat which consists of former CPSU Central Committee officials. The secretariat is supervising the work of the parliamentary department, the membership and structure of which are almost identical to the staff of ex-Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev's chief of staff, Valerii Boldin. Deputies are dependent on the speaker because he has power over foreign travel, apartments, and other privileges. Novoe vremya (no 38) commented that the Russian parliament has become an institution dominated by deputies' group interests. In such a situation deputies care more about preserving their own interests than about adopting laws. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) PARLIAMENT SESSION OPENS. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov opened parliament with a conciliatory speech calling for "concrete action" rather than confrontation, Interfax reported on 22 September. The parliament rejected the proposal by a number of liberal deputies to force Khasbulatov to give an account of his work to the parliament, and it also rejected the proposed formation of a commission to assess the work of the Director of the Russian Central Bank, Viktor Gerashchenko. The parliament did, however, approve several other proposals by liberal deputies to investigate the performance of the parliamentary presidium. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) KOZYREV CRITICIZES ESTONIA OVER ELECTIONS. In his speech at the UN on 22 September, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev harshly criticized the recent Estonian elections. While registering his "special discomfort" at discrimination against Russians, Ukrainians, and Jews in some of the former Soviet Republics, he singled out Estonia for violating the rights of its Russian minority. Claiming that 42% of Estonia's population was ineligible to vote in the election, Kozyrev stated that this violated international law and that Russia would raise the issue at the UN. At the same time, however, Kozyrev said that Estonia's action would not affect Russia's commitment to withdraw its troops in the shortest time possible. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA SUPPORTS STANDING UN ARMY. At the United Nations in New York on 22 September, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev supported the idea of establishing a standing UN army. UN Secretary-General Boutros Ghali has called for the formation of such a military force, which would be put under UN command and which could be used on short notice in trouble spots, but which would be paid for by those countries contributing forces. This proposal has also received the support of the United States and Great Britain. Kozyrev was quoted by the UPI as also saying that UN peace-keeping forces "should return fire . . . when fired upon." (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER CRITICIZES RUSSIA OVER SUBMARINE INTRUSION. Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt on 22 September stated that he suspected Russia of being responsible for a submarine intrusion in Swedish waters on 21 September, according to Western news agencies. Bildt noted that the incident, in which Swedish forces fired depth charges, grenades, and a torpedo at the intruding submarine, matched the pattern of earlier incidents. Bildt suggested that the failure of the new Russian government to halt the intrusions may indicate that it has only weak control over the actions of its navy. The strong measures taken against the most recent intruder suggest that Sweden is making the cessation of such intrusions a high priority in its relations with Russia. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) VOLKOGONOV SAYS NO AMERICAN POWS ALIVE IN RUSSIA. In an interview with Western news agencies on 21 September, Gen. Dmitri Volkogonov claimed that no evidence has been found indicating that any American POWs are alive or being held against their will in Russia. Volkogonov is an advisor to President Boris Yeltsin and the chairman of a joint US-Russian committee established to investigate reports of US POWs in Russia. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) WHERE IS THE CIS INTERPARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY MOVING TO? The newly created CIS Interparliamentary Assembly is scheduled to be moved to the Tavricheskii palace in St. Petersburg, DR-Press reported on 20 September. The palace is now being used by a Russian government personnel education center. In a letter to the St. Petersburg mayor, Anatolii Sobchak, the director of the center protested the decision to move the Assembly into the palace. He recommended to Sobchak that the Assembly be moved into the former House of Political Education, which is still in Communist possession. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) CRIMEAN SEPARATISTS LIST DEMANDS. The Republican Movement of Crimea (RDK) has issued an appeal to the Crimean parliament, which is scheduled to open on 24 September, Radio Rossii reported on 20 September. The RDK wants Crimean lawmakers to defend the Crimean constitution; pass an electoral law based on multiparty participation and laws on citizenship and public associations; repeal its moratorium on a referendum on the Crimea's state status; and set a date for new parliamentary elections. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV IN GERMANY. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl signed agreements on the protection of German investments in Kazakhstan and on economic cooperation on 22 September, but the Kazakh president was unable to obtain concrete commitments from the German government to provide financial aid to the Central Asian country, the Munich daily Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported on 23 September. The German economics ministry has promised to consider a Kazakh request for more credits and expert assistance for Kazakhstan's privatization program. Nazarbaev boasted to a meeting of German industrialists that Kazakhstan could be the world's most important oil exporter in the next century. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) ECONOMIC DECLINE CONTINUES IN KYRGYZSTAN. Price liberalization on 1 September has resulted in a reduction of output at Bishkek's dairy products and flour combine. In addition, industrial and agricultural output throughout Kyrgyzstan has declined 20% this year, and food output is down almost 40%, KyrgyzTAG-TASS reported on 22 September. Although wage rates have risen twice in 1992, they have not begun to keep up with raging inflation; the report estimates that an average salary can cover only half the cost of food for a normal family. In addition, the threat of mass unemployment is looming as 920 firms plan staff reductions. Prime Minister Tursunbek Chyngyshev complained that natural disasters this year have overtaxed the country's budget. Angry citizens have already begun demonstrating against the price rises. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) ROMANIANS IN NORTHERN BUKOVYNA PUBLISH FIRST BOOK IN LATIN SCRIPT SINCE WW II. For the first time since 1944, a Romanian-language book in the Latin script has been published in northern Bukovyna, the Romanian media reported on 17 and 18 September. The book, a literary and historical almanac, was published by the Chernivtsy-based Eminescu Society for Romanian Culture. Moldovans/Romanians in the region are currently beginning to reinstate the Latin script in the native language press, education, and public signs. The Ukrainian authorities' flexibility in this matter contrasts sharply with the attitude of the "Dniester" Russian authorities, who have just reimposed the Cyrillic alphabet on the "Moldovan" (i.e. Romanian) language in place of the Latin script. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "YUGOSLAVIA" EXPELLED FROM UNITED NATIONS. By a vote of 127 to 6, with 26 abstentions, the UN General Assembly voted to exclude the rump Yugoslavia from membership in that body. All Eastern European states (except Yugoslavia itself) and all but three of the ex-USSR states voted with the majority. The precedent-setting UNGA resolution specifies that the rump Yugoslavia may not automatically take over the old Yugoslavia's membership in the United Nations (presumably including the specialized agencies), although the document specifically mentions only exclusion from the General Assembly. The new Yugoslavia will have to apply for membership. In an eleventh-hour appeal, Prime Minister Milan Panic argued that expulsion of his country from the UN would be unjustified and would hamper his efforts to promote peace in the area. Whatever the outcome of the vote, Panic promised, Belgrade will continue its support of UN peace efforts. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL, Inc.) SKUBISZEWSKI AT THE UN. Polish Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski asked the United Nations to establish an emergency system to address serious human rights violations. Speaking before the UN General Assembly on 22 September, Skubiszewski said that Poland supports Austria's proposal for such a system, which should be discussed at the UN conference on human rights in Vienna next June. Skubiszewski demanded that all detention camps in the former Yugoslavia be closed immediately. He added that Poland will offer one of the former Soviet military bases on its territory for the training of UN peacekeeping forces. In 1993 Poland will put two or three infantry battalions at the disposal of the UN Security Council. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) ROMANIA TO SEEK COMPENSATION FOR IRAQ EMBARGO. Romanian Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase said in an interview with Radio Bucharest on 22 September that his country will seek compensation for losses resulting from the UN embargo against Iraq. Nastase, on his way to New York to attend the UN General Assembly session, claimed that Romania's transition to a market economy and its economic reform program had been seriously affected by the losses in its trade with Iraq, which Romanian sources put to some $3 billion. Nastase added that he would also discuss the negative impact of the UN sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro on the Romanian economy. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) US CALLS FOR WAR CRIMES COMMISSION FOR YUGOSLAV AREA. On 22 September the US government gave the UN a report on war crimes in the conflict, the Los Angeles Times reports on 23 September. The document blames all sides for atrocities, but singles out the Serbs for committing war crimes as "part of a systematic campaign toward . . . the creation of an ethnically pure state." The daily says that the text paves the way for eventual war crimes trials. On 22 September the New York Times reported on an alleged massacre of over 200 Muslim men by Serbs at Varjanta, near Travnik, in Bosnia. Western news agencies have carried similar stories, and Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger told reporters that Washington is looking into the reports. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) LORD OWEN WARNS OVER KOSOVO. The BBC on 23 September quotes the EC chief negotiator in the Yugoslav crisis, Lord Owen, as warning that the conflict could turn into a general Balkan conflagration if it spills over into Kosovo. On a visit to Greece he said that the Albanians in Kosovo should not demand independence but that they should receive back the autonomy that Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic took away from them in recent years. Meanwhile, Western and other media continue to report on the alleged presence of foreign Islamic warriors in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Die Zeit on 17 September said that they number in the hundreds at the most. Stories are already legion about culture shock between devout Muslims from the Middle East who have come to fight a jihad, and the highly secular and European Bosnians who want just to defend their homes. Reuters stated on 22 September that the Bosnians want weapons, not volunteers. The Bosnian authorities reportedly have about 40,000 men who are ready to fight but who lack weapons. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) FEDERAL ASSEMBLY APPROVES GOVERNMENT REPORT ON BREAKUP. The Federal Assembly has asked the Czechoslovak government to present, by mid-October, a program that would prevent a disorderly breakup of the country. CSTK reports that the parliament approved, "with reservations," a government report on the state of the federation. The government was also asked to prepare a concept for Czech-Slovak relations after the federation's disintegration by mid-November. In a separate development, former Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel urged Czechs and Slovaks to dissolve the country in an orderly manner, avoiding "chaos and civic conflicts." According to CSTK, Havel expressed his concern that the division might not be carried out "as elegantly, cleanly, and professionally" as possible. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH GOVERNMENT COMPLETES PRIORITY PLANS. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka announced on 22 September that the government will complete work on its five priority action plans by the end of the week. These plans are designed to restructure state industry, fight corruption and organized crime, modernize agriculture, revive public finances, and guarantee a minimum of social security. Suchocka will present the plans to the public, as promised, by 10 October, exactly three months after she took office. Suchocka said the government has worked with great speed and hopes the same will be true of the trade unions and the parliament. Gazeta Wyborcza reported that one of the government plans will substantially expand police powers, permitting freer use of firearms and "sting" operations. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) PARTY LEADERS CALL FOR RESIGNATION OF LATVIAN GOVERNMENT. On 17 September political leaders representing the liberal, conservative, liberal-democratic, democratic labor, and renaissance parties signed a document calling for the resignation of the government of Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis and for the formation of a government of popular accord, Diena reported on 17 September and Radio Riga on 22 September. The signers envisage the new government as focusing primarily on Latvia's catastrophic economic situation and stipulate that such a government would exist only until the election of the new parliament. This call can also be seen as an effort by political parties, with memberships ranging from former liberal communist to national democrat to work together as a coalition. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) TURMOIL CONTINUES AROUND BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT. A Gallup poll conducted in Bulgaria in recent days and published in 168 chasa on 22 September indicates that if elections were held now, 33% of the respondents would vote for the governing Union of Democratic Forces, 28% for the Bulgarian Socialist Party, 8% for the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, and 16% for other parties. Some 15% said they would not vote. Unity in the UDF remains fractured, while the BSP has said it will not support a no-confidence vote in the government, though it still hopes to bring down Stefan Savov, president of the National Assembly. MRF and UDF leaders have evidently not resolved their differences, leaving the effectiveness of their loose coalition in the parliament in doubt. (Duncan Perry & Nick Kaltchev, RFE/RL, Inc.) EX-POLICEMAN TRIES TO SET UP ROMANIAN FASCIST PARTY. Ionica Catanescu announced in Bucharest on 22 September that he will try to set up a National Legionary Party in order to revive the pre-war Romanian fascist movement, known as the Iron Guard or the Legion. Reuters reports that Catanescu appears to be the sole member so far. This move, coming only a week before the 27 September elections, is being interpreted by some as an electoral maneuver by the left to win sympathies by conjuring up the ghost of fascism. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) KADAR FAULTS AUSTRIA. Hungarian International Economic Relations Minister Bela Kadar has charged that Austria conducts restrictive trade policies, hindering the growth of Hungarian exports, Hungarian Radio reports. Kadar said that Austria will have to liberalize its foreign trade if it wants to be an EC member and wishes to maintain its position as the country to which Hungary gives most preferential trade treatment. Kadar warned that if Austria does not change its trade policy, Hungary will have to retaliate. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT ACCEPTS JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT. Hungarian deputies voted on 22 September to accept the Hague International Court's jurisdiction, Hungarian Radio reports. Formal acceptance of the court's jurisdiction is a precondition for Hungary to seek adjudication in the Hague. Hungary is planning to ask the court to rule in its dispute with Czechoslovakia over the Gabcikovo hydroelectric dam system. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) JARUZELSKI DEFENDS MARTIAL LAW. General Wojciech Jaruzelski appeared before a Sejm commission on 22 September to defend the imposition of martial law in 1981 as a "lesser evil" that had saved Poland from a "national tragedy." The Sejm commission is considering a motion submitted by KPN deputies to try Jaruzelski and the rest of the Council of State and the Military Council of National Salvation on the grounds that the martial law decree violated the constitution. Senator Ryszard Reiff, the only member of the Council of State to oppose martial law, challenged Jaruzelski's suggestion that he had saved the country from a Soviet invasion. Martial law was a "historical error," Reiff said. The party should have followed the example of First Secretary Wladyslaw Gomulka in 1956, Reiff argued, and persuaded "the Russians that what was good for Poland was not necessarily bad for Russia." (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) DELAY IN SIGNING TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM LITHUANIA? On 22 September the Russian Supreme Soviet committee on international affairs and foreign economic relations urged President Boris Yeltsin to delay the signing of agreements on Russian troop withdrawal from Lithuania until the interests and rights of Russians there are taken into consideration, ITAR-TASS reports. The committee points out that although three of the seven draft agreements on the withdrawal have been signed, they are not legally binding since the main treaty has not been signed. The committee urges that all agreements with Lithuania be submitted to the Supreme Soviet for approval. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) LANDSBERGIS COMMENTS ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL. On 22 September the Lithuanian Parliament public affairs office issued a statement by Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis, who is on an official visit to Belgium, noting that the efforts of the Russian parliament committee to terminate the agreements on troop withdrawal are indicative of "representatives of imperial thinking," who are interested "not in peace and cooperation, but in increasing tension and expansion." He said that he does not believe that they would "be able to compromise the policies of the new democratic Russia" by terminating the agreements signed two weeks ago. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS CONTINUE. On 21 September Latvian representatives met with leaders of the Northwestern Group of Forces to continue discussions of specific issues related to the pullout of Russian troops from Latvia. One point of discussion was the takeover by Latvia of bases vacated by NWGF, but not on the list of facilities to be turned over to Latvia this year. On 22 September another round of Latvian-Russian talks started in Jurmala. The principal point of discussion was also troop withdrawal, and Latvia's comprehensive proposal as to how all troops could be pulled out by fall of 1993, Radio Riga reported on 21 and 22 September. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) SKODA PLZEN TO FIRE OVER 1,200, LAY OFF 2,000 MORE. According to CSTK, Skoda Plzen, the Czech Republic's largest industrial employer, plans to dismiss about 1,200 workers in October and lay off another 2,000 temporarily due to financial problems. Czech Minister of Trade and Industry Vladimir Dlouhy said that most of the employees will be rehired once the company is in a healthier position and announced that they will continue receiving 60% of their salaries as unemployment benefits. Skoda's main problem has been the huge sums owed to the company by the state-owned railways for the delivery of locomotives. Dlouhy ruled out any state subsidies and said that the dispute between Skoda and the railways would have to be settled in court. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) ROMANIA'S GYPSY KING ASKS GERMANY TO COMPENSATE NAZI VICTIMS. In an interview with German ZDF TV broadcast on 22 September, Ion Cioaba, the self-proclaimed "king of all Gypsies," threatened to launch mass demonstrations if Germany refuses to pay compensation for Nazi atrocities against Gypsies in World War II. The interview was conducted in the Transylvanian town of Sibiu. Germany faces a flood of refugees, including thousands of Romanian Gypsies, which has provoked racist backlash. Cioaba promised to call his fellow Gypsies home if Bonn agrees to pay compensation. Cioaba's authority, however, appears to be rather limited; on 11 September another Gypsy chieftain from Romania, Iulian Radulescu, proclaimed himself an emperor of all Gypsies. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.)
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UPI NEWS, 23.09.92. --------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Croatians, Muslims at odds over former Yugoslav tourist town Subject: General Assembly bars Serbia-Montenegro federation Subject: Serbian bombardment kills hospital patients Subject: Karadzic condemns U.N. Yugoslav ouster Subject: French soldiers wounded in Sarajevo ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Croatians, Muslims at odds over former Yugoslav tourist town Date: 23 Sep 92 02:08:04 GMT MOSTAR, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Before the Yugoslav war broke out in April, tourists flocked to this south-central Hercegovina town to take in its distinctly Muslim flavor. Before the war, Mostar was 34 percent Muslim, 33 percent Croat and 10 percent Serb. Now Croatian flags hang on nearly every government building, Croatian currency is circulated and taxes are paid to the local Croatian authorities. Most of the distinctive buildings that once attracted tourists have been leveled or riddled with bullet holes. All but one of the city's 11 mosques have been destroyed. The local Croatian leadership plans to rebuild Mostar and make it the capital of their self-declared republic of Herceg-Bosna, which comprises roughly one-third of Bosnia-Hercegovina. The plans are much to the dismay of the internationally recognized Bosnia-Hercegovina government in Sarajevo as well as area Muslims. ``They want to make Mostar the capital and claim it is a Croatian city, but it's a Muslim city built by Muslims,'' said Faris Nanic, secretary-general for the Party of Democratic Action (SDA) in Zagreb. The SDA supports Alija Izetbegovic, president and Muslim religious leader in Bosnia-Hercegovina. ``They have already organized their canton government, which is not respected in Sarajevo because it is illegal and non-constitutional and has introduced laws in discrepancy with Bosnian-Hercegovina laws,'' said Izmet Hadziosmanovic, president of the SDA in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The Bosnia-Hercegovina government favors a republic with four ethnically mixed regions, all under the authority of a centralized Parliament in Sarajevo. But the leadership of the self-declared state of Herceg-Bosna headed by Mate Boban wants separate Croatian, Muslim and Serbian cantons. Boban is president of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) of Hercegovina and regional commander of the Croatian army (HVO). ``The Muslims are trying to create a mini Yugoslavia but it won't work,'' said Sreck Vucina, Croatian army spokesman in Mostar. ``They would have the majority and it would be the same as the former Yugoslavia when the Serbs had the majority control before.'' Although the Bosnians and Croatians officially are allied against a common enemy -- the Serbs -- their differing political aims threaten to add another destabilizing element to the war-torn republic. ``In this area around Mostar and Stolac, Muslims have around 3,000 fighters and it could have long range consequences for both people if any of the problems go too far,'' Hadziosmanovic said. Rising tensions in the last month already have led to clashes between the Bosnian army and Croatian forces in other central Bosnia-Hercegovina towns such as Jajce and Travnik, which Boban's government claims for the Croatian state of Herceg-Bosna. Recently in Stup, a suburb of Sarajevo -- the Bosnian army attacked Croatian forces in an apparent bid to break the siege of the capital. ``A number of HVO soldiers were killed, but no official number of casualties has been released, said Ivo Primovac, a Croatian army commander in Grude. ''This incident was only between Muslims and Croats and it was really stupid because the Muslims should realize how much they need the Croats.`` The Bosnian government is resentfully dependent on the Croats. Its army is sorely lacking in weapons. Although Bosnia admits to receiving arms from Islamic countries, deliveries have to come through Croatian territory. Primovac, and other HVO officials said the recent seizure in the Croatian capital of Zagreb of weapons on an incoming flight from Iran was a government warning to Muslim forces to respect the HVO command. Officially, the Croatian government has said it seized the weapons to enforce the international arms embargo against all three warring factions. The Bosnian army has very little influence in Mostar or elsewhere in Herceg-Bosna, where the HVO outnumbers it more than two to one. The HVO controls 30 percent of Bosnia-Hercegovina, the Bosnian-Serbs 60 percent and the Bosnian army about 10 percent. ``We cannot afford this,'' said Middhad Hudur, second commander of the Bosnian army in Mostar. ``The Croatian army is stronger and we can't afford to have a second enemy.'' HVO officials say they had to impose their authority over the region because the Bosnian army and the Sarajevo government is too weak to enforce their laws. ``The B-H army can't even liberate Sarajevo and nowhere does it have power. Someone had to take control,'' Vucina said. Nevertheless, Muslim leaders say unless the HVO submits to the command of the Sarajevo government they will demand it. ``Unless they respect agreements they've made, the Muslims are going to take the step of general disobedience to the laws of the HVO. This will make our relationship even worse,'' Hadiosmanovic said. More than 90 percent of the population within 10 municipalities in the southwest region of Bosnia-Hercegovina are Croatian. Croatian forces claim another 20 municipalities with substantial Muslim and Croatian populations in a strip of land stretching northeast through the middle of the republic fall into this Croatian area as well. While the Croatian army holds the southwest Croatian territory, allied Bosnian and Croatian forces still are fighting the Serbs for the other 20 municipalities. Serb forces withdrew from Mostar about a month ago, although they continue to lob artillery shells daily into the city from a nearby stronghold. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: General Assembly bars Serbia-Montenegro federation Date: 23 Sep 92 02:20:31 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The U.N. General Assembly voted overwhelmingly Tuesday to reject the claim Yugoslav federation of Serbia and Montenegro to hold the seat of the former Yugoslavia and barred it from the world body. The assembly voted 127-6 with 26 abstentions to adopt the measure despite a plea by Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic not to expel his government because it is a ``peace-loving Yugoslavia.'' The Socialist Federation of Yugoslavia ceased to exist earlier this year after four of its six republics seceded and are recognized by the United Nations as independent states. The Serbian government in Belgrade and Montenegro then claimed succession to the Yugoslav U.N. membership. The vote to bar a delegation from the General Assembly was unprecedented. The vote was taken at the recommendation of the Security Council, a move disputed by some countries as contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter. In 1974, South Africa was expelled from the assembly after its credentials were rejected by the same body as a protest to that country's apartheid policies. The assembly did not revoke Pretoria's U. N. membership, however. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian bombardment kills hospital patients Date: 23 Sep 92 11:32:56 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Clashes in Bosnia-Hercegovina and its capital Sarajevo eased Wednesday only hours after Serbian guerrillas in two separate assaults bombarded a hospital and a Red Cross kitchen, killing at least 14 people and wounding another 48, Sarajevo Radio said. In a separate attack, a Serbian mortar shell Tuesday evening wounded at least 17 people in a downtown Sarajevo street, the radio said. Serbian guerrillas used tanks, mortars and infantry weapons in firing on Bosnian forces positions and civilian targets Wednesday morning, the radio said. ``There were only sporadic explosions early today in Sarajevo,'' a police spokesman said. A lull in clashes came after fighting intensified Tuesday evening following relatively calms spells earlier in the day. A Serbian tank shell hit the hospital in Bihac, a predominantly Muslim Slav town in northwestern Bosnia-Hercegovina. The shell struck a dining room on a lung disease ward while patients had their dinner, Sarajevo radio said. It indicated the attack on the Bihac hospital was in retaliation for the downing of three Serbian air force jet fighters that Bosnian forces reportedly shot down earlier Tuesday in the area between Velika Kladusa, Bosanski Novi and Prijedor. In Sarajevo, the predominantly Muslim Slav city that has been under a Serbian siege since early in April, Serbian guerrillas fired a mortar shell Tuesday evening into a Red Cross soup kitchen in Blagoje Parovic Street, killing three persons and wounding another 28, the radio said. Another mortar shell struck on Cetinjska Street Tuesday evening, wounding at least 17 people, Sarajevo radio said. Squads of workers, accompanied by officials of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), Wednesday morning went out to repair high- voltage overhead long-distance electricity cables that were damaged in fighting in the past week. Large sections of Sarajevo, where about 350,000 to 500,000 residents and refugees have been trapped since late in March, were without electric power and water supplies. A U.N.-sponsored humanitarian aid airlift has been suspended since Sept. 3 when an Italian cargo plane was downed on its flight to Sarajevo. U.N. officials planned to reopen the international relief airlift but sought additional guarantees from the warring sides. Road convoys that carried food and medical supplies to besieged Sarajevo were not enough to meet the city's demands of about 200 tons of food per day and the city and the newly independent republic were running short of food and medicines. French Gen. Phillipe Morillon of the UNPROFOR in Sarajevo said U.N. troops, that are to have self-defense rights to fire back if attacked will be posted along corridors in Bosnia-Hercegovina to ensure relief deliveries. Morillon arrived in Sarajevo during the weekend to work out the deployment of 6,000 troops that were authorized by the U.N. Security Council last week as an expansion to the 1,500-member U.N. force to ensure humanitarian aid deliveries as the cold Balkan winter approaches. Serbian guerrillas late in March launched a campaign to carve a self- declared state out of Bosnia-Hercegovina and annex it to Serbia, the dominant republic in the former Yugoslav federation. Militant leaders of the 1.4 million Christian Orthodox Serbs, that make 32 percent of the republic's 4.4 million population, have declared a ``Serbian Republic'' on about 70 percent of Bosnia-Hercegovina's territory. About 1.9 million Muslim Slavs and most of 750,000 Roman Catholic Croats advocate an independent Bosnia-Hercegovina. Serbian guerrillas have been fighting against Bosnia-Hercegovina forces that comprise mostly Muslim Slavs but also include moderate Serbs and Croats. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Karadzic condemns U.N. Yugoslav ouster Date: 23 Sep 92 18:15:40 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- The leader of Serbs in Bosnia- Hercegovina, Radovan Karadzic, condemned the international community Wednesday for barring the Yugoslav delegation from the United Nations and announced he ``will no longer make one-sided concessions'' in future peace negotiations. ``The exclusion of Yugoslavia from the United Nations, as in the case of our exclusion from the CSCE (Council on Security and Cooperation in Europe), is just the continuation of international community pressure on the Serbian people,'' Karadzic told a news conference in the Serbian capital of Belgrade. He said the U.N. decision, by hitting at only one side, would not end the war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. ``Until all three sides are equally pressured to stop fighting, the war will not end,'' Karadzic said. Karadzic's criticism of the U.N. decision was echoed by ruling party leaders in the new Yugoslav federation of Serbia and Montenegro, who blamed the Western powers and federal Prime Minister Milan Panic for the new Belgrade government losing the right to retain the seat of the old administration. ``The (U.N.) resolution is completely unlawful, and shows that the West has succumbed to the will of Muslim countries,'' said Batric Jovanovic, a Socialist Party of Serbia delegate in the Serbian Parliament. ``Western countries are too dependant on Arab oil,'' he charged. Opposition lawmakers, however, put the responsibility on Serbia's hard-line President Slobodan Milosevic, the federation's most powerful politician whose support for a land-grab in Bosnia-Hercegovina and elsewhere touched off the wars among the Yugoslav republics. ``Milosevic has done the impossible: we are the first country in the world to be kicked out of the U.N.,'' said Vuk Draskovic, the leader of Serbian Renewal Movement. ``Not even Saddam Hussein, Emperor Bokassa or Idi Amin Dada accomplished that,'' he added sarcastically. At his news conference, Karazdic conceded the U.N.- and European Community-sponsored Geneva peace talks were fairly constructive regarding humanitarian aid issues, but he condemned Muslim Slav representatives for not agreeing to divide the newly independent republic into ethnic ``cantons.'' ``There will be no more tolerance and we will not make any more unilateral concessions, since all have been responded to by tougher sanctions,'' said Karadzic. He was referring to Serbian claims they have complied with a London peace conference agreement to put heavy artillery under United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) supervision in several locations, including the beseiged Bosnia-Hercegovina capital of Sarajevo. While some Serbian heavy weaponry has been placed in sites where they can be observed by UNPROFOR, other Serbian artillery in the republic has remained hidden from U.N. inspectors and continues to shell civilian targets. Regarding the Geneva talks, Karadzic said that he was satisfied that Croatia was ready to cooperate to stop the war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. ``The Croatian position is identical with that of the Serbs,'' said Karadzic, referring to the de facto division of Bosnia-Hercegovian between Serbs and Croats, who have established a territory they call Herceg-Bosnia. ``We have recognized Herceg-Bosnia,'' Karadzic said, ``but now we need to stop fighting and begin re-establishing economic relations.'' During the news conference Karadzic put up an ethnic map to show reporters the envisioned configuration of a future Serbian state that comprises nearly 60 percent of the republic. ``These are and will be our borders, whether we become independent or decide to unite with some other nation,'' said Karadzic. He said that he was ready to give up some 20 perecent of Serb-held territories to Muslim Slavs as these areas are not ethnically Serbian but were captured because of their strategic importance. The war in Bosnia-Hercegovina began in late March when Serbian forces launched a campaign to carve out a separate state on nearly 70 percent of the republic. Most of the Serbs want to merge their ``state'' with the new Serbia- dominated Yugoslav union. The two-republic union was forged on April 27, with the aim of inheriting the international status of the former six- republic Yugoslav federation. Bosnia-Hercegovina's 1.9 million Muslim Slavs and many of the 750,000 Roman Catholic Croats want their separate republic to remain independent of the new Yugoslavia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: French soldiers wounded in Sarajevo Date: 23 Sep 92 17:47:53 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Two French U.N. soldiers suffered minor wounds Wednesday from a mortar round in sporadic shelling and clashes in and around Sarajevo that prevented work on restoring electricity to the war-ravaged Bosnian capital. U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) officials said the mortar shell was believed to have been a stray round. It slammed into the yard of the Tvornica Armatura factory, located near the U.N. headquarters on the western end of Sarajevo, as the two French soldiers and two local workers were cutting metal sheeting to protect the Sarajevo airport control tower, they said. Ukrainian Col. Viktor Bezrouchenko, the UNPROFOR chief of operations, said one local worker was injured along with the French servicemen. ``None was seriously wounded,'' said Bezrouchenko. The incident brought to at least 48 the number of UNPROFOR troops injured since May. Four others have been killed. Most of the casualties were caused by what U.N. officials have condemned as deliberate attacks by both warring factions. Adnan Abdel Razak, the UNPROFOR spokesman, said the French soldiers were evacuated to Zagreb by a U.N. aircraft that also returned the UNPROFOR deputy commander, French Gen. Phillipe Morillon, to the Croatian capital after a four-day visit to plan a 6,000-troop expansion of the 1,500-man U.N. contingent. U.N. officials said that before his departure, Morillon held talks with Serbian military officials about the possible relocation of the U. N. headquarters to a hotel in the Serb-held western suburb of Ilidza. The move would fit closely with Morillon's stated goal of deploying U.N. troops in Ilidza to secure a corridor through which humanitarian aid could enter Sarajevo through encircling Serbian lines. Serbian forces, backed by neighboring communist-ruled Serbia, have bombarded and besieged Sarajevo as part of their more than five-month campaign to carve a self-declared state out of the former Yugoslav republic of Muslim Slavs, Serbs and Croats. Forces loyal to the government, comprised mostly of Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Serbs and Croats, are fighting to preserve the republic's newly won independence and territorial integrity. Fierce overnight fighting, during which Serbian barrages of the Sarajevo set several major fires, eased after dawn to intermittent clashes and Serbian sniper fire and shelling of civilian areas, police and news reports said. Skirmishes between Bosnian and Serbian lines along the city's northern battlefront prevented a U.N.-supervised team of civilian technicians from repairing an overhead cable that carries power to Sarajevo, UNPROFOR officials said. ``We made a morning attempt and one in the afternoon. At both times there was fighting in that area, shelling and mortars, and we could not reach the line,'' said Razak. The Bosnian government charged that Serbian force deliberately severed the line on Monday, depriving electricity to most of Sarajevo in violation of an agreement reached Sunday in Geneva on safeguarding utilities. The republic Health Ministry said that at least 14 people were killed and 89 others injured in the capital during the 24-hour period that ended at 1 p.m. Among the casualties were three dead and 28 wounded from a Serbian mortar shell that slammed into a Red Cross soup kitchen on Blagoje Parovic St. on Tuesday evening, Sarajevo radio said. At about the same time, another mortar shell explosion at Cetinjska Street wounded at least 17 people, it said. Heavy fighting, meanwhile, was reported in other areas of the newly independent former Yugoslav republic, including new alleged air attacks by warjets supplied to Serbian forces by the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army. Sarajevo radio said the heaviest clashes raged in the area around the northwestern city of Bihac. On Tuesday, a Serbian tank shell plowed into a dining room of a lung diseases ward at Bihac hospital as patients were eating dinner, killing at least 11 people and wounding 20 others, the radio said. In Maglaj, central Bosnia-Hercegovina, fighting was escalating and dead bodies were reported to be lying all over the streets, according to local radio reports. Local defense in the area is requesting more help from the Croatian Army and the Bosnian-Hercegovina Army to defend the municpality from Serbian infantry attacks, the report stated. ``Children are getting killed; dead bodies are all over the streets, everywhere...There is not a single building that didn't suffer devastation,'' the radio reports said. Despite attempts, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees workers have been unable to reach Maglaj and surrounding areas with relief supplies. ``Access is just not possible... It's just too dangerous,'' Michael Keats, spokesperson for the UNHCR said. ``To get to Tuzla, (a nearby municipality), you have to cross the front lines four times,'' Keats said. If the reports are correct, the Bosnian-Serb army has made substantial advances in the last month in their attempt to secure their recently established corridor through north-central Bosnia which connects the region with Serbia and Montenegro. Bihac, a muslim populated pocket in the northwestern Serbian occupied region of Bosnia Hercegovina, is the last muslim bastion in the area and the local muslim defense has been able to repel Serbian advances. However, Tuesday night and Wednesday morning the region came under heavy attack as well from Serbian positions, Croatian radio reported. In addition, Slavonski Brod, in Croatian on the border with northern Bosnia, suffered some of the worst fighting since the war broke ot in Bosnia-Hercegovina Wednesday. Nine people died and nine were wounded in the center of town by shells fired from Serbian strongholds acrss the river Sava, Erich Ganpe at the Slavonski Brod information centre said. ``The material damage was very bad,'' Ganpe said but he would not elaborate on what was actually hit for fear of informing the Serbian side about the attack. Slavonski Brod is of high strategic importance because the Sava river is the borderline between northern Bosnia and Croatia. The bridge, which connects Slavonski Brod with northern Bosnina is the last one standing along the river and is the life-line for thousands of Bosnian refugees fleeing the war-torn republic. The republic Health Ministry said republicwide casualties, including those in Sarajevo, since 1 p.m. Tuesday totalled at least 25 people killed and 282 injured. Serbian guerrillas late in March launched their drive to capture a self-proclaimed state declared on 70 percent of Bosnia-Hercegovina, where the 1.4 million Christian Orthodox Serbs comprise only 31 percent of the population. Militant Serbian leaders seek to join their territories to Serbia. The 1.9 million Muslim Slavs, most of the 750,000 Roman Catholic Croats and a tiny minority of Serbs oppose the partition of the republic.
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UPI NEWS, 24.09.1992. ------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Zagreb, Sarajevo form joint defense against Serbs Subject: Bosnian president to visit Pakistan Subject: Seven U.N. soldiers wounded in blast ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Zagreb, Sarajevo form joint defense against Serbs Date: 23 Sep 92 21:18:13 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The presidents of Croatia and Bosnia- Hercegovina announced Wednesday to form a joint committee of defense against ``aggression'' and to ask the Security Council to lift the arms embargo imposed on the two Balkan republics. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and Alija Izetbegovich, president of Bosnia-Hercegovina, made public a document they signed at U.N. headquarters in New York saying that the diplomatic, political and humanitarian efforts by the United Nations ``have not stopped aggression...nor have they substantially alleviated the suffering of the civilian people.'' They said a joint committee will be set up ``in order to coordinate defensive efforts until aggression is stopped entirely.'' ``The republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina and the Republic of Croatia will jointly request the abrogation of the embargo on arms exports'' as decreed by the Security Council last summer when the civil war broke out in Croatia, the document said. The document is an annex to the Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between the two republics signed on July 21, 1992. It was designed to enhance their ``common interests'' in defending their independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, the presidents said in a joint news conference. Izetbegovich said he held talks with members of the Security Council in New York while attending the General Assembly session, but none of them supported the request to lift the arms embargo. ``I explained to them the situation and reminded them that our countries have the right to self-defense, but that right was deprived by the international community,'' Izetbegovich said. He said both he and Tudjman will work for the removal of the arms embargo. In addition to the arms embargo imposed on all six republics of the former Yugoslavia, the Security Council earlier this year imposed trade sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro to protest the Serb-led war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnian president to visit Pakistan Date: 24 Sep 92 14:38:23 GMT ISLAMABAD, Pakistan (UPI) -- Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic is due to arrive in Islamabad Saturday for a two-day official visit amid reports that guerrillas from neighboring Afghanistan were training Bosnian Muslim fighters. There have been unconfirmed reports that Afghan mujahideen guerrillas were training Bosnian Muslims near Sarajevo and supplying them with U.S. -made stinger missiles. Pakistan is a close ally of the mujahideen who fought against a Soviet-installed regime in Kabul for 14 years from their bases inside Pakistan and toppled it. A government spokesman in Islamabad denied Pakistan is ``giving any military assistance to Bosnia'' but said Islamabad has ``promised $10 million in humanitarian assistance to the Bosnian Muslims.'' Last month a delegation of Islamic scholars from Bosnia visited Pakistan and appealed to local Muslims to ``send arms to their brothers in Bosnia.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Seven U.N. soldiers wounded in blast Date: 24 Sep 92 16:51:10 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Seven U.N. troops sustained injuries Thursday when an explosion ripped into their armored car hours after Serbian shellfire hit a car and a public bus, killing at least three people and wounding 15 others, officials and news reports said. It was the second consecutive day that the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) suffered casualties. UNPROFOR officials said they were almost certain a land mine caused the explosion that wounded a Canadian captain and six Egyptian soldiers in the latest incident. Bosnian fighters, however, contended that the armored personnel carrier in which the seven were riding was hit by a rocket launched by Serbian extremists. ``They fired a rocket from a house,'' said one Bosnian soldier, Rusmir Salihspahic. UNPROFOR officials and witnesses said the incident occurred about 4 p.m. in Adzici, a key flashpoint on the embattled western edge of the Bosnian capital, as the armored car was escorting a truck carrying two corpses to a pre-arranged body exchange between Bosnian and Serbian units. ``The APC (armored personnel carrier) blew up in front of our eyes,'' said Eileen Kleinnan, a photographer riding in an armored Land Rover belonging to the British Broadcasting Corp. ``Everyone just abandoned their vehicles and ran for cover.'' She and other witnesses said a firefight then erupted between Bosnian and Serbian units, as the personnel carrier blazed in the middle of the road. Another UNPROFOR armored vehicle was dispatched to rescue the wounded and other Egyptian troops who were unhurt, and take them back to the U. N. headquarters. Meanwhile, the vehicle was left in the road with the bodies inside it. The incident ocurred 24 hours after two French troops were wounded by a mortar shell. It brought to more than 50 the number of UNPROFOR soldiers wounded since May, most of them in deliberate attacks. Four members of the force have been killed. The developments came amid fresh clashes on Sarajevo's northern and western flanks, the main centers of fighting for 10 days, and sporadic skirmishes and sniper fire in several downtown neighborhoods, witnesses said. Sarajevo radio and Dr. Sead Dezdarovic, a surgeon at the French hospital, said a Serbian artillery round smashed at about noon into a passenger car as it crossed an intersection near the former Yugoslav army's Marshal Tito Barracks near the downtown, killing the two occupants. A short time later, he said, another round scored a direct hit on a public bus close to the same location, killing at least one passenger and seriously injuring 15 others. The car and the bus were using a pot-holed backroad that has become a major pedestrian and vehicular route into the city center because much of it is shielded by high-rise buildings from Serbian artillery and snipers. Serbian forces, armed by the Yugoslav army and backed financially and politically by neighboring Serbia, have been bombarding and besieging Sarajevo for almost a half year as part of a campaign to rip a self- declared state out of the former Yugoslav republic. Forces loyal to the Bosnian government comprised mostly of Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Serbs and Croats, have been waging an uphill battle to preserve the republic's newly won independence and territorial integrity. The attack on the bus prompted an indefinite suspension in the already vastly diminished public bus service, forcing thousands of people to walk home after work, Sarajevo radio reported. It said a total of at least six people were killed and 37 others injured during the day from Serbian shelling and sniper fire in the city. A U.N. official renewed a warning of widespread hunger in Sarajevo unless action is taken to compensate for the suspension of the U.N.- organized humanitarian airlift. The blockade of Sarajevo has left the estimated 500,000 residents and refugees dependent on U.N. relief, which have been severely scaled back since the airlift was halted by a Sept. 3 missile attack on an Italian plane that killed four crewmen. U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) logistics chief Dag Espeland said a Swiss company has offered to lease UNHCR three giant Ilyushin-76 cargo planes of the Russian airline, Aeroflot, to deliver food and medicines. He said the cost would be a relatively cheap $2 million per month, and that the three aircraft could fly 150 tons of supplies into Sarajevo's U.N.-controlled airport per day. ``I measured everything today and it would be no problem,'' Espeland said, adding that he had informed his superiors of the offer. He said the planes would go a long way to making up for the loss of the humanitarian airlift. Espeland said truck convoys from Croatia's port city of Split had managed only to bring in a daily average of 44 tons of relief, compared to the 183 tons provided by the airlift. ``We are only getting a drop in the bucket,'' he said, and he renewed a warning that ``in three weeks, we will start seeing hunger here.'' Positioned on hilltops surrounding Sarajevo, Serbian guerrillas pounded the city Thursday with tank, howitzer, mortar and anti-aircraft machine gun fire, targeting both civilian and government forces positions. Most of Sarajevo was without electricity or water for its fourth consecutive day with repairmen being prevented from fixing high-voltage cables because of the shelling. Bosnian forces, comprising Muslim Slavs, moderate Serbs and Croats, blamed Serbs for Thursday's attack but Serbian guerrillas said they were responding to fire from from Muslim Slav and Croatian forces. Fighting was reported in the areas of Bihac, Gradacac, Jajce, Doboj, Srebrenica, Bratunac and Visegrad, the radio said. Two French U.N. soldiers suffered minor wounds Wednesday from a mortar round in sporadic shelling and clashes in and around Sarajevo that prevented work on restoring electricity to the war-ravaged Bosnian capital. U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) officials said the mortar shell was believed to have been a stray round. It slammed into the yard of the Tvornica Armatura factory, located near the U.N. headquarters on the western end of Sarajevo, as the two French soldiers and two local workers were cutting metal sheeting to protect the Sarajevo airport control tower, they said. Ukrainian Col. Viktor Bezrouchenko, the UNPROFOR chief of operations, said one local worker was injured along with the French servicemen. ``None was seriously wounded,'' said Bezrouchenko. The incident brought to at least 48 the number of UNPROFOR troops injured since May. Four others have been killed. Most of the casualties were caused by what U.N. officials have condemned as deliberate attacks by both warring factions. Adnan Abdel Razak, the UNPROFOR spokesman, said the French soldiers were evacuated to Zagreb by a U.N. aircraft that also returned the UNPROFOR deputy commander, French Gen. Phillipe Morillon, to the Croatian capital after a four-day visit to plan a 6,000-troop expansion of the 1,500-man U.N. contingent. U.N. officials said that before his departure, Morillon held talks with Serbian military officials about the possible relocation of the U. N. headquarters to a hotel in the Serb-held western suburb of Ilidza. The move would fit closely with Morillon's stated goal of deploying U.N. troops in Ilidza to secure a corridor through which humanitarian aid could enter Sarajevo through encircling Serbian lines. Serbian forces, backed by neighboring communist-ruled Serbia, have bombarded and besieged Sarajevo as part of their more than five-month campaign to carve a self-declared state out of the former Yugoslav republic of Muslim Slavs, Serbs and Croats. Forces loyal to the government, comprised mostly of Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Serbs and Croats, are fighting to preserve the republic's newly won independence and territorial integrity.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 184, 24 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR TAJIK LEADER CALLS FOR VOLUNTEERS. Acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov has signed a decree calling for volunteers to join Internal Affairs troops and Russian units to try to stop the fighting in Kurgan-Tyube Oblast south of Dushanbe, Interfax reported on 23 September. The same day ITAR-TASS reported that about 50,000 refugees from Kurgan-Tyube have gone to neighboring Kulyab Oblast, where 800,000 inhabitants are reported to be already on the verge of starvation. Attempts to send food shipments by road from Dushanbe have been blocked by fighting along the highway. Ostankino TV on 21 September reported having learned that Tajikistan's foreign minister planned to ask the UN General Assembly to authorize UN peacekeeping forces for Tajikistan. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) NEW ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE; Shanibov DETAINED. A new ceasefire agreement was signed on 23 September by Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian representatives, whereby Abkhaz and Georgian troops would be withdrawn from the River Bzyb, which is to become a demilitarized zone, ITAR-TASS reported. The agreement also provides for the creation of a commission which will begin work on 1 October to stabilize the situation in Sukhumi; at that time Georgia will withdraw from the area all its troops except those needed to protect roads and railways. Meanwhile, Yuri Shanibov, the chairman of the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (the body responsible for sending volunteers to fight in Abkhazia) has been detained in Nalchik by investigators from the Russian procurator's office, which last month began proceedings against him for "endangering the security of the state and spreading war propaganda," an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Moscow. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) AZERBAIJAN CLAIMS STRATEGIC GAINS IN ADVANCE OF CEASEFIRE. Azerbaijani forces retook the Nagorno-Karabakh town of Martuni on 23 September and subjected the capital of Stepanakert to aerial bombardment; fierce fighting was also reported along the Armenian-Azerbaijani border, ITAR-TASS reported. Commenting on the 19 September meeting at which the ceasefire agreement was concluded, Azerbaijan Minister of Defense Rahim Kaziev told ITAR-TASS that until a clear mechanism for enforcing the ceasefire is worked out, it is premature to claim that the conflict has been resolved. Russian Defense Minister Grachev told Russian journalists that one reason why Armenia and Azerbaijan agreed to the ceasefire was that they are running out of military hardware. Azerbaijan President Abulfaz Elchibey was quoted last week by ITAR-TASS as claiming that the war was costing each side 25-30 million roubles per day. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN RETURNS DRAFT LAW TO PARLIAMENT. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has sent back to the parliament a draft law on the constitutional protection of the power of state institutions, arguing that the draft violated the Russian constitution, Interfax reported on 23 September. The parliament's draft envisioned the creation of "parallel power structures." Yeltsin said that these bodies would confer executive power on the parliamentary presidium, a development that he opposed. He recommended that the matter be reviewed by the Constitutional Supervisory Committee. The draft further demonstrates the effort by parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov to strengthen his position. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) KHASBULATOV AGAINST REMOVAL OF GOVERNMENT. Although many conservative deputies, such as Communist leader Sergei Baburin, insisted on a vote of no-confidence in the government, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov told the parliament to let the team of Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar continue working, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. Khasbulatov backed away from a confrontation with the government after President Boris Yeltsin publicly declared that he also no longer sought to abolish the present legislature. Khasbulatov rejected demands by conservative deputies to convene an extraordinary Congress and stated that preparations for the next Congress will start, as required by the constitution, in November-December. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHOKHIN ON IMPORTS, WESTERN LOANS. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin said that Russia is having some problems making use of credits extended by Western nations and international agencies, the New York Times reported on 24 September. Shokhin, in Washington with other high level Russian officials to discuss debt issues, claimed that Russia had not yet drawn on the $1 billion dollar loan approved by the IMF in August because the interest payments, at 7.5%, would be too burdensome. Shokhin also said that at the current low ruble rate of exchange, Western imports were too expensive for many Russian enterprises despite the availability of Western financing. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA BUILDS GRAIN RESERVES. The Russian grain reserve, which will total over 20 million tons, is being divided into federal and regional "funds," Interfax reported on 23 September. Regional authorities apparently will send grain procured in their localities in excess of current consumption and local reserve requirements to the federal fund. The federal fund will serve as the reserve for the needs of the army, large cities, and territories with low local grain production. Any shortfalls in building the funds will be made up for with imports. The Russian grain reserve was established by presidential decree in late August. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIVIC UNION COOPERATES. The leaders of the Civic Union, Arkadii Volsky and Aleksandr Rutskoi, stated at a press conference that they want to cooperate with the government, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. Volsky said that the Civic Union's economic program should not be regarded as an alternative program. He criticized the government for refusing to invite leading economists from the beginning to work on its reform plan and for not having learned from the Chinese reform experience, which preserved the state sector. Volsky's economic aide, Iosif Diskin, said that the Civic Union's economic program seeks first of all to protect key industries from economic decline and only at the second stage does it envision measures to stimulate production. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY CALLS FOR INCREASED MILITARY EXPENDITURES IN 1993. According to a Reuters report of 22 September, Russian Minister for Industry Alexander Titkin called for a 60% increase in defense spending in 1993 over planned levels. Titkin reportedly made the suggestion in an internal government memorandum obtained by Reuters. The planned 1993 military procurement budget is reportedly 164 billion rubles, a 10% percent increase over current levels. Titkin argued that expenditures should increase to 263 billion rubles to prevent plant closures and the loss of up to 800,000 jobs in defense and related industries. In the absence of such an increase, Titkin claimed that production of such weapons as the MiG-29, MiG-31 and T-72 tank would have to be halted. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) GROMOV ON RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL PLANS. In a speech to the Russian Supreme Soviet on 22 September, Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov stated that the 14th Army will be withdrawn from Moldova "only when the situation in the region gets stabilized," according to Interfax. He estimated that this might happen in 2 to 3 years. Gromov also repeated Russian plans to withdraw troops from Lithuania by the end of 1993, and from the other Baltic states by the end of 1994 if withdrawal agreements are reached. All but 6000 troops are to be withdrawn from Poland by 15 November 1992, with the rest leaving by the end of 1993. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) SUPREME SOVIET COMMITTEE CRITICIZES LITHUANIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL AGREEMENT. The agreement to withdraw troops from Lithuania was criticized on 22 September by the Russian Supreme Soviet's Committee on International Affairs for failing to protect Russian interests and the rights of Russian servicemen in Lithuania, according to ITAR-TASS. The committee requested that the agreement be renegotiated. The committee's reaction, together with the increasing strength of Russian nationalists in the Supreme Soviet, suggests that the treaty with Lithuania, and potential treaties with Latvia and Estonia may run into parliamentary roadblocks and possibly even non-ratification.(John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) US-RUSSIAN OFFICIALS DISCUSS GLOBAL DEFENSES. On 21-22 September, US and Russian officials met to discuss potential areas of cooperation in the development and deployment of early warning systems and ballistic missile defenses. In a communique issued on 22 September and carried by ITAR-TASS, they reported positive discussions on topics including the exchange of ideas on global defense systems, cooperative technical development projects, and legal bases for cooperation. There was also discussion of a possible "demonstration experiment" to exchange early warning information. Despite the positive report, however, the indications are that two sides are not close to substantive agreements on joint defenses. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) NEW RUSSIAN NAVAL COMMAND APPOINTMENTS. On 22 September, Krasnaya zvezda reported that to replace retiring officers new personnel were being appointed to the Russian Navy high command. Admiral Valentin Selivanov, formerly commander of the Leningrad naval base, was appointed chief of the main staff. Vice-Admirals Georgii Gurinov and Vasilii Eremin were both appointed deputy commanders of the Navy. Vice Admiral Aleksandr Gorbunov was appointed deputy commander for combat readiness. The announcement indicated that a substantial restructuring and restaffing of the Navy command is underway. Interfax on 23 September reported that the controversial commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Igor Kasatonov, also may be appointed deputy commander of the Navy. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA REJECTS SWEDISH SUBMARINE ALLEGATIONS. A spokesman for the Russian Ministry of Defense on September 23 rejected Swedish charges that a Russian submarine had entered Swedish waters, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. The spokesman pointed out that the Swedish Navy had been unable to identify the submarine and claimed that Russian submarines carry out their training exercises and combat operations outside the territorial waters of other states. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) PRUNSKIENE DENIES VOLUNTARY COOPERATION WITH KGB. In interviews given to Literaturnaya gazeta, (No. 39) and Komsomolskaya pravda, on 16 September, the former prime minister of Lithuania, Kazimiera Prunskiene, called the verdict of the Lithuanian Supreme Court confirming her collaboration with the KGB a "politically biased decision" (See, RFE/RL Daily Report, 15 September). Prunskiene said that her reports about her scientific contacts abroad that were discovered in the KGB's archives were signed in her own name; the agents of the KGB, however, usually had to sign their "denunciations" (a term that was used in KGB domestic operations) with their KGB cover name. Prunskiene failed to mention that she was accused of collaboration not with the KGB's domestic services, but with the first department of the Lithuanian KGB, which was an element of the Soviet KGB's foreign intelligence service. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.) KASATONOV FAVORED FOR CRIMEAN PRESIDENCY. Komsomolskaya pravda of 22 September reports that the extraordinary congress of the All-Crimean Movement of the Electorate for the Republic of the Crimea has named Admiral Igor Kasatonov, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, as its choice for president of the Crimea. The congress expressed its dissatisfaction with the Crimean parliament, calling for its early dissolution and new elections. The congress also demanded that the moratorium on a referendum defining the Crimea's state status be lifted. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT MEETS ON THE ECONOMY. The Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers has met to discuss steps to intensify economic reform in the country, Ukrainian radio and TV reported on 22 September. The main speaker was First Deputy Prime Minister Valentyn Symonenko, who presented an overview of his plan, which is said to propose that Ukraine abandon the ruble zone in the very near future. According to the report, the plan demonstrates the government's determination to take full responsibility for implementing economic reforms. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) GEORGIAN RADICAL QUESTIONS LEGITIMACY OF ELECTING PARLIAMENTARY SPEAKER. The chairman of the Georgian National Independence Party, Irakli Tsereteli, has demanded that the Georgian Supreme Court rule on whether the proposal to elect a parliament chairman by majority vote with no alternative candidate conforms with the Georgian Constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. A court ruling is expected by the end of this week. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV IN FRANCE. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev arrived in France on 23 September for a three-day state visit, Western agencies reported. He signed a friendship treaty with France providing for regular top-level meetings between France and Kazakhstan and also signed the CSCE Charter. Before ending his official visit to Germany and traveling to France, Nazarbaev signed a deal with Daimler-Benz under which the German firm will assemble buses in Kazakhstan and deliver used Mercedes cars and trucks to the Central Asian state. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) BIRLIK, DEMROSSIYA TO ISSUE STATEMENT ON ABUSES IN UZBEKISTAN. The Democratic Russia Movement and the Uzbek Popular Front movement Birlik have prepared a statement on human rights abuses in Uzbekistan, a DemRossiya official told an RFE/RL correspondent on 23 September. The DemRossiya Coordinating Council has asked Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the Russian Supreme Soviet to look into the charges raised in the statement, including the use of violence against the opposition in Uzbekistan, before Russia concludes a bilateral treaty with that country. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIA, BOSNIA ANNOUNCE DEFENSE PACT. International media on 23 September quoted Presidents Franjo Tudjman of Croatia and Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia in New York as saying that they have reached a defense agreement covering the territory of the two republics. This follows upon previous understandings and agreements reached earlier this year, but details of the new text are not yet available. Regular and paramilitary Croatian units alike in Bosnia and Herzegovina formally follow a policy of good relations with the Muslims, but there have been some clashes between Bosnian and Croatian regular forces in recent weeks. The Croatian authorities blame agents of the ex-Yugoslav military intelligence for sowing mistrust between what they term "two victims of the same [Serbian] aggressor." Time alone will tell what, if anything, the latest Tudjman-Izetbegovic agreement will mean in practice. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) SERBS SHELL BIHAC, SLAVONSKI BROD. Western news agencies on 23 September reported that Serbian artillery hit the hospital in the besieged mainly Muslim town of Bihac, killing 11 and wounding 20. Meanwhile in eastern Croatia, almost daily bombardment has continued for four months against Slavonski Brod and the surrounding villages. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) KOSOVO DEVELOPMENTS. Fehmi Agani, vice president of Kosovo's main party, the Democratic Alliance, told reporters on 18 September that Kosovo's Albanian delegation attending the peace talks at the UN-EC mediated conference on the former Yugoslavia in Geneva will demand recognition as an independent republic. Kosovo, formerly an autnomous province within Serbia, is about 90% Albanian. Agani also said his party received the rump Yugoslav federal government's 14-point draft program on Kosovo and commented that Albanian parties will not agree on Kosovo remaining a part of Serbia. He added that the proposals are only initiatives for future talks. He did say, however, that his party regards the government's proposal on lifting all restrictive measures on the Albanian-language media as encouraging. Belgrade media carried the report on 20 September. Western agencies report on 23 September that street names in Pristina have been "Serbianized," and the city's university has been named after Dositej Obradovic, an 18th-early 19th century Serbian scholar. According to the reports, Albanian children and their teachers have been barred from entering schools by Serbian police. Last month federal Prime Minister Milan Panic ordered all schools opened to Albanians, despite protests from local Serbs and Serbia's government. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) HAVEL SAYS THAT REFERENDUM WOULD NOT HELP SITUATION. Former Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel said in an interview with the Czech daily Mlada Fronta dnes published on 24 September that it is too late for a referendum on the future of the Czechoslovak federation. Havel, who was one of the staunchest supporters of a referendum on Czechoslovakia's constitutional setup, said that the democratically elected Slovak leadership wants an independent state and will not allow anything but a "ratification" of the republic's independence. Even if Czechs vote in favor of a common state, it will not have any impact on developments. Havel stressed that Slovaks have the right to be independent and that it is in the interest of all involved to carry out the division in a proper way. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) BULGARIAN PARLIAMENTARY TROUBLES. Stefan Savov, president of the National Assembly and leader of Bulgaria's Democratic Party, faces a no-confidence vote on 24 September. The vote, postponed from 23 September, results from accusations that he has failed to represent the parliamentary coalition majority even-handedly. His ouster is being sought by the leaders of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, Bulgaria's predominantly Turkish party. They issued a declaration on 23 September calling for the removal not only of Savov, but also of Prime Minister, Filip Dimitrov as well as for a restructuring of the government and a new strategy to stimulate economic reform. According to the declaration obtained by RFE/RL's Sofia Bureau, the MRF alleges that the Coordinating Council of the UDF has often forgotten that the parliamentary majority the governing Union of Democratic Forces holds in the National Assembly results from an informal UDF-MRF coalition, which has now all but fallen apart. Meanwhile, the Bulgarian Socialist Party has indicated it supports the idea of a restructured Dimitrov cabinet. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND, HUNGARY AGREE ON FREE TRADE ZONE. Poland and Hungary intend to create a bilateral free trade zone, possibly as early as 1 January 1993, Western agencies reported. Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka and her Hungarian counterpart Jozsef Antall reached agreement on the issue on 23 September, during Suchocka's two-day official visit to Budapest. Czechoslovakia had been envisaged as a third partner to the agreement, but its disintegration prompted Hungary and Poland to press ahead with a bilateral arrangement. The final agreement, to be signed in November 1992 in Cracow, is expected to boost bilateral trade, which Antall says has declined such that trade with Poland now only accounts for 1.5% to 2% of Hungary's total. Suchocka and Antall signed agreements eliminating double taxation and facilitating the flow of capital between the two countries. Antall also urged the EC to provide a clear outline of the conditions the "triangle" countries would have to fulfill to become full members of that body. (Louisa Vinton & Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) VISEGRAD TRIANGLE MILITARY LEADERS TO MEET. MTI reports, quoting government sources, that the Defense Ministers of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary will meet on 25 September in Tatranske Zruby, Czechoslovakia, to discuss European security issues, including the Yugoslav crisis. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) LIVE FROM WARSAW: WALESA ON RFE. In a 50-minute live broadcast from Warsaw on 23 September, Polish President Lech Walesa took questions from RFE/RL journalists and listeners. Walesa expressed the hope that the borders between Poland and its neighbors will cease to divide and instead begin to bring together different nations. He added that while politicians can create the conditions for international cooperation, they cannot dictate it. The interview with Walesa was broadcast by RFE/RL to Belarus, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) SOLIDARITY REFUSES TALKS WITH POSTCOMMUNIST UNIONS. Meeting behind closed doors in Gdansk on 23 September, Solidarity's National Commission decided to enter into negotiations with the government on the "pact on state firms," but "staunchly refused" to sit at the same table with other trade unions during the talks. A spokesman charged that the former official OPZZ federation is more interested in the legitimacy it could gain from sitting at Solidarity's side than in the outcome of the negotiations. The Solidarity leadership also rejected a demand from its radical Mazowsze region for changes in the union's parliamentary caucus. The region had expressed outrage that some Solidarity deputies had voted against the motion to dismiss Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski on 18 September. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) BIG OPPOSITION RALLY IN BUCHAREST. Thousands of Romanians marched through central Bucharest on 23 September to show their support for Emil Constantinescu, the main opposition candidate in the 27 September elections. Constantinescu is running on the ticket of the Democratic Convention (DC), an alliance of 18 centrist parties and organizations. In a rally following the march, DC supporters called for "true democracy" in Romania and denounced incumbent president Ion Iliescu as "Bolshevik." Western agencies report that in his speech Constantinescu stressed the need for "moral rebirth" and the DC's concern for minority rights in Romania. Geza Domokos, a prominent member of the Hungarian minority in Transylvania, also addressed the crowd. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) ROMANIA'S NSF LEADER ON POST-ELECTORAL STRATEGY. Petre Roman, leader of the National Salvation Front and former prime minister, praised his opposition rivals at a press conference on 23 September. Roman said that the DC is likely to win the elections and to form Romania's first genuinely democratic government since the 1989 anti-communist revolution. He further pledged his party's support for the DC in the parliament, even if the NSF is not part of the next government; but added that the offer was limited to the period necessary to achieve stability in Romania. Roman declined to be drawn out on press speculations that he could become foreign minister in the new cabinet. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) ESTONIA REBUTS RUSSIAN STATEMENT. The Estonian Foreign Ministry has rebuked the Russian government for interfering in Estonia's internal affairs. In a sharply worded statement issued by Tallinn on 23 September, the Estonian government takes issue with remarks made by the Russian government's press spokesman Gennadii Shipitko to ITAR-TASS on 22 September alleging that last weekend's elections in Estonia ignored the interests of Russian-speakers there. The Estonian Foreign Ministry "regards [the statements] as a threat directed at the Republic of Estonia . . . and as an attempt to influence the activities of the newly-elected Riigikogu (parliament) and the soon-to-be elected president." (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) LANDSBERGIS CONCLUDES VISIT TO BELGIUM. On 23 September Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis completed a three-day official visit to Belgium. On 21 September he met with King Baudouin I and Belgian Senate officials. On 22 September he participated in ceremonies opening the Lithuanian embassy and gave a speech at the Royal Institute for International Relations. On 23 September he held talks at NATO headquarters with Secretary-General Manfred Woerner and urged NATO to send observers to oversee Russian troop withdrawals and help the Baltic States establish their own armed forces. He also had meetings with EC president Jacques Delors and European Parliament chairman Egon Klepsch. On 24 September he held a press conference on the visit, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIA TO ABANDON RUBLE ON 1 OCTOBER. On 23 September Prime Minister Aleksandras Abisala told national television that Lithuania will abandon the ruble as its currency on 1 October, replacing it with temporary coupons that can be exchanged for rubles on a one-to-one basis until that day. Thereafter rubles will be exchanged as foreign currency in Lithuanian banks. The coupons will be valid until the introduction of the litas at some as yet unannounced date. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) UNEXPECTED SUCCESS OF CZECHOSLOVAK ECONOMIC REFORM. According to Josef Tosovsky, the President of Czechoslovak State (Central) Bank, Czechoslovak economic reforms have been successful and will continue even after the country's disintegration. Tosovsky told reporters in Washington on 22 September that inflation is under control and the rate will remain lower than 10% throughout the year; GDP growth is expected to be higher than last year. Tosovsky said that the country's economy is doing so well that it will not need to draw on the remaining $285 million of its current stand-by loan from the IMF. The IMF reportedly anticipated a $600 million balance-of-payments deficit for Czechoslovakia, but it turns out that the country had a $1 billion surplus for the first eight months of the year instead. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) ITALIAN CONCERN INVESTS IN POLISH STEEL MILL. On 23 September, the Italian firm Lucchini signed an agreement with trade unions from the Huta Warszawa steel mill. Officials say the agreement paves the way for a $300 million investment in Poland's troubled steel industry. In return for a 51% share in the mill, Lucchini has granted a six-month moratorium on dismissals and promised average monthly wage increases of 2 million zloty ($143) over the coming 18 months. The work force endorsed the agreement almost unanimously, Polish TV reported. Meanwhile, Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski told an audience of bankers, managers, and unionists in Poznan that "Poland must be open to foreign capital." Poland's shortage of domestic resources rules out "capital autarky," Goryszewski said. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) FOREIGN CAPITAL FLOW TO HUNGARY CONTINUES. MTI reports that in the first seven months of 1992, $827 million worth of capital came into Hungary. This year's plan calls for $1.5 billion, but present trends indicate that at the end of the year final amounts will be higher. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) ESTONIA: GOOD WORKS FOR THE JOBLESS. The outgoing Estonian government adopted a ruling on 23 September saying that the unemployed may be used in emergency relief works for up to 10 days each month with a maximum of 80 hours per month, BNS reported. Labor Minister Arvo Kuddo is quoted as saying that those who refuse to participate in the program for reasons other than health will be denied unemployment benefits for a two-week period. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.)
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fighting flares in Bosnia amid international peace efforts Subject: Relief supplies won't resume until UN gets security guarantees ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fighting flares in Bosnia amid international peace efforts Date: 25 Sep 92 12:19:27 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Clashes flared in the capital of Sarajevo and across the newly independent republic Friday as United Nations and European Community peace mediators planned to investigate reports of ``ethnic cleansing'' in northwestern Bosnia-Hercegovina, officials and news reports said. At least one person was killed and three injured in fighting between Serbian guerrillas and government forces in the predominantly Muslim Slav city of Sarajevo, a police spokesman said. ``Aggression is spreading,'' said the Bosnia-Hercegovina government- run Sarajevo Radio in a reference to Serbian efforts to carve out a self-declared state and annex it to neighboring Serbia, the dominant state of the disintegrated six-republic Yugoslav federation. U.N. special envoy Cyrus Vance and EC peacemaker Lord David Owevn, the co-chairmen of the Geneva peace talks on former Yugoslavia, arrived at midday Friday in Banja Luka, the Serb-held town and a major military base in the northwest of the republic. Vance and Owen expressed ``deep concern over reports...of ethnic cleansing'' in the Banja Luka area and decided to personally investigate these allegations, the Serbian-run Tanjug news agency reported. In Banja Luka Vance said, ``We heard of ethnic cleansing in the area of Banja Luka and we will personally ask questions to clarify the situation.'' Serbian officials dismissed accusations their guerrillas were ``cleaning up'' the Banja Luka area of Muslim Slavs and charged that Muslims were forcing the Serbs out of the region. Fighting went on unabated across Bosnia-Hercegovina and in and around Sarajevo Friday after a Canadian captain and six Egyptian soldiers of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) suffered injuries Thursday while riding in an armored vehicle outside the capital. The incident, a second one involving UNPROFOR troops in the past two days, occurred at Adzici, on the western outskirts of Sarajevo. Serbs traded accusations with Muslim Slavs of having carried out the attack on the UNPROFOR vehicle. But, witnesses agreed that after the explosion that ripped the U.N. armored vehicle a firefight broke out between Bosnian and Serbian forces. Since the UNPROFOR deployed its troops in Bosnia-Hercegovina in May, four members of the force have been killed and more than 50 soldiers and officers wounded, most of them in deliberate attacks. After sporadic clashes overnight, fighting intensified Friday morning with Serbian guerrillas blasting mortar and howitzer rounds on downtown Sarajevo and its suburbs. Shortly after 9 a.m., a mortar shell killed a man in a Sarajevo street and injured three other people, the radio said. Large sections of Sarajevo remained without electricity and drinking water as repair squads could not fix damage due to ongoing fighting. In a report from the western Bosnian town of Bihac, close to the border with Croatia, another former Yugoslav republic, Sarajevo Radio said one person was injured in a Serbian attack on a hospital. It was the 14th attack in the past month on the hospital in the predominantly Muslim Slav town of Bihac, the radio said. On Tuesday, a Serbian tank shell hit a lung disease ward killing 11 patients and injuring another 20 as they were having dinner in the hospital dining room. Serbian forces, armed by the Yugoslav army and backed financially and politically by the communist regime in neighboring Serbia, have been bombarding and besieging Sarajevo for neaerly six months as part of their land-grab campaign. Forces loyal to the Bosnian government comprised mostly of Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Serbs and Croats, have been fighting to preserve the republic's newly won independence and territorial integrity. Sarajevo, with an estimated 500,000 residents and refugees, has been encircled by Serbian forces since early April. A U.N.-sponsored humanitarian aid airlift was suspended on Sept. 3, cutting the delivery of much needed relief supplies to the city, when an Italian cargo aircraft was shot down just outside Sarajevo. Food and medical supplies trucked to Sarajevo by land convoys are not sufficient to provide about 200 tons of relief needed per day. Fighting was reported in the areas of Bihac, Brcko, Maglaj, Tesanj, Zenica, Tuzla, Olovo, Zavidovic, Breza, Gradacac, Jajce, Doboj, Sarajevo radio said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Relief supplies won't resume until UN gets security guarantees Date: 25 Sep 92 15:55:57 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- The United Nations relief airlift of supplies to Sarajevo is to remain suspended until participating nations have further security guarantees from the warring factions in Bosnia-Hercegovina and may never be revived, the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees said Friday. The 19 nations participating in the airlift have told the High Commissioner for Refugees, Sadako Ogata, they will not resume flying until she has received additional guarantees from the three rival factions that the planes will not be fired on. Refering to the airlift, suspended since Sept. 3, UNHCR spokesman Sylvana Foa said, ``We're seeking guarantees but there's a limit as to how far we can go in negotiating military agreements with the Bosnian factions. We're damned if we do and damned if we don't.'' She spoke as U.N. special envoy Cyrus Vance and EC peacemaker Lord David Owen flew to Sarajevo for a three-day visit. A U.N. spokesman, Pierre Mehu, said they planned to visit Banja Luka, headquarters of the Serbian community in Bosnia and investigate reports of intimidation and growing tension between Serbs, Croats and Muslims. Mehu said Owen and Vance would stay in Bosnia-Hercegovina until Sunday, meeting with Radovan Karadzic, the Serbian leader in Bosnia and several of his aides.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 185, 25 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR RUSSIA REFUSES TO SELL WEAPONS TO TAJIKISTAN. In order to end the fighting between supporters and opponents of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, the government of Tajikistan asked to buy heavy weaponry from Russia, but Moscow turned the request down, the deputy chairman of Tajikistan's National Security Committee told ITAR-TASS on 24 September. The same day inhabitants of Dushanbe gathered in front of the Supreme Soviet building to protest the government's inability to stop the fighting. Volunteers from Dushanbe and mountain raions that support the opposition have joined a self-defense force organized by inhabitants of Kofirnihon (formerly Ordzhonikidzeabad) Raion on the Kulyab-Dushanbe road to stop an armed group from Kulyab that is trying to reach Dushanbe. The Nurek power station remains in the hands of fighters from Kulyab. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT TO DISCUSS FIGHTING IN ABKHAZIA. On 25 September the Russian parliament will debate a draft proposal to deploy Russian peacekeeping troops in Abkhazia in order to safeguard the civilian population and the normal functioning of industry and transport, ITAR-TASS reported. Abkhaz parliament Chairman Vladislav Ardzinba is quoted as arguing that Russia cannot remain indifferent to the situation in Abkhazia as some 90,000 Russians live there; he also accused Georgia of violating virtually all the provisions of the 3 September ceasefire agreement. A Georgian State Council spokesman threatened on 24 September to begin "a real war" in Abkhazia if all North Caucasian armed groups fail to comply with the ultimatum to leave the area by 25 September, Reuters reported. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) CONFUSION OVER RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN TRADE QUARREL. Details concerning the dispute over trade payments between Russia and Ukraine remain unclear. At issue is the reversal of an agreement between Russian Central Bank chief Viktor Gerashchenko and the Ukrainian government to pay unsettled trade accounts. When the story first emerged, Russian sources reported that the Gaidar government had only suspended credits issued to Ukraine as part of the agreement. On 23 and 24 September, Western sources suggested that Russia had halted all financial transactions between the two countries, thus effectively freezing trade. Who owes whom what is also unclear. Ukrainian Central Bank chief Vadim Hetman, according to Western sources, claims that Russian enterprises owe Ukraine 360 billion rubles, whereas Ukrainian enterprises owe Russia only 60 billion rubles. Russian observers have given significantly different figures for outstanding payments. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN POLITICIANS QUESTION RESULTS OF WESTERN AID. The Boston Globe quoted the leader of the Industrial Union, Arkadii Volsky, as saying on 24 September that the Russian government was "slavishly following the advice of people from abroad, especially those who are not taken seriously in their own countries." The first deputy parliamentary speaker, Sergei Filatov, stated that "the great value placed on foreign aid, which is not making itself felt, is in fact the worst mistake [which the government is making]," according to Interfax on 23 September. Other criticism of Western assistance recently came from the speaker of the parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov, the first deputy prime minister, Vladimir Shumeiko, and many other conservative deputies. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) GAIDAR WILL NOT RETREAT. Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar told The Financial Times on 24 September that he will not retreat from his market reforms approach. He said, however, that he may reach a compromise with the Civic Union on the issue of military conversion. He stated that those CIS states which do not want to remain in the ruble zone will not receive any more credits from the Russian central bank. He expressed his intention to cooperate closely with the head of the central bank, Viktor Gerashchenko, emphasizing that he does not think that the latter wanted to undermine the government's financial policy. He also told ITAR-TASS also on 24 September that government structures will be altered due to new requirements. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) POPOV SAYS REFORM IS HALTED. The leader of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms, Gavriil Popov, told Interfax on 24 September that Russia will try to divide Western countries against each other by choosing one Western partner, to whom Moscow will open its markets and resources rather than cooperating with the entire European community. Popov stated that the IMF reform program turned out to be unacceptable to Russia and that one must now think of implementing a different transition concept which takes into account Russia's unique situation. Popov asserted that acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar has already given up on pursuing his own initial reform program and now is adopting ideas supported by the leader of the "industrial lobby," Arkadii Volsky. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) NEW WAGE REGULATIONS FOR RUSSIAN STATE EMPLOYEES. The wages and salaries of most employees paid directly out of the state budget will be raised and set under new, simplified regulations, Russian news agencies reported on 24 September. According to ITAR-TASS, the new regulations provide for wage indexation, adjusting wages upwards quarterly to offset inflation to some degree. Interfax reported that the regulations will be introduced starting in the fourth quarter of this year and will initially double wages and salaries from their June 1992 levels. The new regulations, which Labor Minister Gennadii Melikyan proposed, may affect the earnings of as many as 15 million Russians. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) ADJUSTMENTS IN RUSSIAN VOUCHER PROGRAM EXPECTED. With only a week left until the start of the distribution of privatization-vouchers, the Russian parliament is considering important changes in the program. Parliament's Supreme Economic Council will suggest such modifications as allowing citizens to use their vouchers not only as claims on state enterprise assets, but also to purchase land and municipal property, according to Interfax on 24 September. Other changes under consideration are a ban on the resale of vouchers and an extension of their expiration date, currently set at 31 December 1993, to the end of 1994. According to "Novosti" on 18 September, Gosznak began printing the vouchers last week, and it is reportedly producing 4 million daily. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) CANDIDATES FOR MOSCOW MAYORAL POST. The names of four politicians have so far been mentioned as confirmed or possible candidates in the forthcoming mayoral election, Ekho Moskvy reported on 23 September. Two of them--the liberal economist, Larisa Pyasheva, and the chairman of the Krasnopresnenski Raion Soviet, Aleksandr Krasnov--have already declared their candidacies. The other two candidates are Svyatoslav Fedorov, the distinguished eye surgeon from the Party of Economic Freedom, and Ilya Konstantinov, the Secretary of the Christian-Democratic Movement. The latter has announced that if elected, he will cut foreign aid and establish order in the city. The present Moscow mayor, Yurii Lushkov, told Interfax on 24 September that the candidates' announcements about running for his office were "not serious because neither the President nor the parliament have yet approved a new mayoral election. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) KHASBULATOV REINSTATES PARLIAMENTARY OVERSIGHT OF THE MBRF. On 22 September, the opening day of the Russian parliament's new session, the parliamentary speaker, Ruslan Khasbulatov, reestablished a parliamentary commission to monitor the activities of the Ministry of Security of the Russian Federation (the MBRF or MB, formerly the KGB). Khasbulatov himself closed the commission down a few months ago. However, the speaker has changed his mind due to a personal clash with Russian Security Minister Viktor Barannikov, who had written an message to his employees in the margins of a manuscript of Khasbulatov's book, Reforming the Reforms: The Speaker's Thoughts. Barannikov asked his assistant how Khasbulatov had spent the royalties for the book, citing information that Khasbulatov had donated the money to the Russian Assembly and other ultranationalist opposition organizations, Russian TV reported on 23 September. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) MAJORITY OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS NOSTALGIC ABOUT THE OLD DAYS. 80 percent of the citizens in the Russian Federation questioned in an opinion poll conducted by the well-known sociologist, Professor Grushin, say that life before perestroika was better than it is now. The results of the poll were published in Moskovskaya pravda on 24 September. According to the poll, 67 percent of the respondents still favour socialism. 50 percent of the respondents--the majority of whom are members of the older generation--have favorable thoughts about Stalin. 72 percent of those supporting Stalin are Muslims. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) SUPREME SOVIET PASSES REVISED LAW ON DEFENSE. The Russian Supreme Soviet on 24 September passed a version of the Law on Defense that incorporated some revisions requested by President Boris Yeltsin. According to ITAR-TASS, the new law allows the President to appoint the Defense Minister, Chief of the General Staff, and their deputies without the formal approval of the Supreme Soviet. However, the president will not gain the exclusive right to make appointments until a new constitution is adopted, leaving some uncertainty in the appointment process. The law also specifies that the Supreme Soviet will approve the structure and composition of the armed forces as recommended by the President, rather than the Prime Minister. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) US OBJECTS TO RUSSIAN SUBMARINE SALE TO IRAN. On 24 September acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger expressed US concern over Russia's planned sale of three diesel-powered submarines to Iran, according to Western news agencies. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev defended the sale as enhancing communications with Iran as well as benefitting the Russian economy. Baltfax and the BBC on 24 September reported that the first of the Kilo-class submarines had set sail from a Russian naval base in Latvia where it was undergoing an overhaul and crew training. The Latvian government has protested the deal and the presence of Iranian crews several times during the past year. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) LANGUAGE QUESTION IN THE DONBASS. A group of political parties in the Donbass has issued an appeal to the oblast council recommending that a local referendum be held on the language question, Radio Ukraine reported on 23 September. The appeal states that the people themselves should decide which language they speak, read, and think in and in which language their children should be taught. The referendum would decide whether Russian should become the second state language in the region. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) BELARUS TO SPEED NUCLEAR WEAPONS REMOVAL? Interfax on 24 September reported that President Stanislav Shushkevich has requested the acceleration of research on the removal of nuclear weapons from Belarus. Although Belarus is committed to eliminating all nuclear weapons on its soil within seven years, the instructions reportedly call for investigating scenarios in which the weapons could be removed in two to five years. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) BELORUSSIAN FILM DIRECTOR SHOT IN TAJIKISTAN. The noted Belorussian filmmaker, Arkadii Ruderman, has become a victim of the civil war in Tajikistan, "Novosti" reported on 23 September. Ruderman gained fame in 1988 for his documentary exposure of the attempt by Belorussian communist authorities to play down the centennial celebration of the Jewish painter Marc Chagall, who was born in Vitebsk but whose achievements the regime refused to recognize. For his daring documentaries exposing the ills of the communist regime, Ruderman won the highest awards at prestigious Soviet film festivals in 1988 and 1989. In November 1988, Ruderman was the first Russian TV journalist to interview the then dissident Czechoslovak politician Aleksandr Dubcek. Ruderman and his crew visited Tajikistan to make a film investigating the "artist's role in politics" for the Ostankino TV company, "Novosti" said. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV IN FRANCE. On 24 September, the first full day of his state visit to France, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev met with state officials and businessmen, and thanked France for taking in thousands of Kazakhs and Russians who had fled Russia and Kazakhstan after the 1917 October Revolution, ITAR-TASS reported. Nazarbaev and French Prime Minister Pierre Beregovoy signed an agreement on the protection of investments similar to that signed by Nazarbaev in Germany earlier in the week. Seeking to persuade businesses to invest in Kazakhstan, Nazarbaev pointed out his country's rich natural resources--France's ELF-Aquitaine already has made a deal to develop oil fields in Kazakhstan--and also its stable political situation and commitment to developing a market economy. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CAMPAIGNING ENDS IN ROMANIA. The presidential and parliamentary election campaign ended on 24 September with a televised debate among the six presidential candidates. During the three-hour live program, Ion Iliescu defended his political career under former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu. He stressed that he had broken with Ceausescu in 1971 because of the latter's attempt to introduce a Chinese-style cultural revolution in Romania. Recent polls seem to indicate that Iliescu is regaining ground as the date for presidential and general elections, 27 September, approaches. Iliescu's main challenger is Emil Constantinescu of the Democratic Convention. The other candidates for president are Gheorghe Funar of the nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity; Caius Traian Dragomir of the center-left National Salvation Front; Mircea Druc, former premier of Moldova, running as an independent; and Ion Manzatu, candidate of the fringe Republican Party. In a separate development, the US House of Representatives decided on 24 September to postpone a vote on whether to restore Romania's most-favored-nation status until after the elections. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) BULGARIAN PARLIAMENTARY PRESIDENT RESIGNS. Stefan Savov, president of the National Assembly resigned at 17:00 on 24 September, Radio Sofia reports. A replacement must be elected within 14 days. The action headed off a no-confidence vote called for the same day and, at least for the moment lessens tension between the governing Union of Democratic Forces and its informal coalition partner, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms. The leader of the latter party, Ahmed Dogan, has pledged not to press forward with a call for a no-confidence vote on the government in order to give the UDF time in which to reorganize its cabinet. The MRF continues to insist on a change in certain cabinet positions, apparently including the ministries of finance, defense, trade, and interior. UDF leaders so far appear unwilling to give in. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) GERMANY, ROMANIA AGREE TO EXPEL ILLEGAL MIGRANTS. Western agencies reported on 24 September that in Bucharest German Interior Minister Rudolf Seiters and his Romanian counterpart Victor Babiuc signed an agreement on returning illegal migrants. The accord, which allows Germany to repatriate rejected asylum-seekers to Romania even if they do not have identity documents, was described by Seiters as "an important step forward" in Germany's struggle to control the flood of illegal immigrants from Eastern Europe. More than 57,000 Romanian citizens, of whom some 60% are Gypsies, applied for asylum in Germany from January to August this year. Germany hopes to sign similar agreements with other East European countries. In Czechoslovakia, for instance, CSTK reported on 23 September that more than 21,000 refugees--most from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union--have been caught this year on the German border. Czechoslovakia is a major transit point for economic refugees heading to Western Europe. (Dan Ionescu & Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) SERB STEP UP BOMBING RAIDS ON JAJCE. Reuters on 24 September reported that Serb warplanes again attacked Jajce in central Bosnia, which they first bombed on 12 August. This picturesque town set in the mountains constitutes an important gap, together with Gradacac and Brcko, in attempts to link up Serbia with Serbian-held territories in Bosnia and Croatia. Muslim and Croatian forces are defending all three towns against recently intensified Serbian pressure. Jajce dates back to at least the 14th century, and was a symbol of Tito's Yugoslavia because he effectively launched his federalist program there at a conference in 1943. Elsewhere, the Serbs subjected Sarajevo to heavy shelling at a time when the UN peacekeepers are considering leaving the city for safer ground, Western Agencies report. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) PANIC DISCUSSES SITUATION. Milan Panic, Prime Minister of the rump Yugoslavia, told a group of Yugoslav journalists in Washington on 24 September that his recent activities at the UN "achieved more than we expected." He described his meeting with the foreign ministers of the five permanent UN Security Council members as "a fantastic turnabout," because the ministers openly expressed support for his peace plan. On the home front, Panic said "I will never surrender Kosovo," and went on to criticize his detractors by saying "those who have been accusing me of wanting to give up Kosovo have, in fact, given everything away, and caused human losses without saving or changing anything." According to Radio Serbia, Panic said he finds the world's reactions to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic "inexplicable and intolerable" and that "never before has the world talked about or judged a man in this way." Nonetheless, the New York Times of 25 September says Panic is losing patience in Milosevic: "I think I am through with him. . . . We are on a collision course." Western agencies report that Panic has sharply criticized past Serbian leaders for what he calls years of tragic mistakes and decisions. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) PATRIARCH AND CARDINAL CALL FOR PEACE TALKS. Western news agencies on 24 September said that Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Pavle and Croatia's Cardinal Franjo Kuharic issued a joint statement in Geneva calling for immediate negotiations between Croats and Serbs. They condemned all ethnic cleansing and called for refugees to return home, as well as for the release of all prisoners and the closing of all camps. Muslim leader Jakub Selimoski, who had previously called for a meeting of all three religious leaders, did not attend; Pavle and Kuharic expressed regret at his absence. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) CANDIDATES FOR LITHUANIAN SEIMAS. On 25 September Lietuvos aidas published the list of 448 candidates in the 71 single-mandate districts for parliamentary elections on 25 October. The number of candidates varies from 3 to 11. In 5 districts three current parliament members, and in 25 districts, two members will be competing against each other. The most notable race is in Kaisiadorys District, where former prime minister Gediminas Vagnorius of Sajudis will run against Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party chairman Algirdas Brazauskas. Both will undoubtedly be elected since they are the third and first candidates, respectively, on their parties' lists. In the 70 multiple-mandate districts, 743 candidates from 26 political parties and movements are registered. There will clearly be new deputies since in 11 single-mandate districts no incumbent deputies are competing. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK PARLIAMENT FAILS TO ELECT PRESIDENT. In its fifth attempt since the beginning of July, the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly failed to elect a new federal president on 24 September, CSTK reports. Jiri Kotas, chairman of the tiny Free Bloc-Conservative party, won only 40 votes in the 300-member assembly. Since Czechoslovakia is to split into two states on 1 January 1993, the vote was treated as an empty formality by many deputies after Kotas had been officially nominated by one of the deputies. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK PREMIER WRITES ANTALL ABOUT GABCIKOVO DAM. In a letter to Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall on 23 September, Czechoslovak Prime Minister Jan Strasky argues that the Czechoslovak-Hungarian dispute over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project should be solved with the help of a European Community commission of experts. Strasky says that submitting the matter to the International Court of Justice in the Hague, as proposed by Antall in his letter to Strasky on 18 August, would be "a step backwards." Published by CSTK, the letter further says that the so-called variant C of the dam project, pursued by Czechoslovakia after Hungary unilaterally withdrew from the project, will not, as claimed by Hungary, lead to the diversion of the Danube on the current Czechoslovak-Hungarian border, but only to the diversion of some of the river's water. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST EXTREME RIGHT IN HUNGARY. MTI and wire services reported that an estimated 50,000 people demonstrated in central Budapest on the evening of 24 September against the recent resurgence of the extreme right-wing nationalism. The rally was staged by the Democratic Charter, a civil rights group organized mainly by opposition party members in September 1991, and endorsed at the last moment by the Association of the Free Democrats, the leading opposition party. The demonstrators were addressed by the writer Gyorgy Konrad, one of the leaders of the Association of Free Democrats, who called on the crowd to defend democracy. Other speakers said that Hungary cannot be diverted from the path of peaceful change and called on Prime Minister Antall to make a clean break with his party's extreme nationalist wing. A similar rally took place in Miskolc. (Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc.) EAST-CENTRAL EUROPEAN DEFENSE MINISTERS CONFER. The Czechoslovak, Hungarian, and Polish ministers of defense meet today in Slovakia to discuss prospects for cooperation in view of the impending split of Czechoslovakia into two separate states and the consequent division of its armed forces into Czech and the Slovak units. (Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND WANTS TO INCREASE ARMS SALES. Jan Straus, an official in the Polish Trade Ministry who issues arms export licenses, said at a 24 September Warsaw news conference that Poland hopes to increase its exports of arms to developing countries. In a UPI account of his comments, Straus said that he knows of no case in which a Polish firm violated the UN arms embargo on sales to regions where there are conflicts. He said that a total of 51 firms have been licensed to sell arms. Straus revealed that in years past Poland was ordered by Moscow to export arms to various countries without receiving payment. He said that Poland plans to develop its exports to "so-called Third World countries." (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) US SENATE PANEL VOTES RESTRICTION ON RUSSIA AID. On 23 September the US Senate Appropriations Committee approved an amendment by its chairman, Sen. Robert Byrd, to restrict nonhumanitarian aid to Russia until all Russian troops are withdrawn from the Baltic States or a negotiated timetable for their withdrawal is approved, Reuters reports. Humanitarian aid was defined as food, clothing, and medicine in order to restrict most of the aid to Russia. Sen. Patrick Leahy said that he has been told the Administration strongly opposes the amendment. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) TALKS ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM LATVIA STALEMATED. The latest round of talks on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia, held in Jurmala on 22 and 23 September, ended in a stalemate, Radio Riga reports. The Russian side says Latvia was not sufficiently forthcoming over its offer to withdraw its troops by the end of 1994--earlier Moscow had proposed 1999--while maintaining some strategic installations in Latvia. Russia also wants Latvia to assume greater responsibility for the welfare of the active and retired Russian military in Latvia. The Latvian side simply wants all troops out by fall of 1993. Sergei Zotov, leader of the Russian delegation, expressed dismay over Latvia's desire to internationalize the troop withdrawal process and to bring up the issue at the UN, while Latvia felt offended that the Russian delegation continues to act as if Latvia joined the USSR voluntarily. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) RIGHTS OF ESTONIA'S RUSSIANS ON AGENDA. Vasilii Svirin, Russia's chief negotiator for talks with Estonia, told reporters that the next round of talks between the two states would focus on the rights of ethnic Russians in Estonia. Svirin called that particular sphere of problems "one of the most difficult" in the talks. The next round of talks is set for October. BNS reported Svirin's remarks. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINE ENDORSES BALTIC STANCE. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko has confirmed his country's support for Baltic efforts to achieve a speedy withdrawal of Russian troops from their territories. Zlenko also told Janis Lovniks, the newly appointed Latvian chargi d'affaires in Ukraine, that his country considers the presence of former USSR troops in the Baltic States to be a violation of international norms, BNS reported on 23 September. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) EC TO HELP FIGHT BALTIC SEA POLLUTION . On 24 September in Helsinki the European Community signed a new convention to fight pollution in the Baltic Sea, Western agencies report. In order to give the document more weight the Baltic littoral countries - --Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Denmark--asked the EC to endorse the new convention drawn up in April to replace a 1974 treaty. The new convention will go into effect as soon as all the signatory states ratify it. Meanwhile, these states are already monitoring and trying to curb pollution, especially with regard to the dumping and incineration of waste materials. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIA NEEDS MONEY TO MAINTAIN PRISONS. Latvia's minister of internal affairs, Ziedonis Cevers, appealed to businessmen for funds to be used to maintain various law enforcement facilities, including prisons. He said that his ministry has not received an expected 500 million rubles from the state budget, and if the deficit cannot be covered, certain detention facilities will have to be closed and some law enforcement activities will have to stop, Radio Riga reported on 22 September. The reason the ministry has not yet received its allocation is that payments into the state budget are coming in more slowly than anticipated. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) JEWISH GENOCIDE DAY COMMEMORATED IN LITHUANIA. On 24 September Lithuania joined Israel in commemorating "Jewish Genocide Day," the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. In official ceremonies, presided over by Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis, 20 crosses--12 posthumously--were presented to people who at great risk had rescued Jews from certain death during World War II. It is planned to award more medals in the future. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.)
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Peace envoys cite ``shattering'' image of 'ethnic cleansing' Subject: Afghan president visits Pakistan ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Peace envoys cite ``shattering'' image of 'ethnic cleansing' Date: 26 Sep 92 18:59:16 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Peace envoys Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen said Saturday that witnesses had painted a ``shattering picture'' of so-called ethnic cleansing by Serbian forces in the ex- Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Meanwhile, sporadic shelling around the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo Saturday morning followed a night of fierce clashes across the republic which left 54 people dead and 285 wounded, Health Ministry officials said. In Sarajevo alone, at least 21 people were killed and 104 wounded in a 24-hour period ending at 1 p.m. Saturday, the ministry said. Owen and Vance, co-chairmen of an ongoing Yugoslav peace conference, visited the Serbian-held town of Banja Luka Friday in response to U.N. reports of rising ethnic tensions in the city. The men later left the region via Croatia, another former Yugoslav republic. ``We were very troubled by what we saw in Banja Luka,'' Owen told reporters at the airport in the Croatian capital Zagreb before leaving for Geneva, Switzerland. ``We heard concrete evidence of ethnic cleansing.'' During their visit, Owen and Vance met with Catholic, Muslim and Serbian religious leaders who confirmed people were leaving en masse last week from the towns of Bosanski Petrovac and Kljuc, about 25 miles west of Banja Luka in northwestern Bosnia-Hercegovina. Owen added the reports were later independently confirmed by other witnesses. He said several witnesses confirmed accounts of an incident in Travnik in central Bosnia where 3,000-4,000 people attempted to cross through the front lines to safety. ``We are only just seeing the full story and it's a shattering one,'' Owen said. Owen and Vance went to Banja Luka after U.N. officials reported ``nasty harassment'' of non-Serbs by Serbian irregulars had escalated there. According to U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees spokesman Michael Keats, non-Serbs in Banja Luka were losing their jobs and being arrested for no reason. Owen and Vance said they saw evidence of harassment by Muslims and Croats as well, but on a much smaller scale. U.N. officials estimate thousands of refugees have been forced to leave their homes by Serb militia since the war in Bosnia-Hercegovina began in April, when Serbian forces launched an attack to pre-empt international recognition of the former Yugoslav republic. In an effort to carve a Serbian state from the republic and join it to a truncated Yugoslavia made up of Serbia and Montenegro, Serbian guerrillas have captured about 70 percent of the republic's territory. Bosnian forces opposing the Serbs are mostly comprised of Muslim Slavs with a smaller number of Croats and moderate Serbs. In Banja Luka before the war, approximately 68,000 Muslims and Croats coexisted with the Serb majority in the city of 195,000. Recent estimates now put the number of Muslims and Croats at between 30,000 and 40,000. Owen said while the situation in Banja Luka was ``tense,'' he was optimistic the situation would not get out of control. In Sarajevo, heavy overnight fighting eased by Saturday morning, with Sarajevo police reporting relative calm in the predominantly Muslim Slav city under a Serbian siege for six months. ``There was intermittent shelling coming from Serbian positions and Serbian snipers continued their activities,'' a Sarajevo police spokesman said. Government-run Sarajevo radio accused Serbian forces of using jet fighters to support infantry assaults on the Muslim Slav-held towns of Jajce, Maglaj. Gradacac, Doboj and Tuzla. The radio said Serbian forces stepped up the number of combat flights from Banja Luka, which is major military base of the Serb-led Yugoslav army. It said Serbian jet fighters rocketed and and bombarded with cluster bombs the central Bosnian town of Jajce, 80 miles northwest of Sarajevo. The town of Maglaj, about 50 miles southwest of Banja Luka, came under fire from jetfighters at about 7 a.m. as well as from tank, howitzer and mortar rounds. Sarajevo radio reported heavy clashes in the northern town of Gradacac but gave no details of the fighting. The combat flights flew from their base in Banja Luka just one day after Vance and Owen were in the city. Meanwhile, Sarajevo, Jajce, Gradacac, and Maglaj were running short of medical supplies, food as well as electricity and fresh drinking water, the radio said. An international humanitarian airlift to Sarajevo has been suspended since Sept. 3, when an Italian cargo plane was shot down over Bosnia- Hercegovina. Both Owen and Vance said they would urge nations participating in the now scaled down humanitarian airlift to Sarajevo to resume flights as soon as possible. The U.N. Protection Force has been flying in two test flights a day, down from the dozens of aid flights to the besieged city earlier this month. ``With winter coming on, it is simply vital we get people flying the airlift again,'' Vance said. Vance and Owen said they had confirmation of a bomb attack on the road from Split to Dubrovnik in southern Croatia which they said was designed to delay humanitarian aid convoys destined for Bosnia- Hercegovina. Owen said the attack ``could have little other purpose than to delay the humanitarian aid process. ``We are facing a very large deterioration in the humanitarian situation and we will both take it up to the highest level in the hope that we can sort this matter and get something done about it,'' he said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Afghan president visits Pakistan Date: 26 Sep 92 00:21:22 GMT ISLAMABAD, Pakistan (UPI) -- Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani arrived Friday in Pakistan amid speculation that he may meet Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, who is expected to arrive Saturday. The visit follows media reports from Bosnia that Afghan Mujahideen fighters were helping Bosnian Muslims in their fight against the Serbs. Officials in Islamabad said Rabbani, who landed at the northern city of Peshawar, will begin his official appointments Saturday when he comes to Islamabad. It is Rabbani's first presidential visit to Pakistan, which helped the Afghan resistance in toppling the Soviet-installed regime in Kabul. Rabbani and other Mujahideen leaders fought their 14-year war against the communists from Peshawar before returning to Kabul in April this year after the collapse of the communist government. Diplomatic sources said Rabbani may meet Izetbegovic, who arrives Saturday evening but has no meetings scheduled with Pakistani leaders until Sunday. Both the leaders were to be in Islamabad until Sunday evening. Rabbani will go to Iran from Pakistan. Iran has proposed forming an Islamic force to help the Bosnian Muslims when the Bosnian foreign minister visited Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, two months ago. Izetbegovic told Pakistani television in New York Friday he was ``grateful to Pakistan and other Muslim countries for the solidarity you showed with us.'' Pakistan was one of the first countries to expel Belgrade's ambassador after Serb rebels attacked Bosnia.
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LOS ANGELES (UPI) -- Serbian nationalists systematically massacred about 3,000 Muslims in two Bosnian detention camps, secretly cremating and disposing of the bodies in a rendering plant, the Los Angeles Times reported Sunday. The newspaper said the State Department now deems credible eyewitness reports of the mass killings last May, according to senior U.S. officials. ``This could have been happening in other places too,'' one State Department official said, although he doubted that such killings were taking place today ``given the exposure that has taken place since August.'' The State Department reports, obtained by American diplomats, generally confirm and amplify eyewitness accounts of the killings published last August in New York Newsday. Officials said the State Departement last week obtained graphic, first-person accounts of the killings at two Serbian detentian camps operated at a brick factory and a pig farm near the Bosnian town of Brcko, about 75 miles north of Sarajevo. The Brcko killings were carried out under the direction of an ultranationalist Serb leader known as Vojislav Seselj and one who goes by the single name Arkan. Based on the reports, a senior State Department official told the Times, acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger urged the United Nations last week to establish a commission to investigate the war crimes in Bosnia. A State Department official said American diplomats interviewed a number of former prisoners of the camps at Brcko. ``Many people were killed, in groups of up to 50 at a time,'' the State Department official said. ``A total of about 3,000 people -- men, women and children -- were killed in the camps at Brcko.'' The official said at least some of the prisoners were beaten and tortured before they were killed. One of the former prisoners at the camp told U.S. diplomats that ``he several times had to transfer dead people to an animal rendering plant, where they secretly cremated bodies at night to evade detection,'' the senior State Department official said. The two worst detention camps were reported to be a brick factory and a pig farm in the Brcko area. After the reports last August, Serbian officials in Bosnia denied any wrongdoing and escorted Western reporters on a tour of Brcko, insisting there were no detention camps in or near the city. But some Serbian officials later acknowledged that thousands of prisoners were shuttled from one place in Bosnia to another in an effort to prevent Western human rights officials and journalists from finding the camps.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: State Dept. confirms 3,000 Muslims massacred in Serbian camps Subject: U.N. says Serbs forced exile of 2,500 from northern Bosnia Subject: Pilgrims brave Bosnia war hoping for vision of Virgin Mary Subject: Peace mediators talk with Serbian leaders Subject: Mourners attacked in Sarajevo, five killed Subject: U.S. has eyewitness reports of mass executions in Bosnia ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: State Dept. confirms 3,000 Muslims massacred in Serbian camps Date: 27 Sep 92 16:06:16 GMT LOS ANGELES (UPI) -- Serbian nationalists systematically massacred about 3,000 Muslims in two Bosnian detention camps, secretly cremating and disposing of the bodies in a rendering plant, the Los Angeles Times reported Sunday. The newspaper said the State Department now deems credible eyewitness reports of the mass killings last May, according to senior U.S. officials. ``This could have been happening in other places too,'' one State Department official said, although he doubted that such killings were taking place today ``given the exposure that has taken place since August.'' The State Department reports, obtained by American diplomats, generally confirm and amplify eyewitness accounts of the killings published last August in New York Newsday. Officials said the State Departement last week obtained graphic, first-person accounts of the killings at two Serbian detentian camps operated at a brick factory and a pig farm near the Bosnian town of Brcko, about 75 miles north of Sarajevo. The Brcko killings were carried out under the direction of an ultranationalist Serb leader known as Vojislav Seselj and one who goes by the single name Arkan. Based on the reports, a senior State Department official told the Times, acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger urged the United Nations last week to establish a commission to investigate the war crimes in Bosnia. A State Department official said American diplomats interviewed a number of former prisoners of the camps at Brcko. ``Many people were killed, in groups of up to 50 at a time,'' the State Department official said. ``A total of about 3,000 people -- men, women and children -- were killed in the camps at Brcko.'' The official said at least some of the prisoners were beaten and tortured before they were killed. One of the former prisoners at the camp told U.S. diplomats that ``he several times had to transfer dead people to an animal rendering plant, where they secretly cremated bodies at night to evade detection,'' the senior State Department official said. The two worst detention camps were reported to be a brick factory and a pig farm in the Brcko area. After the reports last August, Serbian officials in Bosnia denied any wrongdoing and escorted Western reporters on a tour of Brcko, insisting there were no detention camps in or near the city. But some Serbian officials later acknowledged that thousands of prisoners were shuttled from one place in Bosnia to another in an effort to prevent Western human rights officials and journalists from finding the camps. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. says Serbs forced exile of 2,500 from northern Bosnia Date: 27 Sep 92 23:37:15 GMT ZAGREB, Croatia (UPI) -- United Nations officials presented more accounts Sunday of the forced exile of about 2,500 Bosnians, mostly Muslims, from northern Bosnia-Hercegovina last week. Agents of the U.N. High Commission for Refugees who traveled to central Bosnia-Hercegovina to speak with the victims told U.N. officials in Zagreb that the refugees, in addition to being terrorized, were forced to pay for their ``ride into exile,'' said Michael Keats, a UNHCR spokesman. The Bosnians, mostly from Bosanski Petrovac in northwest Bosnia- Hercegovina, were loaded on to 30 buses and trucks and taken to Travnik in central Bosnia-Hercegovina, about 65 miles southeast of Bosanski Petrovac. The Bosnians were forced to pay a local Serb-run ``relocation agency'' for the transport, Keats said. In Travnik, the people were ``dumped on the front lines between Muslim and Serb forces,'' then forced to cross 6 miles of ``no-man's land'' to safety, Keats said. As they ran across, Serbian snipers shot at them, killing four people and wounding others, Keats said. One man arrived in Travnik with his ``nose bashed in and clothes soaked in blood'' after having been beaten by Serbs, the UNHCR staff agent told Keats. Many of the people who fled had ``horror stories'' of beatings and mass killings that were ``absolutely convincing,'' the staffer told Keats. The alleged attacks and forced exodus were in retaliation for the massacre of 16 Serbs last week by Muslim commandos, the mayor of Bosanski Petrovac, a Serb, told the UNHCR. But Serbian authorities denied conducting any reprisal killings, Keats said The approximately 2,500 people who fled to Travik are now scattered around the city. Some are staying outside, some in other people's homes and others in barns or whatever shelter they can find, Keats said. There are virtually no more Muslims left in Bosanski Petrovac. They have all either left in this last mass exodus or fled previously, Keats said. ``It's either get out or get killed,'' Keats said of the situation in Bosanski Petrovac. In addition the UNHCR said it had reports of mass killings in areas around Bosanski Petrovac. One man, a Muslim from Orasac, about 19 miles northwest of Bosanski Petrovac near a U.N. Protected Area in Croatia, told U.N. officials he hid in a cupboard while Serb-irregulars rampaged through his house. When he finally came out, he found his grandparents dead on the floor, six people dead in a house next door and two other handicapped people with their throats slit in another nearby house. The man is now under the protection of the French battalion in the U. N protection force, Keats said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Pilgrims brave Bosnia war hoping for vision of Virgin Mary Date: 28 Sep 92 02:08:13 GMT MEDJUGORJE, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Within earshot of the gunfire and artillery bombardments of the Yugoslav war, international pilgrims continue to seek miracles and enlightenment in this village made famous by the reported sightings of the Virgin Mary. While the war has deterred about 90 percent of the tourist flow that once brought up to 5,000 visitors a day, enough still come to pack the 300-capacity community Catholic church wall-to-wall. At a recent mass, about 200 people spilled outside and heard the service on loudspeakers. ``It's the safest place in the world,'' said Sister Frances Schug, a nun from Wisconsin in the United States. ``Bombs fell here and they did not explode.'' According to a well-spread rumor, Croatian police who control the area have found unexploded artillery shells in the village. The perpetuators of the tale credit the Virgin Mary with protecting the town. ``I am convinced there is something special here,'' said Blago Krlsic, 39, a Croatian Army soldier with a rosary around his neck. ``Look at all the people here. If it weren't special, they wouldn't come from all over.'' Krlsic is one of many soldiers who come to Medjugorje for confession and prayer. Visiting the town, he said, makes him ``feel less afraid when the Serbs are attacking.'' A mass is said in English each day to accommodate the international crowd that has flocked to this sacred town for the past 11 years. The pilgrims are drawn to Medjugorje by the story of six children who saw a vision of the Virgin Mary on a small hill near the village. The children resisted attempts by villagers and authorities to force them to recant their story. Despite official attempts to crush the belief something of great religious significance was occurring, the children said they continued to see the apparition and receive messages from it. As the story spread around the world, pilgrims swarmed to the town in increasing numbers. The government relaxed its opposition after seeing the profit generated by the ballooning tourist traffic. The children have grown. Two of them, Mirjana Dragicevic and Ivanka Ivankovic, stopped seeing the visions years ago, after claiming to have received 10 ``secrets'' promised them by the Virgin. They have since married and have their own children. The other four claim to have received nine of the secrets and are still seeing the visions and talking with the Virgin. Ivan Dragecivic, at 27 is the oldest of the visionaries. He lives on a nearby farm and returns to Medjugorje daily to speak with Mary in the upper loft of the community church. Each day, visiting pilgrims line up outside waiting for Dragecivic to go to the loft in hopes of being allowed to watch him during his moment of ecstacy. The loft is too small to accommodate everyone. On a recent visit, an American woman from Wisconsin pleaded with the pilgrims to let her send her son through. The 9-year-old boy wore a baseball cap to cover his bald head. ``Please,'' she begged, ``let him in. He has brain cancer.'' He was allowed through, although somewhat reluctantly, by the others waiting in line and joined about 50 people in the loft. Onlookers held their rosaries and watched silently as Dragecivic kneeled before a giant oil painting of Mary and gazed up with open eyes, moving his lips as if in a silent conversation with her. ``The most important thing the Virgin Mary said tonight when she appeared in my prayer...was that she blessed all the people present,'' he said after his five-minute vision was over. ``Mary asked for peace tonight as she does all the time. Tonight there were no special messages for the world,'' he said. ``The holy Mary said she was happy and then she talked to me and I talked to her and a lot of what we said was private.'' The small village, where early pilgrims once were invited into private homes, has taken on the look of a package tour destination over the years. Big hotels and restaturants stand where once there were small farms and markets. Across the street from the church, the main strip is lined with cafes and shops that sell Jesus dolls and rosaries in all colors from pearly white to neon green. ``We can see in the Western world that people don't know how to live with money,'' said Slavko Barbaric, a priest who arrived in Medjugorje a few months after the first apparitions were reported. ``We can just hope and pray that it doesn't taint things here because it can become very dangerous.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Peace mediators talk with Serbian leaders Date: 28 Sep 92 14:15:11 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- International mediators Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen arrived Monday for talks with Serbian leaders on issues that included the deployment of fresh U.N. peacekeepers in neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina and the resumption of a humanitarian relief airlift to Sarajevo. U.N. special enovy Vance and European Community mediator Owen flew into the Serbian capital of Belgrade from Geneva on a one-day visit to meet leaders of the rump Yugoslav union of Serbia and Montenegro. Vance and Owen, the co-chairmen of the Geneva peace conference on the disintegrated Yugoslav six-republic federation, drove from Belgrade's Surcin Airport directly to the Palace of Federation for talks with Dobrica Cosic, president of the truncated Yugoslavia. They refused to answer reporters's questions as they entered a conference room for talks with Cosic, a Serbian writer who became president of the small Yugoslav federation which was forged on April 27. Col. Gen. Zivota Panic, the chief of staff of the Yugoslav Army, attended the talks in the Federation Palace. French Gen. Philippe Morillon, deputy commander of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), and Cedric Thornberry, in charge of UNPROFOR's civilian affairs, also attended the talks, a Yugoslav official said. Generals Panic and Morillon were to have separate talks, the official said. The two peace mediators, who last week visited the Croatian capital of Zagreb and the Serb-held town of Banja Luka in northwestern Bosnia- Hercegovina, were also scheduled to meet Serbian hard-line President Slobodan Milosevic before they fly back to Geneva later in the day, Serbian officials said. As the peace talks began in Belgrade, reports from the Bosnia- Hercegovina capital of Sarajevo said fighting flared across the war- ridden republic. Serbian guerrillas continued their land-grab campaign to rip off a self-declared ``state'' from Bosnia-Hercegovina, the former central Yugoslav republic which comprises 1.9 million Muslim Slavs, 1.4 million Christian Orthodox Serbs and 750,000 Roman Catholic Croats. At least five people were injured Monday in the predominantly Muslim Slav city of Sarajevo as Serbian forces fought sporadic artillery and infantry battles with Bosnia-Hercegovina forces, that are made up of Muslim Slavs but also include Croats and moderate Serbs, Sarajevo Radio said. Sarajevo has been under a Serbian siege during the past six months and with approaching cold winter months its 500,000 residents and refugees lack food and medical supplies. Officials of the UNPROFOR in Sarajevo said they planned to open road and railway corridors from Croatia into Sarajevo through the Serb-held stronghold of Ilidza. They plan to establish the land corridor into Sarajevo via Ilidza as soon as possible. A contigent of 6,000 troops are to be deplopyed in Bosnia-Hercegovina to help the current 1,500 UNPROFOR peacekeepers to ensure humanitarian aid deliveries. The war in Bosnia-Hercegovina broke out late in March when Serbian leaders launched their campaign to capture the ``Serbian republic'' which they declared on 70 percent of the republic. Muslim Slavs and most Croats oppose the partition of Bosnia- Hercegovina into ethnic districts. Serbian guerrillas have been armed by the Serb-led Yugoslav army and backed financially and politically by communist-ruled Serbia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Mourners attacked in Sarajevo, five killed Date: 28 Sep 92 15:53:17 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Serbian gunners blasted a funeral for an elderly woman Monday, killing five people and wounding 20 during a day of artillery and sniper attacks on the beseiged Bosnian capital. Serbian forces turned off pumps to the city's water supply Sunday in Serb-controlled Bacevo on Sarajevo's western outskirts, again leaving its 400,000 people virtually without water, said Salem Karovic, chief of the city's water distribution system. ``During the night, they switched off the pumps without previous announcement,'' Karovic said. The action, if confirmed, would be a violation of an agreement the Serbs made one week earlier at peace talks in Geneva not to use water and electricity as weapons against civilians. Most of the city's trapped population, already having spent the past week without electricity, was forced to dip into reserves held in bathtubs or venture into sniper-lined streets with cans and buckets in search of the rare water trucks. Sarajevo's electricity was cut a day after the Geneva agreement, allegedly by Serbian shells that hit a main cable. Continued fighting has blocked U.N.-supervised attempts to repair the lines. A total of 31 people were killed and 215 wounded in attacks throughout Bosnia-Hercegovina during the 24-hour period that ended at 10 a.m. Monday, including nine killed and 65 wounded in Sarajevo, republic officials said. The count did not include those among the 40 to 50 mourners attacked about noon Monday by at least two grenades or mortar shells that witnesses said landed some 10 to 50 yards from them in a cemetery in Boljakov Potok in the northwest part of the city. Three mourners died at the cemetery, two others died after being sped to hospitals in private cars and some 20 others were wounded, officials said. Another six civilians were wounded around 1 p.m. Monday when a shell landed on a street in western Sarajevo. The shells in Boljakov Potok fell just as the assembled mourners were awaiting the burial of an elderly woman who had died of natural causes, said Bezdrob Muharem, who suffered shrapnel wounds to his back and leg. Muharem, 27, sat afterward on a bench at the city's state hospital alongside his friend, Ferid, in his 40s, whose wounded right calf and foot dribbled blood steadily through a white tourniquet. Ferid stared blankly as hospital workers slapped water on his face and then, only while being lifted to stretcher, managed to mutter a plea that doctors not amputate his leg. The U.N. Protection Force deputy commander has arrived for talks with the Serbian leadership on opening a corridor through Serbian forces besieging the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo, U.N. officials said. French Gen. Phillipe Morillon also was to discuss with Radovan Karadzic, the Serbian Democratic party chief, the need to end several days of fighting that virtually have closed the main road linking the airport with the city, preventing humanitarian aid deliveries, the officials said Sunday. Morillon flew in from the Croatian capital of Zagreb as Serbian artillery pumped intermittent shellfire into the city and Sarajevo radio announced a republic-wide air raid alert amid reports of Serbian air attacks around the northern town of Bosanski Brod. The republic's Health Ministry said that during the 24-hour period that ended at 1 p.m., at least 34 people were killed and 199 were wounded across Bosnia-Hercegovina. Of the total, at least 14 people died and 71 others were wounded in Sarajevo, the ministry said. In Zagreb, Croatia, meanwhile, U.N. officials released further confirmation of the forced exile of about 2,500 Bosnians, mostly Muslims, from northern Bosnia-Hercegovina last week. Michael Keats, spokesman for the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees,. says witnesses told U.N. officials they were forced to pay as much as $66 for their ``ride into exile.'' In Sarajevo, renewed clashes along the airport road between the Serb- held suburb of Ilidza and Bosnian lines at the western end of the city prompted Morillon to cancel plans to visit the U.N. mission and drive by armored car to his meeting with Karadzic in his stronghold of Pale, east of Sarajevo. Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdul Razek, the UNPROFOR commander for Sarajevo, told United Press International that the main focus of the talks would be the establishment of a road and rail corridor from Croatia's Adriatic port city of Split into Sarajevo through Serbian lines in Ilidza. ``The intention is to establish a free corridor to allow the free movement of people, vehicles and humanitarian aid and to reduce the number of checkpoints,'' Razek said. UNPROFOR hopes to create the corridor under a plan to expand within several weeks the 1,500-member multi-national contingent by 6,000 troops in order to ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance to war- stricken areas across Bosnia-Hercegovina. The conflict erupted in Bosnia-Hercegovina, whose population is comprised of Muslim Slavs, Serbs and Croats, in late March, when armed Yugoslav army Serbs launched an offensive to capture a self-declared state before international recognition of the former Yugoslav republic's independence. The partition of the republic is opposed by Bosnian forces comprised overwhelmingly of Muslim Slavs, but also including moderate Serbs and Croats. Razek reiterated that UNPROFOR would not use force to ensure humanitarian aid deliveries, and said it hoped to broker agreements between the warring factions to establish supply corridors to other cities along which U.N. troops would be deployed to monitor the accords. ``UNPROFOR intends to set up observation points to be connected by patrolling paths,'' he said. U.N. officials said Morillon would also discuss with Karadzic the possible establishment at a hotel in Ilidza of an UNPROFOR headquarters for Bosnia-Hercegovina as part of the coming force expansion. The Sarajevo sector headquarters would remain at its current location on the western end of the city, they said. And, they said, Morillon was to raise the failure of both sides to respect a cease-fire along the airport road as required under a June 5 agreement that turned Sarajevo airport over to U.N. control. They said Razek planned to discuss the issue later in the day with a Senior Bosnian defense officer, Stjepan Siber. U.N. High Commission for Refugees or UNHCR officials said three days of fighting in the area of the highway had prevented the transfer of aid from the agency warehouse at the airport into Sarajevo, which requires an average of 220 tons of food daily. UNHCR warehouses have been empty for about a week because convoys have been able to deliver only an average of 44 tons of food daily since the Sept. 3 downing of an Italian transport plane prompted the suspension of the U.N.-supervised airlift. ``If it (fighting near the road) continues to be like this, like it's been the last few days, the average will go down,'' said one UNHCR worker. At least 75 tons of food have been sitting at the airport since Friday, the worker said. An estimated 500,000 residents and refugees in Sarajevo depend on U. N. humanitarian relief because of the almost six-month Serbian blockade of the capital, which Karadzic wants partitioned into ethnic districts. Many others areas of the republic have also been cut off from food and medical supplies by months of fighting. U.N. officials and aid workers have expressed grave concerns that time is running out to prepare the war-ravaged republic for the harsh Balkan winter and that a humanitarian nightmare is in the making. Karadzic has proclaimed an independent Serbian state on about 70 percent of Bosnia-Hercegovina, although Christian Orthodox Serbs constitute about 31 percent of the population of 4.4 million. His forces have been armed by the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army and backed financially and politically by communist-ruled Serbia, to which Karadzic eventually hopes to join his self-declared state. The 1.9 million Muslim Slavs and most of the 750,000 Roman Catholic Croats oppose the partition of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Some Croats, however, favor the establishment of separate ethnic regions. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.S. has eyewitness reports of mass executions in Bosnia Date: 28 Sep 92 18:19:37 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- Credible witnesses have told U.S. officials they saw Serbian troops slaughter more than 3,000 men, women, and children at detention camps in the Bosnian town of Brcko last spring, the State Department said Monday. Spokesman Richard Boucher said U.S. officials recently received reports from two individuals who survived the Serbian brutality at Brcko that 3,000 Bosnian Muslims were executed there during May and June. Although the administration had been told previously of the mass executions, he said the fresh reports are the first from witnesses. ``These are the first eyewitness reports we've received of these killings in the Brcko area,'' Boucher said. ``The previous information that we had was either second-hand or some of the information that we had raised questions about its credibility.'' He said the information had been turned over to United Nations authorities that are investigating Serbian atrocities in Bosnia- Hercegovina, which has been under siege since March by troops from Belgrade attempting to annex the nascent republic and ``cleanse'' it of all Muslims and Croats.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 186, 28 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR TAJIK FIGHTERS TAKE RUSSIAN TROOPS PRISONER. An operation by law enforcement agencies to disarm supporters of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, who are from Kulyab Oblast but who have been fighting in Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, was supposed to have started on 26 September, ITAR-TASS reported. The following day, however, the same source reported that armed groups from Kulyab had seized four tanks, an armored transporter, and an armored car from Russian forces stationed in Kurgan-Tyube, and that they had captured five members of the Russian unit. According to the commander of the Russian division, the unit that lost the equipment was surrounded by some 350 fighters from Kulyab who wanted to obtain more equipment and weaponry the same way. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT CRITICAL OF GEORGIA ON ABKHAZIA. Following discussion on 25 September of the situation in the North Caucasus and Abkhazia, the Russian parliament issued a statement saying that it "denounces the policy of the Georgian leadership...and demands that the government immediately stop combat operations, withdraw armed units from Abkhazian territory and strictly fulfill international covenants on human rights." The statement also called for the "introduction of necessary contingent of peace-keeping forces" and offered the services of the Russian Federation as a mediator in the conflict, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 September. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.) ANGRY SHEVARDNADZE TO MEET WITH YELTSIN ON ABKHAZIA. Eduard Shevardnadze, chairman of Georgia's State Council, made an unscheduled stop in Moscow on his way home from the United Nations to discuss with Russian President Boris Yeltsin the Russian parliament's statement on Abkhazia. Shevardnadze was quoted by Russian TV on 27 September as saying: "I cannot recall any precedent for such crude, high-handed, and unforgivable interference in the internal affairs of our Republic." Shevardnadze described the Russian parliament's actions as "impudent and overtly aggressive" and said that the future of Russo-Georgian relations, not just the question of Abkhazia, will be the subject of his meeting with President Yeltsin; Shevardnadze added: "My task is to save these relations," ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. The meeting is scheduled to take place on 28 September. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL, Inc.) STATE OF EMERGENCY DECLARED IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA. At least 20 people were injured in a confrontation between police and thousands of demonstrators in the Kabardino-Balkar republic in the North Caucasus on 27 September, Interfax reported. The demonstrations followed the detention on 23 September of Musa Shanibov, the chairman of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus, by investigators of the Russian procurator's office. Russia had earlier declared unlawful the activities of the confederation, which has sent volunteers to Abkhazia to support the Abkhaz against Georgia. Following the violent protests a state of emergency for two months was declared in the republic, ITAR-TASS reported. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) WITHDRAWAL OF CONFEDERATION'S VOLUNTEERS FROM ABKHAZIA SUSPENDED. Abkhazia's separatist leaders said on 27 September that the pullout of the volunteers sent by the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus would be delayed indefinitely because of Georgia's violations of the ceasefire in Abkhazia, Interfax reported. Georgia had threatened to remove them by force if they were not withdrawn by 25 September. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAGORNO-KARABAKH CEASEFIRE APPARENTLY BROKEN. ITAR-TASS reported on 26 September that Azerbaijani Defense Minister Rakhim Gaziev ordered his troops to lay down their arms in compliance with a ceasefire arranged the previous weekend, but there were no confirmed reports that the ceasefire was actually being observed by Azerbaijani or Armenian troops in Nagorno-Karabakh. The agreement, mediated by Russia, called for a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh for two months, and a truce along the Azerbaijani-Armenian border for an undetermined period. Also on 26 September, Interfax quoted an Armenian Defense Ministry spokesman as saying that his country would observe the agreement if the Azerbaijani side did the same. On 27 September, however, ITAR-TASS reported that Armenian troops were continuing to attack Azerbaijani positions along the entire front in Nagorno-Karabakh. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) VOLSKY DESCRIBES 13-POINT PROGRAM. Arkadii Volsky, leader of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, outlined his "anti-crisis" program to an ITAR-TASS correspondent in St. Petersburg on 26 September. The thirteen points that comprise his program include refocusing the reform to stabilize production. Also among Volsky's proposals is the creation of a two-sector economy for the transition period. The private economy should be encouraged and receive state support; however, the state should "reestablish regulation of the development of the economy." For the state sector, Volsky vaguely described the introduction of a "new mechanism of management" and a restructuring policy for state enterprises. With regard to the voucher-privatization program, Volsky said without modifications existing plans could turn out to be "a great deception of the workers." (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) VOLSKY PROPOSES NEW UNION. The leader of the Civic Union, Arkadii Volsky, has proposed the creation of a "Euro-Asiatic" union of six or seven of the members of the CIS, The Financial Times reported on 28 September. He obviously meant those of the CIS members states who signed the agreement on the formation of the Interparliamentary Assembly. Volsky also visited Kazakhstan in September and assisted Kazakh entrepreneurs in the organization of their own industrialists' union. That was a significant step toward the reestablishment of ties between the Russian and Kazakh industrial complexes. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) OPPOSITION TO PRIVATIZATION. Conservative deputies made an attempt in parliament to postpone or hold a nationwide referendum on privatization. One of the conservative deputies even threw a handful of vouchers in the face of Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, who is responsible for the privatization program, Western news agencies reported on 25 September. But parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov called upon deputies to end the debate, saying that people have certain expectations and that parliament would be making a mistake if it blocked the voucher plan. Khasbulatov proposed establishing a special parliamentary committee to monitor privatization. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) DEMOCRATS SUPPORT RADICAL REFORM.The "Democratic Russia" movement fears that the Civic Union may push it to the sidelines of the political arena, thereby depriving it of its popular support in society, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 September. Leaders of "Democratic Russia" issued a statement calling for a consolidation of all democratic forces on the issue of holding a referendum on private land ownership. They asserted that from the fourteen factions in the Russian parliament, only two--"Democratic Russia" and the "Radical Democrats"--support the government's radical reform course. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA TO CUT OIL EXPORTS TO CIS. Minister of the Economy Andrei Nechaev disclosed at a news conference in Moscow that Russia is planning to cut oil exports to other CIS republics by half next year, according to Western news agencies on 26 September. The action is intended to maintain domestic and hard-currency export needs in the face of rapidly falling Russian oil production (at the rate of a million barrels per day, according to a recent World Bank study). Nechaev said the overall reduction in exports to the CIS region would be between 30-40 million tons. The reduction would be very damaging to the other CIS economies, which are heavily dependent on Russian supplies. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) SACHS, LIPTON CRITICIZE IMF. "Something is wrong, seriously wrong, with the IMF's role in Russia," wrote Jeffrey Sachs and David Lipton, two US economists advising the Russian government on economic reform, in The Washington Post on 27 September. The two claim that the IMF has to increase its presence in Russia and thereby exert a greater influence on Russian economic policy: "Without [IMF representatives] in residence... the IMF simply has not done the things it can to make the difference." The economists also criticized specific Fund pronouncements and actions, including not effectively organizing Western aid for Russia and opposition to separate national currencies in the other CIS republics. Sachs and Lipton urged the US Congress, which is considering a $12 billion increase in its contribution to the Fund, to pressure the IMF into making "fundamental management changes." (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA HALTS SUBMARINE SALE TO IRAN. The Russian government has decided to halt the sale of three Kilo-class diesel submarines to Iran due to alleged disagreements over payment. On 25 September, Vladimir Pakhomov of the Ministry of Foreign Relations, informed ITAR-TASS that the sale was not currently on the agenda. Also on 25 September, however, the Pentagon confirmed reports that one of the submarines was already en route to Iran with a training crew on board, according to Western news agencies. If the submarine returns to the Russian naval base in Latvia from which it set sail, it could exacerbate political tensions between Latvia and Russia. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAYEV CRITICIZES UKRAINE OVER NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev criticized Ukraine on 26 September for vacillating on the elimination of its nuclear arms, Western news agencies reported. According to Nazarbayev, "Ukraine cannot say one thing today and do another thing tomorrow." While Ukraine has reiterated its willingness to eliminate all nuclear weapons on its territory by the end of the decade, some Ukrainian parliamentarians have been criticizing the commitment and raising doubts about it. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHAPOSHNIKOV CONFIRMS CIS MISSILES REMAIN TARGETED ON THE US. On 25 September, Commander in Chief of CIS forces, Marshal Yevgenii Shaposhnikov, confirmed that CIS missiles are still targeted on the United States. In January 1992, President Boris Yeltsin made several vague promises and assurances that Russian missiles would not be targeted on US cities, but these statements were discounted by the military as political in nature and technically meaningless. Shaposhnikov did confirm that many missiles have been taken off alert, according to Western news agencies. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) PRIMAKOV PROPOSES MORATORIUM ON FOREIGN ESPIONAGE. The director of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Evgenii Primakov, has offered to recall his spies from countries that agree to cease their intelligence activities in Russia. In an interview with The Sunday Times on 27 September, Primakov said that such a step must be fortified by "a government guarantee." He also revealed that his agency has closed about 30 former KGB stations in Africa and Far East; because of personnel and budget cuts about half of all his intelligence officers will be recalled by the end of the year, he added. Primakov's offer echoed the US-Soviet intelligence pact proposed by Dr. Georgii Arbatov last year (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 27 November, 1991). At that time, Arbatov proposed a reciprocal cessation of agent recruitment by Russia and the United States, and a concomitant redirection of intelligence resources on both sides towards analytical work; meanwhile, counterintelligence forces on both sides would verify that the respective countries were abiding by the treaty. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL, Inc.) CRIMEA AMENDS CONSTITUTION. The Crimean parliament, meeting for a two-day session on 24 and 25 September, adopted amendments to its constitution and approved a state flag and symbols, Ukrinform-TASS reported on 25 September. The Crimean constitution now states that the Republic of the Crimea is part of Ukraine, with which it conducts its relations on the basis of mutually agreed upon laws and agreements. The Crimea's powers are defined by its constitution and the Ukrainian law delineating power between Kiev and Simferopol. The Crimean government will have its permanent representation in Kiev. Every Crimean citizen is simultaneously a Ukrainian citizen, and Crimeans reserve the right to have dual citizenship. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN, NAZARBAEV, ELCHIBEI ON CIS. Yeltsin's press secretary said on 25 September that Yeltsin had sent a personal message to the leaders of the CIS states in advance of the summit meeting in Bishkek on 9 October in which he proposed that individual CIS states should move towards integration insofar as they were ready, ITAR-TASS reported. Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev said he shared Yeltsin's view, ITAR-TASS reported. Nazarbaev said no one should be dragged into the CIS, and some states could be associated members and others observers. Azerbaijan's president Abulfaz Elchibei said on CIS TV on 22 September that he personally was against Azerbaijan being a member, because it still lacked the hallmarks of genuine independence, namely a national currency, army, and gold reserve. Elchibei had said three days earlier, however, that it was a matter for the parliament to decide. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) TURKMENISTAN PLACES HOPES ON GAS. The gas pipeline that is to be built from Turkmenistan to Europe via Turkey will enable Turkmenistan to break into the world market, Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov said in an interview with the Moscow journal Svobodnaya mysl, ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. Niyazov believes that Turkmenistan can cushion the shock of introducing a market economy through selling its gas, oil, and cotton. Western economists have been inclined to agree with him. In the interview Niyazov also praised his country's stability. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ROMANIAN ELECTIONS ORDERLY, GOOD TURNOUT. On 27 September Romanians voted in the second presidential and general elections after the collapse of Nicolae Ceausescu's regime in December 1989. The elections came at the end of a relatively calm electoral campaign, in sharp contrast with the one in May 1990, which was marred by violence, fraud, and intimidation. There were six presidential candidates and more than 10,600 candidates from 83 parties and alliances competing for seats in the 471-seat, two-chamber parliament. An estimated 75% of the 16.4 million electorate turned out at the 14,000-odd polling stations, under the eyes of more than 500 foreign and 8,000 domestic observers. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) ILIESCU LEADS--RUNOFF LIKELY. Preliminary results circulated by Romanian TV shortly before the polling stations closed at 9:00 p.m. showed incumbent President Ion Iliescu leading with 48% of the vote over his main challenger, Emil Constantinescu (33%), running on the ticket of the Democratic Convention (DC), an alliance of 18 centrist parties and organizations. If accurate, these projections, based on an exit poll made by the German Applied Social Research Institute and the Romanian Institute for Public Opinion Survey, indicate that Iliescu is likely to win the reelection in a runoff to be held on 11 October. A former high-ranking communist official, Iliescu appears to have enjoyed massive support from the less educated, conservative electorate in rural areas and small towns. The Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), the party supporting Iliescu, is also leading with 27.5% in those projections. The contest for the parliament, however, seems much tighter, with the DC in second place with 23% and Petre Roman's National Salvation Front on the third, with 11%. This suggests that a coalition will be needed to form the next government. Among the DNSF's possible allies are nationalist and leftist parties. First official preliminary results are expected at midday 28 September, while the final outcome will probably not be known before 6 October. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) FIGHTING CONTINUES IN BOSNIA. International media reported over the weekend that all contenders are trying to consolidate their positions before the harsh Balkan winter arrives in October. The BBC on 28 September quotes Serbian sources as saying that they now control all of the far eastern part of Bosnia except Gorazde, while Bosnian media reported Serbian air attacks on Jajce and Bosanski Brod. Meanwhile, Serbian heavy artillery continued to pound parts of Sarajevo. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) MORE REPORTS ON "ETHNIC CLEANSING" BY SERBS IN BOSNIA. Reuters on 26 September said that EC mediator Lord Owen and his UN counterpart Cyrus Vance visited Serbian-controlled Banja Luka in western Bosnia to investigate reports of atrocities. They described how 3-4,000 Muslim and Croatian refugees were fired upon and shelled as they tried to cross over to the Bosnian side during a round of "ethnic cleansing." On 27 September the Los Angeles Times quoted State Department officials as confirming another massacre of 3,000 Muslims near Brcko during the summer. They were killed in groups of 50 at a time, and the bodies were secretly disposed of. The State Department suggested that Brcko might not be an isolated case, and Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger said that Washington wants to move quickly on setting up a commission to investigate Bosnian war crimes. On 28 September the Washington Post cited Serbian police officials in Banja Luka as confirming a massacre of Muslim male civilians at Varjanta. The killers appear to have been Serbian police acting on their own, and police officials said they will be "brought to justice." (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) SLOVAK PREMIER WANTS NEW TREATY WITH GERMANY. Czechoslovak media quoted Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar on 25 September as saying that Slovakia wants to renegotiate the Czechoslovak-German Treaty signed in February 1992 because it does not take into account all Slovak demands. Slovakia has criticized the fact that the treaty's preamble disregards the existence of the 1939-45 Slovak State. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said on 25 September that he sees no need for renegotiation because a division of the treaty between the successor states of Czechoslovakia is simply a technical matter. On 27 September Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko told CSTK that Slovakia will conclude a new treaty with Germany after January 1993, when Czechoslovakia is to split, and that it will do so without a prior agreement with the Czech Republic. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) NO PLANS FOR "TRIANGLE" MILITARY PACT. Speaking at a press conference after the meeting of defense ministers of the "Visegrad Triangle," in Tatranske Zruby, Slovakia, Czechoslovak Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak said that Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland do not plan to conclude a military pact or form a defense union. Andrejcak said that the three defense ministers had agreed on new areas of cooperation, such as opening garrisons to mutual inspections and discussed ways of mutual cooperation after the breakup of Czechoslovakia. Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz said he hopes that military cooperation within the Visegrad Triangle will continue after Czechoslovakia's breakup. Pledging to resolve conflicts among themselves by political means, the three said that the common goal of the Visegrad countries is gaining membership in the European Community and West European military structures. Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur ruled out the possibility that tensions on the Slovak-Hungarian border could rise significantly and a mobilization of the Hungarian armed forces could be needed. He said that no military actions have taken place on the Slovak-Hungarian border and none are planned. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN SMALLHOLDERS' PARTY HAS NEW CAUCUS LEADER. On 26 September the larger faction of the Independent Smallholders' Party elected a new caucus leader, lawyer Janos Szabo. The party split earlier this year into two factions: the smaller supported the party's chairman Jozsef Torgyan and left the coalition, the larger remains in the coalition. The former faction leader Gyula Pasztor resigned, saying he wants to spend more time in his voting district, but it is possible that he had to leave for political reasons, since he obstructed the reunification of the two factions. Szabo wants to start talks with the Torgyan faction and wants to work toward the reunification of the two factions. The report was carried by MTI. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc.) ZHELEV NOTES STRAINS WITH GOVERNMENT. Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev, in an interview on Bulgarian Radio on 27 September, admitted that he has had differences with the ruling Union of Democratic Forces government, BTA reports. He denied, however, that he is "at war" with the cabinet. Rather, Zhelev noted that there has been conflict between the government and the presidency over the extent of each's authority, as well as over the extent and pace of reforms. Zhelev was at pains to avoid criticizing the government--but neither did he express direct support for it. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) COALITION TALKS CONTINUE IN TALLINN. Coalition talks are continuing in the wake of last week's parliamentary elections in Estonia, and RFE/RL correspondent reports. The Pro Patria (Isamaa) election coalition, along with the Moderates and the Estonian National Independence Party, has formed a bloc comprising parliamentary majority. Pro Patria is currently negotiating with potential defectors from other parties to strengthen this bloc while conducting closed-door talks on forming a government. Speculation over the composition of the government continues: Pro Patria leader Mart Laar currently tops the list for prime minister candidates, Kiel University professor Hain Rebas (from ENIP) has been mentioned for the Defense Ministry, and deputy speaker to the Supreme Council. Marju Lauristin (from the Moderates). may be tapped as Labor Minister. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) FINAL LITHUANIAN PRE-ELECTION POLLS. On 26 September newspapers published the results of political polls conducted by the Sociological Research Laboratory of Vilnius University (SLVU) and the Sociological Research Department of Lithuanian Radio and TV (SDRTV), BNS reports. Election law does not permit publishing any more poll results before elections on 25 October. According to SLVU, 67.4% of the voters say that they will vote, while SDRTV reported a figure of 58.1%. Five parties (Sajudis coalition, the Democratic Labor Party, the Center Movement, the Christian Democratic Party, and the Social Democratic Party) would break the 4% barrier needed to gain seats in the proportional voting system, according to SLVU. The favored candidates for president in both polls were Vytautas Landsbergis and Algirdas Brazauskas. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) WALESA EXHORTS IN GDANSK. Polish President Lech Walesa continued his current campaign to rouse public activism with visits to the Gdansk shipyard on 25 September and St. Brygida's Church on 27 September. Walesa admitted that Poland has "American prices and Polish wages," but told Gdansk residents that Poles could attain American living standards in four years' time--provided everyone gets down to work and stops expecting the government and the president to solve all the problems. Walesa repeated his threat to form a presidential party should a "master plan of reform" not take effect in six months. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH GOVERNMENT DEFINES SOCIAL SECURITY MINIMUM. The government completed work on the fourth of its five priority programs, "citizens' social security," on 26 September. The program defines which social services will be guaranteed by the state and which are the responsibility of local governments, employers, and individuals. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka met with representatives of the 13 smaller trade unions on 25 September to open talks on the "pact on state firms." She also discussed the pact with business organizations. Business owners and managers criticized the proposed pact for guaranteeing only the rights of employees, an imbalance they said would slow privatization and impede foreign investment. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND BARGAINS WITH IMF OVER DEFICIT. Speaking to journalists on 25 September after returning from Washington, Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski reported that a new agreement with the IMF will be possible only after the 1992 budget is amended to cut spending and increase revenues. Osiatynski indicated that the IMF is prepared to accept a raised budget deficit ceiling of 8% of GDP for 1992 and 6% for 1993, despite having insisted on a 5% limit earlier this year. The IMF's chief worry, Osiatynski reported, is not the size of the deficit, but the manner in which it is financed. He also noted that the 17 countries that funded the $1 billion stabilization fund are to decide by 15 December whether to allow it to be used to release banks from the bad debts of state firms. Gazeta Wyborcza ran the report on 25 September under the headline "They've Taken a Liking to Our Deficit." (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIA, RUSSIA INITIAL AGREEMENTS. In Moscow Lithuania and Russia initialed three agreements on settling accounts between the two countries, Radio Lithuania reported on 27 September. Lithuanian delegation head, Deputy Economics Minister Vytas Navickas, said that for now firms in both countries can pay each other in rubles, Lithuanian temporary coupons, or foreign currency, but no agreement was reached on settling accounts after Lithuania introduces its currency, the litas. Russia has not agreed to pay back the money from Lithuania's valuta accounts in the Vneshekonombank seized last year. The Russian delegation also did not agree to 31 August 1993 as the final date for the withdrawal of its troops from Lithuania, suggesting that the agreements signed on 8 September 1992 may be changed. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN DEPUTIES IN ESTONIA PAY FAREWELL VISIT. Three outgoing Estonian Supreme Council deputies paid a visit to the Paldiski Naval Base west of Tallinn, BNS reported on 25 September. Genik Israeljan, Vladimir Lebedev and Nikolai Aksinin met with officers, who said living conditions at the base are difficult for those charged with maintaining the nuclear reactors there. Officers reportedly told the deputies that it would take 10-15 years to dismantle the reactors, the existence of which Estonian authorities discovered only last year. The three deputies, who were not eligible to stand for last week's parliamentary elections because they are not citizens, called their outing "a farewell visit" to their constituents. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL, Inc.) LATVIA INVITES UN TO RUSSIAN TROOP PULLOUT TALKS. Addressing the UN General Assembly on 25 September, Latvia's head of state Anatolijs Gorbunovs invited the UN Security Council to send observers to negotiations on the pullout of Russian troops. Gorbunovs, challenging Russia to live up to its earlier promises, explained that Russia has often changed its position on issues already agreed upon and that Latvia has not been permitted to monitor Russian troop movements on its territory. Gorbunovs noted the "dangerous alteration of the demographic situation" (Latvians now comprise about 52% of the population) in Latvia that resulted from the Soviet Union's occupation of Latvia in 1940 and "the Soviet Union's colonial policies." He rejected Russia's accusation that rights of minorities are being violated in Latvia, adding that his country wants to integrate into its citizenry those immigrants who support Latvian independence; those who find an independent Latvia unacceptable, however, should leave. Western agencies carried the story. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Tensions escalate in Croatia as deadline nears for refugee return Subject: U.S. has solid information on mass executions in Bosnia Subject: Peace mediators talk with Serbian leaders Subject: Talks scheduled Wednesday on ongoing peace efforts Subject: Serbian Parliament organizes referendum for early elections Subject: U.N. helicopters fired on by anti-aircraft weapons Subject: Rocket fire targets Sarajevo business district Subject: U.N., French troops obtain releases of local U.N. workers Subject: Yugoslav prime minister meets secretly with Congress,secretary of state Subject: Pentagon to resume Bosnia relief flights Subject: U.N. refugee chief urges prompt troop deployment to Bosnia ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Tensions escalate in Croatia as deadline nears for refugee return Date: 28 Sep 92 20:05:22 GMT ZAGREB, Croatia (UPI) -- Tensions are escalating in Serb-seized Croatian territory as Serbs prepare for the return of thousands of Croatian refugees to their homes on Oct. 2. Six thousand Croatian refugees from nine villages in Serb-occupied areas in eastern Croatia, known as sector East, have declared they will begin returning to their homes despite danger warnings from the U.N. Protection Force in the area. ``A climate of intimidation and hostility exists in various locations on both sides,'' Cedric Thornberry, head of U.N. civil affairs, wrote in a letter to Ivan Milas, vice president of the government of Croatia and the government's commission for UNPROFOR. In response to the announced return, ``Serbs are mobilizing again and arming themselves,'' Thornberry said. ``We are very concerned about the Croatian deadline,'' he added. The refugees have asked the U.N. peacekeepers in the area for protection when they return. But UNPROFOR has said they cannot guarantee their safety. ``We are a peace-keeping force, not a peace-making force,'' Thornberry said. UNPROFOR has about 2,000 troops currently in sector East. To make the situation safe ``we would need nearly ten times'' UNPROFOR's current force, Thornberry said. But the refugees, impatient with the numerous unfulfilled U.N. brokered agreements and the Serbs' unwillingness to disarm, have given the UNPROFOR an ultimatum. ``If (the UNPROFOR) doesn't tell us on Sept. 29 where we can go back to and ensure our safety...we will go back anyway in the first days of October,'' said Josip Kompanovic, assistant commissioner for the Croatian government for the Beli Mastir municipality. Beli Mastir is one of four municipalities in the Serbian-occupied region of Croatia. Before the war there were about 80,000 Croats who lived in sector East, now there are only about 3,000-4,000, according to estimates by the Croatian office for refugees. Since UNPROFOR sent troops into the Serb-occupied area in March as part of a peace agreement reached in January during the Serbian-Croatian war, thousands of Croatian refugees who fled their homes have been anxious to return. ``People call all the time, we've heard the question, 'when can we return?' thousands and thousands of times,'' said Josip Esteraher, assistant general secretary for the Croatian government office for refugees. But the area is still not secure because the Serbs have stil not disarmed in accordance with the peace plan, Thornberry said. Although they have technically withdrawn their army, soldiers have re-emerged in sector East as so-called ``special police'' and ``border police.'' These police are heavily armed with mortars, armored personnel carriers, anti aircraft weapons, rockets, automatic machine guns and personal side arms, Thornberry said. The UNPROFOR stationed about 14,000 troops in four Serb-held areas of Croatia over a four-month period under the peace plan. Refugees from other four sectors want to return as well but sector East was singled out as the first place to start the return since the UNPROFOR entered it in March. The announcement by the refugees has provoked panic by the Serbs in sector East, who fear that the refugees will be backed by the Croatian Army, Thornberry said. UNPROFOR representatives said the refugees's ultimatum has not done much more than irritate the situation and ``set back efforts to create an appropriate climate for their return,'' Thornberry said. ``There are a lot of extreme minded people in the area...The Serbs have now started a general mobilization and the security situation has worsened,'' Thornberry said. ``The Serbs are so scared that they have started to move out old people and children'' to brace themselves for an attack, Thornberry said. Three hundred Croats had been expelled as of Sunday from sector East in response to the refugees' announcement, said Marko Kvesic, commissioner for the Croatian government for the Beli Mastir municipality. But the Croatian government has said that they will not allow the refugees to go back armed despite their willingness to do so. ``It's better to have unhappy people than dead people, if they go in and try to arm themselves we will go in and try to stop them,'' Zvonko Nogolica, chairman of the Croatian government's office for the the UNPROFOR said. ``The government won't allow the refugees to go off on any crazy adventures though we think the refugees are right from a moral point of view,'' Nogolica said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.S. has solid information on mass executions in Bosnia Date: 28 Sep 92 19:44:37 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- Credible witnesses have told U.S. officials they saw Serbian troops slaughter more than 3,000 men, women, and children last spring at detention camps in the Bosnian town of Brcko, the State Department said Monday. Spokesman Richard Boucher said U.S. officials recently received reports from two survivors of the Serbian brutality who estimated 3,000 Bosnian Muslims were executed at Brcko during May and June. Although the administration was told previously of the mass executions, he said the fresh reports are the first from witnesses. ``These are the first eyewitness reports we've received of these killings in the Brcko area,'' Boucher said. ``The previous information that we had was either second-hand or some of the information that we had raised questions about its credibility.'' He said the information had been turned over to United Nations authorities that are investigating Serbian atrocities in Bosnia- Hercegovina, which has been under siege since March by troops from Belgrade attempting to annex the nascent republic and ``cleanse'' it of all Muslims and Croats. The United States has been discussing with its allies at the United Nations a possible resolution calling for the establishment of a war- crimes commission to prosecute such abuses of human rights, officials have said. It would be similar to the one that oversaw the prosecution of German Nazis at Nuremberg following World War II. The incident at Brcko would be a candidate for such an investigation. ``We've been discussing a possible resolution with our allies,'' Boucher said. ``The resolution...would establish a war crimes commission to look into the charges, establish the facts, and prepare for possible prosecution of individuals who are found guilty.'' Boucher said the administration hopes ``to table such a resolution in the Security Council soon.'' The two witnesses said the Brcko detention camps in northeast Bosnia- Hercegovina were operated by Serbian militias and run by a Commander Arkan and then a Commander Seselj, Boucher said. The witnesses claimed ``to have witnessed the spontaneous murders of up to 50 prisoners at a time,'' he said. One witness told U.S. investigators that he transported bodies of dead prisoners from a brick factory, which served as a detention camp, to a local animal rendering plant for cremation, Boucher said. Both witnesses estimated in separate interviews with U.S. officials that ``3,000 men, women and children were executed in Brcko in the May- June period,'' he said. Information submitted by the administration last week to the United Nations contains chilling accounts of the reported mayhem at Brcko. It was given to the United Nations prior to administration interviews with the two witnesses. A 38-year-old inmate at a nearby detention camp told investigators she was taken to Brcko, ``where she saw 10 people being killed every day with rifle butts and bottles,'' the report said. The woman said ``two prisoners were required to slap each other. The one who didn't slap as hard was killed. ``One time I saw them cut off the ears of the weak slapper, then cut off his nose and then kill him by cutting his throat.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Peace mediators talk with Serbian leaders Date: 28 Sep 92 21:50:54 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- International mediators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen arrived Monday for talks with Serbian leaders on issues that included the deployment of fresh U.N. peacekeepers in neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina and the resumption of a humanitarian relief airlift to Sarajevo. U.N. special enovy Vance and European Community mediator Owen flew into the Serbian capital of Belgrade from Geneva on a one-day visit to meet leaders of the rump Yugoslav union of Serbia and Montenegro. Vance and Owen, co-chairmen of the Geneva peace conference on the disintegrated Yugoslav six-republic federation, drove from Belgrade's Surcin Airport directly to the Palace of Federation for talks with Dobrica Cosic, president of the truncated Yugoslavia. Col. Gen. Zivota Panic, the chief of staff of the Yugoslav Army, attended the talks in the Federation Palace. French Gen. Philippe Morillon, deputy commander of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), and Cedric Thornberry, in charge of UNPROFOR's civilian affairs, also attended the talks, a Yugoslav official said. Generals Panic and Morillon were to have separate talks, the official said. Vance and Owen, who last week visited the Croatian capital of Zagreb and the Serb-held town of Banja Luka in northwestern Bosnia-Hercegovina, also were scheduled to meet Serbian hard-line President Slobodan Milosevic before they fly back to Geneva later in the day, Serbian officials said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Talks scheduled Wednesday on ongoing peace efforts Date: 29 Sep 92 12:34:25 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- The presidents of Croatia and the remnant of federal Yugoslavia will meet with U.N. and European Community mediators here Wednesday to discuss the ongoing U.N. peace effort in former Yugoslavia, a spokesman for the U.N. said Tuesday. President Franjo Tujman of Croatia and Dobrica Cosic will meet with U.N. mediator Cyrus Vance and Lord (David) Owen, representatives of the EC. The two conferred Tuesday with Alija Izetbegovic, President of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The flurry of meetings came as the U.N. High Commission for Refugees warned that ``the point of no return'' has been reached for humanitarian aid for many people in Bosnia-Herzegovina. ``It's too late for thousands,'' Sylvana Foa, the UNHCR spokesperson told a news conference. ``We asked in September for relief aid of $282 million and so far all we have is $176 million. We want hard cash, cash to buy food today -- not pledges, not earmarked money but cash.`` She said the UNHCR is still maintaining its estimate of 2 million persons being at risk from starvation in Bosnia-Hercegovina this winter and said she had no news of a resumption of the U.N. airlift into Sarajevo, suspended since Sept. 3 following the shooting down of an Italian plane while on U.N. service. But later Bosnian President Izetbegovic told a news conference Vance had told him ``American'' planes would resume flights into Sarajevo within the next 24 hours and that he took this to mean the airlift would resume. Demilitarization of Sarajevo is the only way of making peace talks between the three warring factions meaningful, the Bosnian president said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian Parliament organizes referendum for early elections Date: 29 Sep 92 15:02:33 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- The communist-controlled Parliament of Serbia Tuesday decided to stage a public referendum on Oct. 11 to determine whether to hold general and presidential elections before the end of the year. Parliament, controlled by communists loyal to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, passed a constitutional amendment on holding early elections by the end of 1992 for parliamentary deputies and the president of the republic. Aleksadar Bakocevic, chairman of Parliament, said that despite the passing of the amendment, citizens have to confirm it by voting in the upcoming referendum. Opposition parties accused Milosevic's hard-line regime of initiating a referendum to delay elections for as long as possible in order to retain power. Vuk Draskovic, leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement, said the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia was doing all in its power to avoid and delay the elections despite demands by leaders to hold them by the end of the year. President of the rump Yugoslav federation of Serbia and Montenegro, Dobrica Cosic, and his Prime Minister Milan Panic, demanded early elections on all federal and republic levels. Cosic and Panic, advocating democratic reforms in the newly forged two-republic Yugoslav union, want early elections to replace current pro-communist deputies with liberal delegates who would help in speeding up changes. Borisav Jovic, president of the Serbian Socialist Party, commented, ``The Socialist Party of Serbia has no intention to play games.'' Jovic discounted opposition allegations that the referendum is the manipulation of the ruling party to indefinitely delay elections. ``The Socialist Party wants early elections and is not afraid of election results,'' he told the Serbian-run Tanjug news agency. Jovic said he hoped that elections could be held in early December. The condition for holding early elections is the passing of the referendum with at least 51 percent of the electoral body. But opposition leaders warned that the referendum could be easily undermined as a large portion of ethnic Albanians in Serbia's southern Kosovo province were not expected to vote. The opposition also claimed that members of the Serbian Socialist Party will vote against the referendum to help the ruling party stay in power. If the Oct. 11 referendum fails it will take at least six months to restage another one, at which point elections could be postponed for some eight months. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. helicopters fired on by anti-aircraft weapons Date: 29 Sep 92 16:13:21 GMT ZAGREB, Croatia (UPI) -- Two United Nations helicopters clearly marked as U.N. craft were fired at Monday near the Croatian capital Zagreb, according to U.N. officials Tuesday. ``It is of imense gravity when people open fire on you from the ground when you are flying peace missions...It's not what we expect,'' Cedric Thornberry, head of the U.N. civil affairs said. The helicopters, flying to Zagreb from Daruvar in north central Croatia on a regular daily mission, were not hit and there were no injuries, according to Thornberry. When asked for confirmation that it was the Croation army that fired the anti-aircraft weapons, Thornberry replied, ``Well, it occurred 20 miles from Zagreb airport...and nobody suggests that it was little green men from Mars.'' The Croatian authorites had been given notification of the helicopters'departure the day before, according to Thornberry. The helicopters were flying 45 feet apart at an altitude of 330 feet in Croatian air space when one of the pilots saw some yellow flashes coming from the ground and then bursts of smoke and fire between the two crafts, a statement issued today read. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Rocket fire targets Sarajevo business district Date: 29 Sep 92 17:23:11 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Heavy rocket fire killed at least three people and wounded 26 others in the war-ravaged downtown business district Tuesday, and U.N. officials tried to negotiate the creation of a new corridor for channeling food and other humanitarian supplies to the Bosnian capital. The rocket explosions plus sniper fire that wounded three people Tuesday morning boosted the 24-hour casualty toll that ended at 10 a.m. to 32 people killed and 212 wounded throughout the republic, including 15 killed and 90 wounded in Sarajevo, officials said. In neighboring Croatia, U.N. officials said Tuesday that anti- aircraft gunners opened fire on clearly marked U.N. helicopters. The incident happened Monday near the capital Zagreb. No one was hit and there were no injuries, said U.N. civil affairs chief Cedric Thornberry. Thornberry said the helicopters were flying 45 feet apart at an altitude of 330 feet in Croatian air space when one of the pilots saw yellow flashes from the ground and bursts of smoke between the two craft. Asked if it was Croatian army fire, Thornberry would only say: ``Well, it occurred 20 miles from Zagreb airport...and nobody suggests that it was little green men from Mars.'' French Gen. Phillipe Morilon, deputy commander of the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR), arrived in Sarajevo Tuesday and traveled to nearby Pale for further talks with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic on opening a new aid supply corridor to the beseiged Bosnian capital. The city received its first delivery of humanitarian supplies in four days -- some 80 metric tons carried in 12 trucks -- but only after a showdown in which U.N. officials backed by French troops obtained the release of four Muslim Slav drivers and a local U.N. worker in an eight- truck convoy detained by Serbian militiamen. French Col. Patrice Satre, facing the most serious incident to confront a U.N.-organized aid convoy, rushed to the western Sarajevo suburb of Ilidza, placed himself and four soldiers in front of the detainees and refused to allow the Serbs to take them into the Ilidza police station, said Dag Espeland, the logistics manager for the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. ``This was the worst we've had,'' Espeland said of the incident, which he said began when Serbian soldiers found a letter belonging to a local UNHCR worker containing ``words offensive to the Serbs.'' ``We have Serbian, Muslim and Croatian drivers,'' Espeland said. ``The Muslims are usually harassed by the Serbs, but they have never been detained before. Sometimes individuals just start things up.'' Morillon, who visited Karadzic Sunday at his headquarters in Pale and then met Serb leaders Monday in Belgrade, was seeking guarantees that would allow expanded road and air deliveries of aid to Sarajevo, UNPROFOR spokesman Adnan Razek said. Morillon, as part of the plan, is seeking Serbian approval of a new Bosnian UNPROFOR headquarters that likely would be placed in Ilidza, which has been a primary bottleneck for road convoys. The air deliveries have been cut off since an Italian aid plane was shot down Sept. 3 west of Sarajevo, and deliveries by truck have been greatly reduced by the fighting and bad road conditions, leaving the city facing the imminent onset of winter with about one-fifth of its estimated daily food needs. Rocket and sniper attacks from Serbs in the hills surrounding Sarajevo continued to kill and maim civilians, who represent about 80 percent of the casualties suffered in the Bosnian conflict. Several rockets fell around 10 a.m. in and around the gutted downtown shopping district, hitting homes, shops and offices, killing three people and wounding at least 26 others, officials said. At least three other people were reported wounded Tuesday morning by sniper fire, hospital officials said. Sevala Hasovic, manager of the Magros clothing store, said she was at his shop when rockets slammed into a nearby building used by the Bosnian military and showered the pedestrian shopping mall with shrapnel and glass. ``Me and a colleague, we were sitting inside and suddenly it exploded,'' Hasovic said as she and several co-workers swept up glass and rubble. ``Then we heard people screaming.'' Glass shards framed pools of blood on adjacent sidewalk just a few feet from the flower pots and hand-lettered sign marking the spot where a mortar shell fell May 27 and killed 18 people waiting in a bread line. Hasovic condemned Europe for failing to intervene in the crisis. ``We have lost our hope for help from Europe and the world,'' she said. ``They (Serbs) have simply been destroying the people and the city for six months.'' Salem Karovic, chief of the city's water distribution system, said Serbs controlling the area around the city's main water supply at Bacevo turned off the feed to Sarajevo Sunday night in apparent violation of an agreement made one week earlier at the peace talks in Geneva. Razek said UNPROFOR forces were prevented by the fighting from reaching the site Monday but he hoped to reach the area to investigate the matter Tuesday. Sarajevo's encircled population of about 500,000 people has been withoutelectricity for more than a week. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N., French troops obtain releases of local U.N. workers Date: 29 Sep 92 17:51:17 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Armed French soldiers intervened Tuesday to prevent Serbian militiamen from detaining five people in U.N. employ, including four Muslam Slav workers who were driving trucks in a U.N. humanitarian relief convoy, U.N. officials said. During the tense, half-hour standoff in a Serb-held Sarajevo suburb, the French troops led by their commander shielded the five U.N. workers while Izumi Nakamitsu, the Sarajevo delegate of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, negotiated a successful end to the incident, the officials said. The officials said the five workers were pulled off a UNHCR-organized eight-truck humanitarian aid convoy that was halted and searched by Serbian soldiers outside the Serb-held Sarajevo suburb of Ilidza. The soldiers found a letter belonging to a local U.N. worker that contained ``words offensive to the Serbs'' and ordered that they accompany them to the Ilidza police station, said one U.N. official. Dag Espeland, the UNHCR's Sarajevo logistics manager, said the Serbs also detained for questioning four Muslim Slav drivers in the convoy. He said U.N. officials with the convoy alerted by radio the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) headquarters, which dispatched to Ilidza 10 French troops in four armored personnel carriers led by their commander, Col. Patrice Satre. Espeland also rushed to Ilidza with Nakamitsu. The French troops were waiting at the Ilidza police station when the Serbs arrived with the local U.N. worker and the four drivers, Espeland said. Satre immediately placed himself and four of his troops in front of the detainees and refused to alow the Serbs to take them into the police station. ``He placed his armed men in front of the drivers and (said) they would not be allowed to be questioned and they were under his protection,'' recounted Espeland. ``There were about 20 Serbian soldiers standing around, but they didn't do anything.'' ``Col. Satre just stood there for half an hour while Izumi went inside the station to negotiate with the commander. In the end, they were allowed to go. They were put into one of the French APCs (armored personnel carriers) and driven to the (U.N.-controlled) airport,'' Espeland said. He said the incident was the most serious to have beset a U.N.- organized humanitarian aid convoy since UNHCR began relying on trucks to deliver relief to Sarajevo following the Sept. 3 suspension of the international airlift following the downing of an Italian cargo plane. ``This was the worst we've had. We have Serbian, Muslim and Croatian drivers. The Muslims are usually harassed by the Serbs, but they have never been detailed before,'' he said. ``Sometimes individuals just start things up.'' Serbian police in Ilidza last week arrested three Muslim Slavs who were driving buses to evacuate foreign students from Sarajevo. The drivers had been approved by Serbian political leaders to participate in the evacuation, but U.N. officials still have not been able to obtain their release. Serbian forces have been blockading and bombarding Sarajevo for almost six months in a bid to divide the city into ethnic districts as part of a drive to carve a separate Serbian state out of the independent republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Since the airlift suspension, UNHCR has been forced to rely on truck convoys from the Croatian port city of Split to provide food and medicine for the estimated 350,000 residents and 150,000 refugees trapped in Sarajevo. However, the convoys have been unable to fill the gap left by the airlift suspension, and UNHCR officials have expressed grave fears of serious food shortages in coming weeks. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav prime minister meets secretly with Congress,secretary of state Date: 29 Sep 92 17:51:17 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic slipped quietly into Washington Tuesday and is scheduled to meet with Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger as well as several congressional officials, his spokesman said. Spokesman David Calef told United Press International that Panic will ask Congress to grant a waiver of the stiff sanctions imposed on the Union of Serbia and Montenegro, the unrecognized successor states to the former Yugoslavia. Specifically, Calef said, Panic wants an exemption granted on heating oil. He said Panic is concerned about the effect of a heating oil shortage on ``hospitals and children'' during the brutal Yugoslav winter. Calef said he will discuss the administration's predisposition to supporting such a move in the United Nations during his meeting this afternoon with Eagleburger. The State Department, which normally includes on its daily schedule meetings between Eagleburger and heads of state, did not make note of Tuesday's parley. Panic travels to New York late in the day to address the Council on Foreign Relations, Calef said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Pentagon to resume Bosnia relief flights Date: 29 Sep 92 18:41:04 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- The Pentagon said Tuesday U.S. Air Force relief flights to the besieged Bosnian captial of Sarajevo, suspended since an Italian relief plane was shot down by a missile, will resume soon. ``We are aware of the urgency of resuming relief flights into the Sarajevo airport,'' Pentagon spokesman Pete Williams said. ``We will resume the relief flights. We just need to work out the details of when specifically we can get them going again.'' He said Washington would set a date for renewing its relief flights in consultation with the United Nations and other countries participating in the airlift. It is expected the flights will resume within a week. The U.N. relief airlift into Sarajevo, under attack from Serbian gunners in the surrounding hills for almost six months, began last July. Flights were suspended early this month when a surface-to-air missile knocked an Italian relief plane out of the sky, killing the crew. Investigators were uncertain which side in the ethnic conflict fired the missile. Ground convoys have supplied the beleaguered residents since the shoot-down, although the United States has not been involved. ``The air flights into Sarajevo have turned out to be a very efficient way of getting an enormous amount of material in quickly,'' Williams said. ``So, if we can resume them, it's something we would like to do.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. refugee chief urges prompt troop deployment to Bosnia Date: 29 Sep 92 19:09:11 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees Tuesday urged governments to speed up deployment of peacekeeping troops to prevent an alarming increase in the ``ethnic cleansing'' campaign in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The high commissioner, Sadako Ogata, said in an appeal to governments to speed up the deployment of about 6,000 troops to ``prevent the further deterioration of an already terrible situation.'' Ogata said the latest information received by her organization showed an upsurge in ``ethnic cleansing'' operations, particularly in the Banja Luka area in Bosnia-Hercegovina. ``Large numbers of people are being forced out of their homes and villages and pushed across the front lines towards central Bosnia,'' she said. ``The reports received from survivors are heartbreaking.'' ``I feel that the presence of U.N. Protection Force soldiers would help contain a number of abuses that are presently being witnessed by the few foreigners who are present there,'' Ogata said. The U.N. Security Council on Sept. 14 allowed the deployment of up to 6,000 troops, most of them from NATO countries, to provide security for food convoys being organized by the U.N. refugee agency, which the is the leading organization engaged in bringing food and medicine to tens of thousands of inhabitants displaced by the fighting. Governments that have pledged to contribute the troops to the operations have yet to present a plan for the deployment to the Security Council for its approval. ``The delay, coupled with the suspension of the U.N. humanitarian airlift to the besieged city of Sarajevo, means tens of thousands if innocent victims of the war could face a very bleak winter,'' the UNHCR said. Reports of the increase in ``ethnic cleansing'' operations coincided with charges made Monday by the United States, quoting witnesses, that Serbian troops were responsible for the death of more than 3,000 men, women, and children last spring at detention camps in the Bosnian town of Brcko. U.S. State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher said U.S. officials recently received reports from two survivors of the Serbian brutality who estimated 3,000 Bosnian Muslims were executed at Brcko during May and June. ``These are the first eyewitness reports we've received of these killings in the Brcko area,'' Boucher said Monda
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NEW YORK TIMES, Tuesday, Seprember 29, 1992. SARAJEVO, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: The Bosnian Government has sent an urgent appeal to the U.N. Security Council warning that Sarajevo in in "imminent danger" of falling to besieging Serbian nationalist troops unless Bosnian forces are exempted from a U.N. arms embargo. The appeal said that Serbian military moves, including an increase in tank strength in Grbavica, an area of the city that is barely a mile away from key Government installations like the presidency, indicated that Sarajevo was facing "what is likely to be the final assault." "If our fears are realized, we are unlikely to survive this latest onslaught on the city." The Government letter said. The appeal dated on Saturday, came in a letter addressed to the Security Council by Ejup Ganic, a Vice President who is in charge of the Government in the absence of Alije Izetbegovic. Mr. Izetbegovic is on a foreign tour intended to foster support for his beleagured Government, which has been hanging onto its control of Sarajevo under a six-month siege by the Serbian forces. The Bosnian position has been that the arms embargo penalizes only the Sarajevo Government, since the Serbian forces are fighting with the backing of the well equipped Yugoslav army.
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(From the Los Angeles Times, September 29, 1992; for fair use only:) "Rebel Serbs Mock U.N. Mission in Croatia Zones" By Carol J. Williams, Times Staff Writer * Balkans: Guerrilla bands keep peacekeeping troops from restoring civilian control to four `protected areas.' Karlovac, Croatia -- Just a few miles south of the official crossing into U.N. Sector North, three unshaven guerrillas present a rival welcome committee. Decked out in blue camouflage in an unconvincing attempt to look like policemen, the Serbian rebels guarding the entrance to what they consider the Republic of Serbian Krajina have dragged lawn chairs and wooden sawhorses onto the roadway to create their own checkpoint. They greet all comers with the muzzles of their machine guns. "No entrance today," barked one guerrilla, spewing a cloud of brandy breath and dismissingly waving away a U.N. press pass. Sector North, on this particular day, is closed "for technical reasons." Although the Krajina vigilantes are stingy with their explanations, radio reports of Serbian air attacks on Muslim villages across the nearby Bosnian border are likely the technicalities prompting them to peremptorily seal off access to what is supposed to be a demilitarized buffer zone under U.N. control. U.N. troops have been patrolling four designated "protected areas" in Croatia for nearly five months, yet their authority appears to extend only as far as the nearest Serbian barricade. On occasion, the roving guerrilla bands even block U.N. troops from moving about, mocking the international mandate to restore civilian control and the prewar order. "It's like Wyoming in the 1880s," complained Cedric Thornberry, chief of civilian affairs for what is now the largest peacekeeping mission in U.N. history. "The situation is so bad in Sector East that we believe civil authority has basically disintegrated. Courts do not sit. Police do not investigate. Sectors South and East are descending steadily into conditions of anarchy." While Thornberry singles out the regions closest to Serbia and the coveted Dalmatian coastline for criticism, conditions in the other two zones are also woefully short of the objectives set out by U.N. special envoy Cyrus R. Vance in the deployment plan he drafted with Serbian and Croatian officials nearly a year ago. Menacing of motorists, looting, armed assault and the practice known as ethnic cleansing are the pattern of daily life here, too. * * * The lack of U.N. progress in disarming paramilitary forces has prompted anger and impatience among non-Serbs driven from the region who have been pinning their hopes on the peacekeepers to make it safe enough to go home. Croatian officials, who accuse U.N. personnel of protecting Serbian warlords who rule over one-third of the republic, are threatening to shepherd masses of refugees back into the volatile area. Marko Kvesic, deposed mayor of Beli Manastir in the Baranja region of Sector East, has given the peacekeepers until the end of the month to fulfill their pledge to help refugees return to their homes. Noting the need to begin the school year and prepare neglected farmland for winter, Kvesic plans to lead a mass return to Beli Manastir on Wednesday, whether the United Nations assists him or not. The Croatian government has promised support. "We have asked them [U.N. forces] to show in at least one village their good will to assist the refugees in returning to their homes. If they are not able to do this, then you can draw your own conclusions about how we will respond," said Damir Zoric, deputy chief of the Office for Refugees and Displaced Persons in Zagreb, the Croatian capital. Asked how he would bring refugees back to Baranja over U.N. objections, Zoric replied: "We will march." Thornberry says he has no intention of bowing to the ultimatum. * * * "It is the height of irresponsibility of Croatian government officials, knowing full well what the situation is in Baranja, to incite the hopes of desperate people and lead them into a situation that, unless they are very fortunate, will be one of violent confrontation," Thornberry warned. But the threatened showdown has put the United Nations in the awkward position of having to forcibly drive away the very people whose return they were charged with arranging. "We will seek to prevent their re-entry. We've warned that conditions are not secure and that we will put our troops there on the border ... to protect them from the lunatics inside Baranja who are wanting to shoot themselves a few Croats," Thornberry said. U.N. troops are doing what they can to disarm the guerrilla bands throughout the Krajina, he said, "but there is no answer except the unexciting one of gradually trying to restore tranquility." While none of the 600,000 people forced to leave their homes in the Croatian war zones have been able to move back as a result of the U.N. deployment, U.N. spokeswoman Shannon Boyd claims that the mission has achieved some successes. Fighting that killed 10,000 people last year has dropped off dramatically, although Croats tend to attribute the fall in casualties to the fact that Serbs now enjoy almost exclusive control of the regions after having driven out the Croats, leaving no enemy to fight. U.N. forces took over control of the Peruca Dam in Sector South in mid- September, opening one of the floodgates to avert an impending disaster. Serbian radicals who had been holding the dam for more than a year had been amassing water to a dangerous level with the intent of rupturing the structure and flooding the predominantly Croatian lowlands around the city of Sinj. Boyd also claimed that U.N. mediators had achieved a breakthrough in clearing mines and roadblocks from the Belgrade-Zagreb highway and that a limited reopening of the 250-mile route was imminent. Only humanitarian aid convoys and the few foreign travelers venturing into the region would be allowed to use the road that skirts some of the worst battlegrounds of the wars in Croatia and Bosnia, but Boyd described it as "a first step." Currently, all traffic between the respective Serbian and Croatian capitals has to detour through Hungary, tripling what would normally be a four-hour drive. The small advances toward restoring public services and a sense of normalcy to the U.N. zones have been overshadowed by what U.N. officials concede is a stalemate in disarming and dispersing the guerrilla bands. Conditions have actually worsened in recent weeks, the U.N. officials report, with Serbian guerrillas becoming more "assertive."
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav Prime Minister sees Eagleburger, Congressmen ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav Prime Minister sees Eagleburger, Congressmen Date: 29 Sep 92 19:58:01 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic met privately Tuesday in separate sessions with Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger and congressional officials to appeal for an easing of U.N. sanctions before winter strikes. David Calef, Panic's spokesman, and congressional aides told United Press International that the prime minister sought the sanctions relief in a closed meeting with Rep. Dante Fascell, D-Fla., chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, and other congressional leaders, and with Eagleburger. It was the second meeting in a week between Panic, the self-made American millionaire of Serbian extraction, and Eagleburger and with leaders of the House committee. He also met last week with members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The State Department, which normally includes on its daily schedule meetings between Eagleburger and heads of state, did not make note of Tuesday's parley. A senior State Department official was unsure why the meeting was omitted from Eagleburger's daily schedule. The official would not discuss details of the meeting but said the administration had ``not ruled out'' easing the embargo to allow heating oil shipments to Serbia and Montenegro, the unrecognized successor states to Yugoslavia. ``It's something we will have to take a look at,'' the official said. Congressional aides said Panic is orchestrating a lobbying campaign with U.S. officials in hopes that for ``humanitarian reasons'' they will ease sanctions imposed on Belgrade for its attempts to annex Bosnia- Hercegovina and ``cleanse'' it of all non-Serbs. Calef said Panic is concerned about the effect of a heating oil shortage on hospitals and children during the brutal Yugoslav winter. ``The main pitch was to try to make an argument with senior members of Congress on the need to lift U.N. sanctions for humanitarian reasons so they can import fuel oil,'' a congressional aide who attended the meetings told UPI under conditions of anonymity. The aide said Panic ``made a convincing argument'' that he is not involved in any of the Belgrade-inspired mayhem in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Panic said he is doing everything he can to stop ethnic cleansing in which it is estimated thousands of civilians have been slaughtered, close detention camps and silence the weapons, the aide said. Panic said he and Belgrade ``have limited influence'' over the actions of Serbian guerillas in Bosnia-Hercegovina, the aide said, and is ``saying all the right things.'' ``One is left with the nagging doubt as to how much power Panic really has in Belgrade and to what extent he is being manipulated by those really in control to plea for sanctions exemptions. The skeptics among us, or perhaps the realists, wonder how long he will last if he is successful.''
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 187, 29 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR RUSSIA SENDS REINFORCEMENTS TO TAJIKISTAN AS FIGHTING CONTINUES. The head of Kurgan-Tyube's city council, Nurali Kurbanov, told a press conference that hundreds of people, including the city's chief law enforcement official, were killed on 27 September in an attack on the city by Tajik forces loyal to deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev, Interfax, as quoted by Western agencies, reported on 28 September. Kurbanov also claimed that Russian troops stationed in Tajikistan were helping the pro-Nabiev forces from Kulyab Oblast. Tajik Radio was quoted as having said that acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov had sent a protest to Russia over the use of Russian tanks by Kulyab forces. The tanks were supposedly stolen by Kulyab fighters from a Russian unit. ITAR-TASS reported that additional Russian troops were being sent to Tajikistan to help those already there defend themselves. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) YELTSIN-SHEVARDNADZE MEETING ON ABKHAZIA. Following Georgian State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze's protest on 27 September against the Russian parliament's statements on the conflict in Abkhazia, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Shevardnadze for talks at the latter's request on 28 September in Moscow. According to Vyacheslav Kostikov, the Russian president's press secretary, the two leaders discussed ways to implement the Russo-Georgian agreement of 3 September on settling the Abkhazian conflict. Yeltsin and Shevardnadze also agreed to hold regular talks and scheduled a meeting for 13 October. Shevardnadze said he was satisfied with the talks. Speaking at a news conference after the meeting, Shevardnadze said Yeltsin is determined to follow through on democratic reforms in Russia, ITAR-TASS reported. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL Inc.) FIRST NORTH CAUCASIAN VOLUNTEERS LEAVE ABKHAZIA. The first group of fighters sent to Abkhazia by the Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the North Caucasus left Abkhazia for Groznyi on 28 September, ITAR-TASS reported. About one hundred were flown out in a Russian plane. The Abkhaz had stated earlier that their departure had been suspended. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES LAW REDUCING YELTSIN'S POWER. The draft law "On the Council of Ministers and the Government of Russia" is currently being examined by the presidium of the Russian parliament, Interfax reported on 28 September. The draft law gives President Yeltsin the right to appoint the prime minister and other leading cabinet members only with the approval of the parliament. If the parliament does not approve the president's candidate, the president will have the right to appoint an acting prime minister for three months. If the law is adopted, Yeltsin will loose his present powers to appoint ministers without the parliament's approval. The presidium of the parliament also proposed two alternative dates, 15 December and 12 January, for convening the Seventh Congress of People's Deputies. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) CIVIC UNION INCREASES PRESSURE ON THE GOVERNMENT. The three principal leaders of the Civic Union have increased their pressure on the government. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi told a youth gathering that some ministers should resign because "their radicalism gives nothing to society," ITAR-TASS reported on 28 September. Arkadii Volsky, the president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, urged the government to make way for a team of industrial managers who understood how to run the country. Nikolai Travkin, the leader of the Democratic Party, said that it was necessary to remove from the government State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, and Economic Minister Andrei Nechaev. All three Civic Union leaders emphasized, however, that Prime Minister Egor Gaidar should stay. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) VOLSKY PLAYS DOWN DIFFERENCES WITH GAIDAR. Despite his increasing criticism of specific Gaidar economic policies, Arkadii Volsky, president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, seems reluctant to be branded as an anti-reformer. At a press conference in St. Petersburg, Volsky said that his group's recently released 13-point "anti-crisis" program is not an "alternative to the present economic course" of the Gaidar government, "Vesti" reported on 27 September. "We never set ourselves the task of creating an alternative program . . [T]here can be no alternative to a transition to the market," Volsky emphasized. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) NECHAEV ON FALL IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION. Russian Minister of the Economy, Andrei Nechaev, told a conference of young business and political leaders on 28 September that the nation's industrial production is expected to fall by 20% this year, ITAR-TASS reported. According to official statistics, last year's drop was 2.2%. Nechaev also disclosed that state orders from the defense industry this year were cut by 68%. In a subsequent interview with an ITAR-TASS correspondent, Nechaev said that the government intended to limit the decline in 1993 to 8%. In a related story, Nechaev announced that the government had reached a compromise with the Central Bank on a limit of new credit creation to increase enterprise liquidity, according to "Novosti" on 27 September. There were few details. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN DEFENSE BUDGET FOR 1993. Russian Economics Minister Andrei Nechaev on 28 September provided details about the 1993 defense budget. According to Interfax, defense expenditures will total between 1.55 and 1.65 trillion rubles in July 1992 prices, compared to 632 billion rubles in 1992. (Comparing real outlays is complicated by rapid inflation and the arbitrary pricing structure of Russian arms.) Most of the increase is due to personnel and housing construction costs. Procurement spending has been set at 170 billion rubles, a rejection of the Industry Ministry's call to increase it by 60%. Weapons production levels would reportedly remain at the same level as in 1992. (John Lepingwell) RUSSIA NEGOTIATING WITH DEBTORS. Russia is making some progress in settling debts with less-developed countries. According to Interfax on 28 September, Minister of Foreign Economic Relations, Petr Aven, announced that India is soon to begin payments on its $15 billion debt to Russia. Negotiations are also progressing with Tanzania and Poland. Last week Aven said that less-developed nations, many of them former Soviet client states, owed Russia some $142 billion. Aven said he does not expect much of this to be repaid. Cuba, for example, has officially informed Russia that it will not pay back its $28 billion debt. Others owing sums of $10 billion or less, such as Iraq, Angola and Zaire, are in such bad economic condition that repayment is similarly unlikely. (Erik Whitlock) GORBACHEV REFUSES TO TESTIFY AT THE CPSU HEARING. Russian TV newscasts on 28 September cited a press release made by the Constitutional Court, which quotes a letter sent to the Court by former Soviet Communist Party General Secretary, Mikhail Gorbachev. Asked to testify in the current trial of the party, which was banned by President Yeltsin after the failed coup of August 1991, Gorbachev expressed in the letter his "profound respect" for the court as an important democratic institution, but added that he will not take part in the hearing, because the two opposing sides, i.e., those supporting Yeltsin's ban of the party and those defending the CPSU, are eager to exploit it for their own political purposes. (On Friday, 25 September, "Novosti" reported that one of the judges on the Constitutional Court had declared Gorbachev's refusal to appear contempt of court. According to the press release, other former Party leaders have agreed to testify. (Julia Wishnevsky) ..AND PROBABLY WITH GOOD REASON. A 25 September article in the emigre weekly Russkaya mysl', written by its Moscow correspondent, quotes Yeltsin's supporters at the CPSU hearing as saying that no matter what he might say, Gorbachev's testimony may enable his democratic opponents to diminish the former General Secretary's popularity in the West by putting him in the dock for the "party's crimes." Meanwhile, writing in Gudok on 1 September, a representative of the communist side, Anatolii Salutsky, predicted that an "unlimited" opportunity for hardliners to question Gorbachev and Aleksandr Yakovlev in court could bring about "dramatic political consequences . . . on a world scale." (Julia Wishnevsky) CHINA WELCOMES RUSSIAN WITHDRAWAL FROM MONGOLIA. A spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry on 28 September welcomed the announcement that all Russian troops have been withdrawn from Mongolia. ITAR-TASS said that the announcement of the final withdrawal was made on the previous day. The last troops left in September. Then Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev had announced a partial Soviet troop withdrawal from Mongolia in January 1989, and talks on a complete pullout began in February 1990. At one time there were as many as 70,000 Soviet troops in Mongolia. (Doug Clarke) PLUTONIUM REACTOR SHUT DOWN. On 29 September, ITAR-TASS reported that the second plutonium production reactor near Krasnoyarsk has been shut down, ending plutonium production for nuclear weapons in Russia. The Krasnoyarsk site housed two reactors deep underground, which for 30 years produced the weapons material that allowed the rapid buildup of Soviet nuclear stockpiles. Specialists at the site are proposing that it be used to build a prototype small nuclear reactor that could provide power to remote locations in Siberia and the north. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) INTELLIGENCE SPOKESWOMAN EXPLAINS PRIMAKOV'S PROPOSALS. The moratorium on foreign espionage offered by the director of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Evgennii Primakov,(see RFE/RL Daily Report 28 September) can be realized only if there are "collective guarantees" by the NATO countries, said the agency spokeswoman, Tatyana Samolis, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 September. Even if Great Britain, for example, agrees to cease intelligence activities in Russia, it will still be able to obtain intelligence information about Russia from its NATO allies. Therefore, Russia must receive a collective guarantee from all NATO countries which have "an integrated military and intelligence structure," she added. In light of this statement, it is noteworthy that the Primakov initiative may have the practical effect of dividing Western military and intelligence services at the time when European integration is experiencing a crisis over currency and other issues. (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) FOKIN TO DETAIL ECONOMIC REFORMS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Vitold Fokin is scheduled to address the Ukrainian parliament on 29 September, Interfax reported. The parliament is expected to hear details of the government's new economic program, developed by First Deputy Prime Minister Valentyn Symonenko. Both Fokin and President Leonid Kravchuk are also expected to propose changes in the composition of the government. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINIAN STUDENTS DEMAND CHANGES. The Third Congress of the Ukrainian Students Union (USS) opened in Donetsk on 25 September, Ukrainian TV reported. The USS is taking part in the campaign for new parliamentary elections and supports radical economic reforms. Together with the All-Ukrainian Association of Solidarity with Toilers (VOST), the USS issued a statement calling for new elections and the formation of a government worthy of the public's trust. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) STATE OF EMERGENCY REVOKED IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA. The state of emergency proclaimed in Kabardino-Balkaria on 27 September was revoked on 28 September, Radio Mayak reported, and Musa Shanibov, the president of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, was released, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow was told by a local official. The state of emergency had been proclaimed after supporters of the Congress of the Kabardian People staged violent protests in Nalchik to protest Shanibov's detention on 23 September for his role in the despatch of volunteers to Abkhazia. Shanibov is to address an extraordinary congress of the confederation in Groznyi on 2 October. The events in Kabardino-Balkaria are reminiscent of last year's events in Chechnya when the Russian authorities also found it necessary to back down in the face of local resistance. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN CEASEFIRE OBSERVERS ARRIVE IN BAKU. A first batch of Russian observers who will monitor a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh arrived in Baku on 28 September, Azerinform-TASS reported. Additional observers from Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine are expected soon. Meanwhile, both the Azerbaijani and Armenian sides accused each other of violating the ceasefire. On 28 September Armenpress-TASS quoted a report from Stepanakert stating that Azerbaijani forces had fired on the road connecting Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia, but traffic did not stop moving. Interfax reported the same day that Azerbaijan's minister of internal affairs had rejected the idea of inviting in CIS troops for peacekeeping duties in the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) UZBEK OPPOSITION LEADER ON CRACKDOWN. Uzbek writer Muhammed Salih, chairman of the tiny opposition Erk (Will) Party, was quoted by Reuter on 28 September as warning that he will call for street demonstrations if the Uzbek government crackdown on the opposition does not stop. Uzbek President Islam Karimov fears that unrest will spread from neighboring Tajikistan and has taken various measures to silence and intimidate the opposition in Uzbekistan. Erk, the only genuine opposition party to be registered, has had its newspaper closed and its bank account confiscated, according to Salih. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE PARTIAL RESULTS IN ROMANIAN ELECTIONS. Latest figures released by the National Statistics Board on 29 September (as of 3:00 a.m.) confirm forecasts from exit polls made by a German and a Romanian survey institute two days before. The partial results, based on complete counts from roughly 65% of all stations, show the incumbent Ion Iliescu leading in the presidential race with 47.3%. He is followed by Emil Constantinescu from the centrist Democratic Convention (DC) with 31.2%; Gheorghe Funar from the nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity (PRNU) with 11%; Caius Traian Dragomir from the National Salvation Front (NSF) with 4.7%; Ion Manzatu from the Republican Party with 3.1%; and Mircea Druc, an independent, with 2.8%. Though a runoff between Iliescu and Constantinescu on 11 October seems inevitable, the former's reelection appears almost certain. The results also show the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), the party backing Iliescu, as leading the vote for the 143-seat Senate with 28.6% and for the 328-seat Chamber of Deputies with 27.6%. It is followed by the DC with 18.6% and 18.7%, respectively; the NSF (10.2% for both); the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania (9.1% and 8.9%); the PRNU (8.2% and 7.8%); the Greater Romania Party (3.7% and 3.8%); the Democratic Agrarian Party (3.3% and 3%); and the Socialist Labor Party, the reborn communist party (3.2% and 3%). Most analysts see a coalition government looming, and believe that the DNSF might form a alliance with nationalist and leftist parties. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) NEW WAVE OF "ETHNIC CLEANSING" IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA? The 29 September Washington Post quotes international relief officials as saying that Serbian forces have begun a systematic drive to expel the remaining 200,000 Muslims from northwestern Bosnia centering on Banja Luka. The account describes "bombings, burning, torture, and murder," with one relief worker saying: "there's more of this, and worse than anyone can imagine." At least four Muslim villages were destroyed by masked Serbs going "from house to house lobbing grenades, shooting--killing dozens . . ." during the week that peace envoys Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen visited the region. Desperate Muslims are paying Serbs large sums of money to be allowed to make the dangerous trip to the Bosnian-held enclave of Travnik, their one chance of escape. Meanwhile, the 29 September New York Times says that the Bosnian government has again appealed to the UN Security Council to allow it to buy arms to prevent what the Bosnians claim is the Serbs' "final assault" on Sarajevo. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) CROATIANS DEMAND TO RETURN HOME. Reuter on 28 September and the Los Angeles Times the following day report that up to 10,000 male Croats have threatened to march on their former homes in the Baranja region bordering Hungary. UN peacekeepers are trying to pressure the Croatian authorities, who may be encouraging the refugees, to stop what the UN fears could be a massacre if unarmed civilians walk into areas that have been held by Serbian militias since the summer of 1991. The Croats are impatient at the UN's failure to disarm the Serbs and enable the refugees to go home, and this has become a major issue in the Croatian media and in politics. The UN has succeeded in opening some formerly Serb-held areas in the Dalmatian hinterland, but the Croatian authorities and press warned civilians not to go home until the area has been cleared of mines. Some 600,000 people have been displaced in Croatia since local Serbs with the backing of the former Yugoslav army began taking control of Croatian territory in early 1991. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) KOSOVO DEVELOPMENTS. According to Radio Serbia, 19 Kosovo Albanians went on trial in Pec on 28 September. The defendants, members of the National Front of Albanians, have been charged by Serbian authorities with the intention to stage an armed rebellion to sever the Serbian province of Kosovo from Serbia and set up an independent state or annex it to Albania. The defendants are accused of buying foreign-made arms and ammunition and smuggling them into Kosovo. Other charges include unlawful entry into a local textile plant and the manufacture of military uniforms marked with Albanian military insignia. Belgrade Radio reports that one defendant has confessed that he discussed "the defense of Kosovo" with Albanian officers during a visit to Albania. He also admitted smuggling a significant amount of weapons from Switzerland. Before the trial began, the court denied the defense attorneys' request to turn the case over to an international organization. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) TALKS ON THE DIVISION OF CZECHOSLOVAK ARMY. The State Defense Council, the body supervising Czechoslovakia's defense policies, met in Prague on 28 September to discuss the division of the Czechoslovak army. Speaking to reporters after the meeting, Federal Prime Minister and Defense Council Chairman Jan Strasky said that the council asked the chairmen of the republican defense councils to work out details of the army's split. Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak was asked to prepare draft agreements on cooperation between the two new armies after the split. Andrejcak told CSTK that the federal command of the army will cease to exist on the day of Czechoslovakia's split. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar walked out of the council's meeting in protest against what he saw as unacceptable demands by the Czech side that each republic keep those installations and assets now situated on its territory. Speaking on Slovak television, Ivan Gasparovic, chairman of the Slovak parliament, argued that Slovakia could lose as much as 80 billion koruny if the territorial principle were applied to the division of the army's assets. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) BULGARIAN ECONOMIC NEWS. European Community Finance Ministers, meeting in Brussels on 28 September, discussed awarding additional funds to Bulgaria and Romania. Last week talks between Bulgaria and the EC moved Bulgaria closer to associate status and trade terms have been agreed upon, according an RFE/RL correspondent. Further talks will be held on 15 and 16 October. The Sofia government hopes for an agreement by year's end while EC leaders are more reserved, awaiting results of the forthcoming discussions. Also on 28 September Bulgaria, together with Australia, Greece, and Luxembourg, signed an agreement to prohibit money laundering by organized crime. The pact, already signed by 20 other countries but ratified only by Great Britain so far, will make police detection of illegal money flowing into subscribing countries easier. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) PROCEEDINGS STARTED IN 1956 HUNGARIAN KILLINGS. Hungarian TV reported on 27 September that the Christian Democratic People's Party (CDPP) has initiated proceedings against those who ordered soldiers to fire into a crowd at Mosonmagyarovar during the 1956 Revolution. Some 100 died and 200 were injured. A 25-page brief has been filed at the Gyor-Sopron County chief prosecutor's office by two lawyers for the CDPP, against the former officials, who not only have not been punished but currently receive substantial state pensions. The chief prosecutor turned the case over to the military court in Gyor. This is the first attempt by a political party to press legal charges for a crime under the communist regime but that has not yet been prosecuted. A law allowing prosecution of such crimes was ruled unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court earlier this year. The CDPP argues that 1956 offenses constitute war crimes and as such do not fall under the statute of limitation. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) MEDIA WAR AT HUNGARIAN TV CONTINUES. According to Hungarian media reports on 28 September, the president of Hungarian TV, Elemer Hankiss, has fired Palfy G. Istvan, the progovernment chief editor of two influential news programs. The decision is expected to increase the tensions between the government and Hankiss, who was dismissed earlier this year by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall. President Arpad Goncz has repeatedly refused to sign Hankiss's dismissal. Hankiss claims that Palfy's programs were not objective and failed to live up to "European standards." Only one progovernment chief editor remains at the state-owned TV. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) LITHUANIAN PRIME MINISTER IN WARSAW. Aleksandras Abisala met with President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka during a one-day visit to Warsaw on 28 September. It was Abisala's first foreign visit as prime minister. Agreements were signed on investment protection, the fight against organized crime, and border controls. Although both sides presented the visit as a step forward, the tensions that have slowed work on a bilateral treaty were also very much in evidence. Polish officials pressed for more equitable treatment of the Polish minority in Lithuania. Abisala insisted that Lithuania's policy meets European standards. For his part, he criticized the position of Poland's Lithuanian minority and pressed for a reckoning with the past, especially the Polish occupation of Vilnius in 1920. Lithuania's defense minister, Audrius Butkevicius, begins a three-day visit to Poland on 29 September. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) LANDSBERGIS AT UNGA. On 28 September Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis addressed the UN General Assembly. The speech, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, focused on the need for the Russian military to leave the Baltic States. Landsbergis noted that Russian conservatives were dividing foreign countries into "inner" and "outer" spheres, with Russia marking out its "special interests" in the former--states that could be taken over much as was done in 1939. Landsbergis held talks with UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that day and on 29 September will meet former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd before returning to Lithuania in the evening. He cancelled a planned trip to Chicago on 30 September. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) GROMOV ON TROOP PULLOUT FROM THE BALTICS. Russia's Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov told Krasnaya zvezda of 25 September the pullout of Russian troops by 1 September 1993 from Lithuania is "by no means synonymous with a readiness to flee." He noted that specific accords on the withdrawal remain to be ratified. (On 23 September Gromov told Interfax that Russian troops in Estonia and Latvia are to be pulled out in 1994, though the final date must still be negotiated.) He pointed out that Russia intends to keep the presence of its Baltic Fleet in the region. Gromov said that there are still about 35,000 Russian officers and enlisted men in Lithuania, over 15,000 in Latvia, and about 24,000 in Estonia. These figures differ from those recently given by other Russian officials. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) TROOPS CLASH OVER BUILDING IN KAUNAS. On 28 September, as a group of unarmed Lithuanian soldiers began to take inventory of a building in Kaunas that had been used by the Russian army, ten armed Russian soldiers burst into the building, threw the Lithuanian soldiers out, and barricaded themselves on the second floor. The Russians later left the building, Radio Lithuania reports, but three unarmed officers remained on the second floor. The first floor is controlled by Lithuanian troops. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) RIGA AVIATION SCHOOL MAY LOSE ITS FOREIGN STUDENTS. BNS reports that as of 1 October the Riga Aviation University may lose nearly 500 of its foreign students because the Latvian government will not take over the costs of their stipends--$2-3,000 per student annually--from Moscow, which sent them for study in Latvia. What is more, Russia has not paid off its debt of 36 million rubles for the education of its students over the last academic year nor made any payments for the first semester of this year. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) IS RUSSIA PREPARING ESTONIA SANCTIONS? The Russian government plans to adopt a political resolution regarding relations with Estonia in the next few days, BNS reports on 28 September, quoting Interfax. The resolution may well direct the government to introduce "political and economic sanctions" against Estonia for its alleged discriminatory treatment of ethnic Russians, especially with regard to Estonia's parliamentary elections last week. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) CONGRESS OF ESTONIA HOLDS FINAL SESSION. The Congress of Estonia movement held its tenth and final session on 28 September, local media report. The meeting adopted a resolution stating that Estonia has restored the constitutional state structure according to the will of the republic's citizens--this had been the goal of the alternative parliament ever since it was established in March 1990. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) POLAND'S COL. KUKLINSKI: HERO OR TRAITOR? The Washington Post of 27 September carried a lengthy report on Col. Ryszard Kuklinski, the highly-placed Polish officer who spied for the US for 11 years and revealed the plans for martial law to the CIA before escaping from Poland in 1981. According to sources quoted in the report, Kuklinski, who now lives in the US under a false identity, provided the CIA with 35,000 pages of documents that one specialist said "virtually defined our knowledge" of Soviet military plans and equipment. The account has evoked discussion in Poland because of Kuklinski's foiled attempts to have his 1984 death sentence for treason (later reduced to 25 years imprisonment) overturned. Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz called the case a "moral dilemma" because of the implications Kuklinski's exoneration could have for the Polish army. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.)
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 188, 30 September 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR TENSE SITUATION IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajikistan's deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev told an RFE/RL correspondent on 29 September that he had not been beaten up and hospitalized, as had been reported by the Nega news agency the previous day. The same day, Moscow and Dushanbe news agencies reported that pro-Nabiev forces from Kulyab Oblast were still in control of the town of Kurgan-Tyube, an opposition stronghold, and that the town had sustained major damage in the fighting. The government in Dushanbe has devised a plan to disarm the population by buying their illegal weapons, but local authorities will have to put up the money. An article in the 30 September issue of Nezavisimaya gazeta draws attention to the rising crime rate in Tajikistan and reports that leaders of the opposing sides in the civil war say they have no control over some 20% of their forces. The same source says that anti-Nabiev forces in Kurgan-Tyube are being led by radical members of the Islamic Renaissance Party. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) STATUS OF BESIEGED RUSSIAN TROOPS IN TAJIKISTAN UNCLEAR. Russian news agencies reported on 29 September that the Russian military unit that was besieged near Kurgan-Tyube by fighters from Kulyab has still not been able to drive off the Tajik fighters trying to capture Russian arms and equipment. Meanwhile, Western news agencies reported on 29 September a statement by the Russian Defense Ministry that a "limited military contingent" of Russian reinforcements had arrived in Tajikistan to protect Russian troops already deployed there, their families, and military facilities. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) FOREIGN HELP FOR TAJIKISTAN? In a speech to the UN General Assembly on 29 September, Tajik Foreign Minister Khudoberdi Kholiknazarov played down the scope of the fighting in his country, saying that it is presently limited to the center of Kurgan-Tyube Oblast, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. He appealed for international help in ensuring that democracy prevails. The same day Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati told Tajik Minister of Culture Zakirdzhan Vazirov, on a visit to Tehran, that Iran is ready to help in working out a peaceful settlement of the civil war in Tajikistan, Western news agencies reported, quoting the official IRNA news agency. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHANIBOV'S ESCAPE AND SITUATION IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA. Musa Shanibov, president of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, was not released from custody, as earlier reported, but escaped, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 30 September. Shanibov, who had been detained for his part in the confederation's despatch of volunteers to Abkhazia, returned in triumph to Nalchik, where he told a meeting of 30,000, reinforced by delegations from North Ossetia, Checheno-Ingushetia, and Karachaevo-Cherkesia, that he would continue the struggle for the independence of the North Caucasus. The meeting called for the removal of Russian troops from Kabardino-Balkaria and the punishment of local officials. The article in Nezavisimaya gazeta gives the impression that the Kabardino-Balkarian authorities are no longer in charge of the situation. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINE REQUESTS SECURITY GUARANTEES, FOREIGN AID. Speaking at the United Nations on 29 September, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatoly Zlenko said that his country expected "strict international guarantees" of its national security against any threat or use of force from nuclear-armed states. In reports of his remarks carried by Western agencies, Zlenko also urged a complete ban on nuclear weapons testing. He said that Ukraine intended to accede to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons "in the nearest future," but at a subsequent press conference he claimed Ukraine needed hundreds of millions of dollars in foreign aid to dismantle its missiles. (Doug Clarke/John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) SHAPOSHNIKOV WARNS WEST AGAINST INTERFERENCE IN CIS TALKS. At a conference in Paris on 29 September, CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov warned European countries against interfering in talks between CIS states over nuclear weapons control. According to Reuters, Shaposhnikov stated that "when parents have to make delicate decisions, the advice of third parties . . . can cause harm." Shaposhnikov argued that Russia should control all former Soviet nuclear weapons immediately, regardless of their location. Belarus and Kazakhstan have reportedly partly agreed to Russian control, while Ukraine wants to exercise administrative control over nuclear weapons on its territory. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) BRITAIN OFFERS CREDITS TO RUSSIA. UK State Secretary Michael Heseltine and Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin have signed an agreement to provide $480 million worth of British credits for modernizing Russian industrial and transport facilities, Western news agencies reported on 29 September. The agreement follows last week's reports of British reluctance to extend more loans to Russia before coming to an arrangement on existing overdue payments to British creditors. In a related story, an IMF official, Ernesto Cata, suggested in Moscow that current lax fiscal and monetary policies in Russia may endanger the approval of a $3 billion IMF credit hoped for by the end of this year. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA SETTING UP MORE CUSTOMS POSTS. Russia will soon increase the number of customs points on its borders, Interfax reported on 29 September. The sixty-four such posts, up from twenty-four in mid-June, will be functioning by 1 October along Russia's borders with the Baltic states, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Interfax cites "experts" claiming that these posts will be "enough to halt" the illegal export of oil and raw materials. Some Russian officials have reckoned the value of illegal export of oil and oil products at over $100 million in the first half of this year alone. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV TO FACE TRIAL FOR FAILURE TO TESTIFY? On 29 September, the Russian Constitutional Court devoted its entire afternoon session to a discussion of former Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's refusal to testify at the CPSU hearing (see RFE/RL Daily Report, 29 September). According to Russian TV, Chairman Valerii Zorkin viewed the publication of Gorbachev's letter as an "insult." The judges voted in favor of sending yet another summons to Gorbachev with a warning of possible "legal consequences" if he failed to appear. If necessary, the justices would then request that the Russian General Prosecutor bring criminal charges against Gorbachev. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV HOLDS A NEWS CONFERENCE. At a press conference held at the Gorbachev Foundation on 29 September, Mikhail Gorbachev reaffirmed his earlier decision to ignore the summons to testify at the CPSU hearing, Russian TV reported. Gorbachev termed the hearing "a political trial" of seventy-five years of the Soviet history. He quoted rumors to the effect that the decision to summon him and his Politburo colleagues to testify at court had been motivated by a desire to sensationalize a trial that otherwise would continue to draw little public interest. While addressing other issues, Gorbachev criticized the government's privatization program. He also said that if the right moment comes along, he might form a new political party and become its leader. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY DEFENDS SUBMARINE SALE. On 29 September the Russian Foreign Ministry defended its sale of submarines to Iran as a "purely bilateral matter," according to Western news agencies. Despite the Russian government's apparent cancellation of the sale on 25 September, one submarine is reportedly still en route to Iran. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) SWEDEN'S "PERISCOPE SYNDROME" CRITICIZED. The Russian Foreign Ministry on 29 September criticized Swedish allegations that a Russian submarine had intruded into Swedish territorial waters. Interfax and Reuters reported that the statement called Swedish Prime Minister Bildt's comments "openly unfriendly towards Russia" and dismissed Sweden's "periscope syndrome," claiming that Sweden had no firm evidence that the submarine was Russian. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIANS AND AMERICANS COOPERATE ON SPACE PROJECTS. The American firm McDonnell Douglas and the Russian Academy of Science's Mechanical Engineering Research Institute announced on 28 September that they would cooperate on a series of space technology research projects. According to a McDonnell Douglas press release, the agreement was part of a company initiative to examine and perhaps utilize Russian expertise in materials, advanced mathematics, space systems, and extended manned space flight. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) MISSILE DEFENSE TALKS TO RESUME IN OCTOBER. According to Western agencies on 29 September, US and Russian negotiators will meet again in Washington in October to continue negotiations over cooperation in the field of joint early warning and ballistic missile defense. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) HALF OF FORMER SOVIET TROOPS OUT OF GERMANY. Half of the former Soviet armed forces that were in Germany have left and the withdrawal remains on schedule for their complete departure by the end of 1994, the DPA news agency reported on 29 September. Two hundred and fifty soldiers and civilians have applied for political asylum in Germany. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) DROP IN RUSSIAN ARMS SALES. The daily Nezavisimaya gazeta on 29 September reported that Russia exported $1.55 billion worth of arms in 1991, resulting in what the paper described as a thirteen-fold drop in profits when compared with the average level of Soviet arms exports in the 1980s. The report said that 69% of the arms sold in 1991 went to the Near and Middle East. The paper quoted officials as saying that this sharp drop in profits from arms sales "was an extremely heavy blow" which, when coupled with shrinking oil exports, led to the bankruptcy of the Bank for Foreign Economic Relations. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT TO DEBATE ECONOMY. The Ukrainian parliament, which postponed its debate of the economy because of the visit of Canada's governor-general to Kiev, will discuss economic reforms on 30 September, Western news agencies reported. President Leonid Kravchuk will address the lawmakers, and it is expected that the embattled prime minister, Vitold Fokin, will also make a presentation. The opposition is determined to force the resignation of the present government headed by Fokin. Izvestiya reported on 29 September that parliamentary speaker Ivan Plyushch conceded that the government must go. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIS DEFENSE MINISTERS TO MEET BEFORE BISHKEK SUMMIT. Lieutenant General Leonid Ivashov stated on 28 September that at a meeting of Defense Ministers in Bishkek on 7 October, the question of forming a joint concept of military security will be discussed. ITAR-TASS reported that the ministers will also reexamine the functioning of the CIS joint command in light of recent developments, possibly turning it into a multinational command structure. Ivashov acknowledged that there remained differences between Ukraine and the CIS joint command, but noted that there was "positive movement" in their relations. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) STALEMATE IN RUSSIA'S TALKS WITH TATARSTAN. A session of the collegium of the Russian government on 29 September noted that Russia's talks with Tatarstan have not been crowned with success, ITAR-TASS reported. The head of the Russian government's press center, Gennadii Shipitko, said that Russia was insisting that Tatarstan was part of Russia, while Tatarstan wanted to be considered completely independent in the legal sense and to be treated by Russia according to the norms of international law. Tatarstan also wanted to decide its own military policy, Shipitko added, and was opposed to its citizens having Russian as well as Tatarstan citizenship. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN REPUBLICS SUPPORT KHASBULATOV. On 28 September a statement signed by the leaders of most of the republics of the Russian Federation, in which they expressed their support for the Russian parliament and its chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, was made public, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 29 September. The newspaper's correspondent suggests that the republics have an interest in preserving an equal balance of power between the Russian president, parliament, and government, but it also sees the republics emerging more and more as a fourth force, which could upset the other three if it is not taken into account. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVAN PRIME MINISTER ON HIS WESTERN VISITS. Back in Chisinau from visits to Bonn and Washington, D.C. Moldovan Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli told the Moldovan media on 27 September that Germany and Moldova have agreed to open embassies in each other's capitals and that a German delegation is due in Moldova shortly to negotiate an intergovernmental political and economic agreement. In Washington, Sangheli obtained the consent of the International Monetary Fund for a stand-by agreement with Moldova effective 1 January and for a credit to enable Moldova to purchase feed grain to offset crop losses caused by drought. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATS ON NEED TO BUTTRESS INDEPENDENT STATEHOOD. At a consultative meeting with President Mircea Snegur on 29 September, the leaders of Moldova's Social- Democrat Party said that the opposition Popular Front's campaign for unification with Romania risks causing a civil war in Moldova, Moldovapres and ITAR-TASS reported. The Social-Democrats agreed with Snegur on the need to "buttress Moldovan independence" and develop Moldova as "a state with the full attributes of sovereignty now and in the future." The Social-Democrats also reserved the right to criticize the Snegur administration for any policy errors. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE EXPERTS PREDICT MASSIVE DEATHS IN BOSNIA THIS WINTER. The New York Times on 30 September says that American analysts foresee at least 150,000 deaths from hunger and exposure in the embattled republic unless massive relief operations come into effect, while UN sources predict up to 400,000 deaths in a worst-case scenario. Winter usually arrives in October and is harsh in what even in peacetime was one of the former Yugoslavia's poorer regions. The BBC's "Europe Today" program said that relief flights to Sarajevo are likely to resume this week as a result of special envoys Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen having "moved heaven and earth" to persuade Washington in particular of the urgent necessity to do so. Finally, it appears that UN representatives have convinced Croatian officials to work to prevent a planned march by Croatian refugees to return to their homes in Serb-controlled areas near the Hungarian border. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) BOSNIAN SERBS REJECT MASSACRE ALLEGATIONS. Radio Serbia reports on 29 September that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has rejected US State Department allegations that Serb forces massacred 3,000 Bosnian Muslims in a detention camp near the town of Brcko. Karadzic said the US had been "duped by unsubstantiated Muslim propaganda" and challenged US President George Bush to produce the evidence. Karadzic added that if Bush can prove the massacre took place, he will help arrest the perpetrators and hand them over for trial. Serb officials in Brcko also denied the US claims and invited representatives of any international commission to visit the town as soon as possible. Serb officials added that in the Brcko area some 1,500 Serbs are being held captive by Muslims. France has officially requested the UN and EC immediately to open an investigation. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) ALBANIA BLAMES SERBS FOR YUGOSLAV CONFLICT. Addressing the UN General Assembly in New York, Albanian Prime Minister Alexander Meksi singled out "malicious Serbian nationalism" as responsible for the failure to resolve the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, RTR and Western agencies report. Albania is particularly concerned that the fighting could spill over into the Serbian province of Kosovo, which is 90% ethnic Albanian, and is similarly concerned about the fate of the large number of ethnic Albanians in the now independent ex-Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL, Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAK PARLIAMENT DEBATES SPLIT. On 29 September 1992, the Federal Assembly began debating a draft law on possible modes of division of the Czechoslovak federation. The law, based on political agreements between Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus and Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, provides for four different ways of dissolving the federation: a referendum, a Federal Assembly declaration, an agreement of republican parliaments, and a secession by one republic. CSTK reports that virtually all opposition deputies speaking on 29 September criticized the law and called for a referendum on the split. The debate was adjourned and will continue on the 30th. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES MINORITIES LAW. According to MTI, Parliament began discussion of the long awaited law on minorities on 29 September. The text was prepared in close cooperation with minority leaders, and its codification took much longer than expected. The intention of the law is to stop assimilation of minorities by assuring them collective minority rights and parliamentary representation. In the draft law under debate in Budapest, members of minority groups would also retain a number of individual rights. Collective rights did not figure in the post-World War II treaties, but Hungary has brought the idea up on a number of occasions since. Under this concept, an official representative body would be given legal status to pursue the interests of an ethic or national group. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK CONTACTS. Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall received a delegation of the ethnic Hungarian parties represented in the Slovak parliament, led by Coexistence Chairman Miklos Duray, MTI reported on 29 September. The two sides agreed on the need for good relations between Hungary and an independent Slovakia and for a mutually acceptable solution to the disagreements over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric project and the sections of the Slovak constitution concerning national minorities. The same day a delegation of the opposition Alliance of Young Democrats (FIDESZ) left Budapest for Bratislava for talks with Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko and other officials and with representatives of Slovakia's Hungarian minority. The FIDESZ delegation continues on to Prague for talks with Czech officials. (Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.) TURKEY RESTRICTS VISITORS FROM BULGARIA. Bulgarian-Turkish relations received a potential setback on 29 September when Turkey unilaterally imposed restrictions on Bulgarian citizens seeking to enter Turkey. The move is intended to reduce the number of Bulgarian Turks leaving Bulgaria in search of better job prospects. The Bulgarian Foreign Ministry indicated that no advanced warning was given and is seeking clarification. Effective immediately, Bulgarian citizens wishing to enter Turkey must demonstrate that they have at least $70 for each day of their stay, or $30 if they are part of an organized tourist group. Those visiting relatives must pledge to return to Bulgaria. Some 300-350,000 Bulgarian Turks fled to Turkey in 1989 as a result of a Bulgarian assimilation policy. While perhaps as many as half later returned, those remaining in Turkey burdening an economy beset by inflation and high unemployment. In a new wave an estimated 40,000 have entered Turkey using tourist visas and have failed to return to Bulgaria. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL, Inc.) CONSTANTINESCU TO FIGHT ON. Emil Constantinescu, the presidential candidate of the centrist Democratic Convention, vowed to continue his fight for the Romanian presidency despite his clear second-place position. Constantinescu urged all democratic forces to block Ion Iliescu's reelection in the 11 October runoff. He also warned that the parties supporting Iliescu might join into a dominant political force powerful enough to block moves toward free market reforms. Meanwhile, the vote counting is moving forward quickly, and final results are expected much earlier than originally planned. The latest partial results from 29 September (9:00 p.m.) are based on complete counts from 92% of all stations. They show Iliescu leading with 47.6%, followed by Constantinescu with 30.6% of the votes. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) ILIESCU AIDE CALLS FOR GRAND COALITION. On 29 September Adrian Nastase, Romanian foreign minister and top Iliescu aide, called for a broad-based government coalition to include reformists from the rival National Salvation Front and the Democratic Convention. Nastase, who is widely tipped as Iliescu's choice to lead the future cabinet, told journalists that the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF) wants "national reconciliation." Latest figures released by Romania's National Statistics Board show the DNSF leading in the legislative elections with 28.6% for the Senate and 27.7% for the Chamber of Deputies. Nastase was quoted as saying that "we shall be looking for a government formula that will not handicap Romania." He was reacting to opposition fears that a possible coalition of the DNSF, the revived communists, and the nationalists would polarize the country and harm Romania's image in the West. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) HOUSE VOTES ON ROMANIA'S MFN STATUS. The US House of Representatives is expected to vote on 30 September on whether to restore Romania's most-favored nation trade status, an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington says. Restoration had been postponed because members of the Congress wanted to see the results of the Romanian elections. On 29 September Assistant Secretary of State Thomas Niles said that the elections appeared to have been conducted freely and fairly. Romania's opposition fears that restoration of MFN status now might send the wrong signal, and influence both the presidential runoff and the building of a coalition government. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH ECONOMIC PLANS. The government met a legal deadline by submitting its draft economic program for 1993 to the parliament on 30 September. The program's central aim is to open a period of sustained economic growth. Priorities are promoting the private sector, defending fiscal stability, and reducing interest rates. Half of any increase in GDP is earmarked for investment spending. According to Polish TV, the final draft of the economic program rejected earlier proposals to tax interest income and accelerate the zloty's devaluation. Meeting in closed session, the cabinet also agreed to ask the parliament to increase the 1992 budget deficit ceiling from just over 65 to 80-82 trillion zloty. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski said that across-the-board spending cuts are necessary, but none of them will be drastic. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND'S COALITION PARTNERS BICKER. Any final decision on the shape of the revised 1992 budget was put off pending a "political meeting" of the government coalition parties on 30 September. The coalition partners failed on 29 September to agree on a common assessment of Jan Krzysztof Bielecki's 1991 government, the subject of an upcoming Sejm vote. This is a sensitive topic, as Bielecki and some of his ministers serve in the current cabinet. Rivalry over ministerial posts is also fraying tempers, as ideological conflicts emerge between the two main coalition partners, the liberal UD and the conservative ZChN. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski (ZChN) recently demanded the removal of a "proabortion" deputy health minister (UD), while several ZChN deputies called for the ouster of the Civil Rights Spokesman (UD) because of his legal challenges to religious education in schools. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka admitted to Radio Z on 29 September that she had also faced pressure over appointments from her own party, the UD, but that the coalition was functioning adequately. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) DUTCH PRIME MINISTER LAUDS POLISH REFORMS. Dutch Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers praised the Polish government's commitment to economic reform at the start of a two-day visit to Poland. Lubbers held talks with Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka on 29 September and is to meet with President Lech Walesa on 30 September. Lubbers pledged to encourage increased Dutch investment in Poland. According to PAP, he added that "it is better to export Dutch capital to Poland than to import Polish labor to Holland." He predicted that the Dutch parliament will ratify Poland's association agreement with the EC by year's end. The EC's internal problems will not mean "closing the community" to new members, he said, but full integration will have to wait until EC members settle differences over the pace of unification. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA WARNS BALTS AGAINST "ETHNIC CLEANSING." Russia's delegation to the UN General Assembly on 29 September warned Estonia and Latvia against pursuing a policy of "ethnic cleansing," BNS reports. Upon returning to Moscow from New York, Russian Foreign Ministry press spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky told reporters that his government is concerned about policies toward non-Balts in Estonia and Latvia that could lead those two states "to slide down the slope to the practice of ethnic cleansing." Last spring and summer, the Russian Foreign Ministry used the term "apartheid" to describe the Baltic stance toward nonlocal ethnics. The same day Russian Prime Minister Egor Gaidar told Interfax that the question of sanctions against the Baltic States is to be resolved "either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow." He added that Russian policy toward these states will be conducted in light of their success in finding solutions to their "human rights problems." (Riina Kionka & Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.) LITHUANIAN-POLISH MILITARY TALKS. On 29 September Lithuanian National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius began an official three-day visit to Poland at the invitation of his Polish counterpart Janusz Onyszkiewicz, Radio Lithuania reports. The two discussed the formation of joint work groups to deal with military problems and creating greater mutual cooperation. Butkevicius also held talks with National Security Bureau head Jerzy Milewski and placed a wreath at the monument in Gruenwald, commemorating the 1410 Lithuanian-Polish victory over the Teutonic knights. On 30 September he will visit Cracow. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) WORK OF LATVIAN GOVERNMENT TO BE REASSESSED. Diena reported on 29 September that the work of the government will probably be reassessed by the Supreme Council the week of 5 October. The legislature has asked each minister to submit for evaluation a detailed report of his performance. Minister of State Janis Dinevics said that he does not rule out the possibility that the legislators might ask for the resignation of some members of the government. The day before Diena reported that Supreme Council Deputy Janis Kinna of the Farmers Union also supports the notion of reevaluation of the government's performance, but neither his party, nor three others--the Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and the People's Party--are calling for a resignation of the government at this time. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbs carry out 'ethnic cleansing' operation in Bosnian capital Subject: Croatians trying to cross into Serb territory are held back Subject: Fischer loses game 12, rematch chess score at 5-3, 2 draws Subject: Weapons shortage spurs home-grown arms industry in Sarajevo Subject: 6 face federal charges for sending weapons to Yugoslavia ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbs carry out 'ethnic cleansing' operation in Bosnian capital Date: 30 Sep 92 19:54:44 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Serb forces evicted up to 200 non-Serbs from their houses in a resumption of ``ethnic cleansing'' operations in the Bosnian capital Wednesday, ordering them on short notice to vacate their homes and cross into Bosnian-controlled territory, U.N. and Bosnian officials said. A U.N. source said the Red Cross estimated 150 people were forced from their homes in Grbavica in the southern part of Sarajevo, while a Bosnian police source estimated 200 people were involved, making it the largest such expulsion in the 6-month-old seige of the Bosnian capital. Some of the family members, taken to a police station after crossing by foot from the northern side of the Miljacka River, said they were given 10-minute warnings to pack their belongings and leave. ``It's happened a couple of times'' previously but on a smaller scale, said Sonata Kreso of the Bosnian International Press Center, who said most of those expelled in the incident of ``urban ethnic cleansing'' were women and the elderly. Bosnian officials said they knew no reason for the incident, but they speculated it might indicate that Serbian militiamen are preparing for the start of the harsh Balkan winter. Those expelled from the area along the Serbian front lines were mostly Muslim Slavs, who made up about half of the city's pre-war population of 500,000 people, police said. The expulsions came amid sporadic shelling and sniper attacks in the Bosnian capital. At least 24 people were killed and 165 wounded in Bosnia-Hercegovina in the 24-hour period that ended at 10 a.m. Wednesday, including seven killed and 54 wounded in Sarajevo, republic health officials said. The city's hospital ran out of the diesel fuel needed for its electrical generator about 1 p.m. and doctors were forced to perform surgery for a while under the light of a bulb connected to an automobile battery. ``We were hurried by the people running the generator to finish operations because we would soon be in complete darkness,'' said Dr. Edo Jaganjac, a doctor on duty at the hospital, shortly before the fuel ran out. A spokesman for the U.N. Protection Force in Sarajevo, Adnan Razek, said UNPROFOR later supplied the hospital with 4 to 5 tons of diesel fuel. UNPROFOR's Sarajevo commander, Egyptian Brig. Gen. Hussein Abdel Razek, also met Bosnian Serb leaders for several hours Wednesday at their military headquarters in Lukavica, just south of the Bosnian capital, to continue seeking agreements allowing the restoration of electricity and water and protection for utility workers. ``It still needs a political push, but we agreed to start a meeting of experts on both sides, hopefully beginning tomorrow,'' Adnan Razek said afterward. The city's electricity supplies were cut a week-and-a-half ago, and the water supply to most of the city has been out since Sunday night. The developments in Bosnia came as President Franjo Tudjman of Croatia and President Dobrica Cosic of the new two-republic Yugoslavia opened a round of talks in Geneva with international peace mediators. Former U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance was the U.N. mediator and Britain's Lord David Owen represented the European Community. Security was tight at the site. ``All I can tell you is that the talks were constructive and were going on through lunch and the afternoon,'' said Fred Eckhard, a spokesman for the United Nations. Vance and Owen also met earlier with Radovan Karadzic, the leader of Serbian forces fighting for a separate state in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Prime Minister Milan Panic, the Belgrade-born U.S. citizen and millionaire drug manufacturer who became the leader of the new Yugoslav federation, returned home from a visit to the United States Wednesday and tried to portray his trip as an overwhelming success. Panic, speaking to a news conference, claimed he had gained support of the United States to partially lift the U.N. sanctions so Serbia and Montenegro could import oil needed for the harsh winter. He also claimed his nation was still a member of the United Nations because of his efforts during a meeting of the General Assembly. ``The most important thing we came back to tell you is that we are still a member of the United Nations,'' Panic said. Later he added that another important result was that ``the United States first showed open support for the new Yugoslav government.'' ``There is a new position of the United States toward Yugoslavia, of course positive, which was determinantly negative before,'' said Panic. Despite his claims, Panic failed to convince the United Nations to name his Serbia-Montenegro federation as the legitimate successor of the former Yugoslavia. The U.N. General Assembly refused to seat Panic's federation and ordered it to apply for membership if it wanted to belong to the world body. Officials of the U.S. administration neither supported nor rejected Panic's request to lift sanctions so oil could be shipped to Belgrade. U.S. officials said the proposal was an idea to study, reiterated their support for the U.N. sanctions and said any change in the sanctions would have to be approved by the U.N. Sanctions Committee. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Croatians trying to cross into Serb territory are held back Date: 30 Sep 92 22:47:19 GMT ZAGREB, Croatia (UPI) -- About 1,000 Croatians attempted to cross into Serbian-occupied areas in the municipality of Osikek in eastern Croatia Wednesday, but were blocked by United Nations and Croatian civil authorities. The Croatians, many of whom have been homeless since last October, had been putting pressure on the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the area for weeks to allow them to return to their homes. But because the Serbian side has not disarmed in the so-called U.N.- sector East, in compliance with U.N. brokered peace agreements, UNPROFOR said it was far from safe. ``It's heavily mined there, everything is destroyed, there is no electricity, there is no water, how can you live there?'' a Russian UNPROFOR commander said Tuesday in Osijek to the unarmed Croatians in an emotional plea for them to turn back at the border of the territory. ``Wait a little bit, we will find an agreement, we are reasonable people, we've done our part so far, please be patient,'' Branimir Glavas, president of the municipality of Osijek said to the refugees. The refugees apparently ignored an agreement reached Tuesday between the Croatian government, UNPROFOR and representatives of the U.N. High Commission for Refugees. Under the agreement the representatives of the refugees agreed to withdraw a previous ultimatum given to UNPROFOR. Beli Manastir and Osijek are two of the four Croatian municipalities in sector East, which are partly or wholly Serbian occupied. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Fischer loses game 12, rematch chess score at 5-3, 2 draws Date: 1 Oct 92 00:59:01 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Former world chess champion Bobby Fischer lost the 12th game of his controversial rematch with former Soviet grandmaster Boris Spassky Wednesday. Fischer, who was playing with black figures and used a kingside Indian defense, surrendered after 54 moves of the game that lasted almost six hours. Experts say that Fischer made a fatal mistake in his eigth move, and then lost too much time trying to improve his position. The result is now 5-3 for Fischer, with four draws. The first player to achieve 10 victories will win a $3.35 million prize, while the loser will have to be content with $1.65 milllion. The first half of the rematch began Sept. 2, at the southern Adriatic resort of Sveti Stefan in the rump Yugoslav union of Serbia and Montenegro. After Fischer's fifth victory, the set was transferred to Belgrade. On Fischer's request, the players were separated from the audience by a large glass wall. Therefore, no statements could be obtained from either player. Fischer, 49, faces a maximum of 10 years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000 for ``knowingly and willingly'' defying a U.S. Treasury Department order not to play in the truncated Yugoslav federation. The order endorsed the U.N. sanctions that ban all financial and economic transactions with the Serbia-dominated union for its involvement in the war in neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina. Fischer publicly spat on the Treasury's order at a news conference on the eve of the first game. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Weapons shortage spurs home-grown arms industry in Sarajevo Date: 1 Oct 92 02:08:07 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- In a dark, back-alley workshop thick with the cloying aroma of gun oil, Becir Skrijel remains true to the centuries-old artisan traditions of Sarajevo. But Skrijel does not produce the intricate filigree jewelry, fine woolen carpets or bright copperwork for which the Bosnian capital gained reknown throughout the Balkans. He makes bombs. The bespectacled metalsmith is part of a network of craftsmen scattered throughout the city who have turned their skills to inventing and producing homemade munitions for the outgunned defenders of Sarajevo. The weapons reportedly work well. But, they come nowhere close to compensating for the massive stockpiles of modern military hardware supplied to encircling Serbian forces by the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army and communist-ruled Serbia. Still, with Bosnia-Hercegovina included under a U.N.-ordered international ban on weapons sales to the republics of former Yugoslavia, local arms makers believe theirs is an important contribution to the war effort. Their main sources of explosives are the Serbian artillery, tank and mortar shells that fail to detonate as they bounce down Sarajevo's streets or thud into parks and buildings. ``We are happy when the aggressor sends us a shell that doesn't explode,'' said Skrijel, 58. ``There is a unit of experts that collects them and brings them here.'' But because Sarajevo's desperate circumstances mandated innovation, Skrijel has not limited his labors to the conventional. His inventions have included Coca-Cola bottle gasoline bombs that burst on impact after being launched from mortar-like contraptions powered by automobile suspension springs compressed by foot-operated levers. Skrijel also produces anti-personnel mines loaded with shrapnel the Serbs themselves blasted into the city. And, his longtime hobby of collecting World War II small arms has served him well in the repair and improvement of vintage arms that Sarajevo's defenders have been forced to utilize. ``I like weapons, but not for killing. I like the mechanisms that make them work,'' explained Skrijel, who ran a metal-forging and foreign car repair shop before the war. His statement was underscored by the assortment of rifles, machine guns and pistols lying in various stages of disassembly on a table in his cluttered workshop in Sarajevo's Muslim Slav-dominated old Turkish quarter. Some weapons date to the end of the last century. Even so, said Skrijel, all would be cannibalized for spare parts or repaired with homemade replicas and sent up to the front lines. ``Out of 20 old ones, we can make 12 to 15 new ones,'' he said, holding a German-made Mauser pistol manufactured in 1898. ``This one is going to be fixed.'' Among the scattered metal flotsam was most of a 7.9 mm Mauser machine gun, the bolt embossed with the tiny eagle clutching a swastika in its talons -- the symbol of Nazi Germany. ``This is the best machine gun ever made,'' said Skrijel. ``They are still using this design for the NATO pact.'' Also awaiting his ministrations were World War II-era Russian machine guns, British-produced Stens and Lee Enfields, and a 1935 Italian-made Beretta machine gun that required a new spring to stop it from firing when jolted. ``Time had its effects and a spring wore out. The owner was running and he fell. The gun fired by itself and the man in front received three bullets in his backside. But, he lived,'' recounted Skrijel with a grin. Bombs, however, are the main business of Skrijel, his son, and three assistants. Working at top speed, the five each day can produce about 50 of the rocket-propelled grenades that Skrijel considers the best of the homemade weapons he has designed. ``Our fighters can throw a bomb up to 30 meters. But, the problem is that the aggressor has tanks and armored cars, and with this method, you cannot do much harm,'' he explained. ``So, we came back here to think about how we could make something that could go 200 to 300 meters. What we did was weld a small rocket onto the bottom of an empty grenade before we fill it with TNT.'' The TNT is obtained from dud shells, which he and his team open by using a lathe to shave down their steel walls to paper thinness. They then tap the shells gently on a block of wood in much the same way that a cook cracks open an egg. The yellow resin-like explosive is pried out in chunks, which the workmen grind into a powder by rolling it between a pipe and a steel surface. The powder is then poured into the grenade bodies. The final step is inserting a detonator, the fuse of which remains outside the bomb. The fuse must be lit with matches or a lighter just before the device is launched from the muzzle of a rifle using a blank cartridge to ignite the rocket. Skrijel said he first learned of the weapons' effectiveness from a Serbian television broadcast. ``They were interviewing a wounded Serbian fighter who said the Bosnian army was using some secret, but very dangerous equipment,'' he recounted. ``The fighter said, 'We don't hear it, but it explodes over our heads. We don't even have time to blink. Probably they are using something forbidden and imported from the West.''' Despite his obvious enthusiasm for his work, Skrijel said he was anxious to stop producing instruments of death and return to his old trade. ``I was forced to learn this,'' he said sadly. ``Nobody believed that this could happen to us.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: 6 face federal charges for sending weapons to Yugoslavia Date: 1 Oct 92 06:04:21 GMT CHICAGO (UPI) -- The Justice Department Wednesday charged six people with conspiring to ship firearms and ammunition to the former Yugoslavia, reportedly for Serbian nationals who had been fighting the communist regime even before the current Bosnia-Hercegovina war. U.S. Attorney Fred Foreman announced indictments in the case, alleging the suspects conspired between April 1991 and October 1991 to violate the Arms Export Control Act and various federal firearms laws. The charges stemmed from the seizure of more than 300 firearms and thousands of rounds of ammunition in 1991 at O'Hare International Airport. Authorities found the weapons and ammunition hidden in an air- freight shipment being sent from O'Hare. Suspects indicted Wednesday included licensed arms-dealer Richard Tylkowski, 65, as well as his son, Timothy; Bajro and Avdo Hukic; Jovica Jovanovic and Alexander Nikolic. Foreman said authorities charged the Tylkowskis with receiving and possessing five unregistered, Mac-11 9mm fully automatic machine guns. The Justice Department also indicted the elder Tylkowski for allegedly filing false reports of firearms sales, as well as making false statements to federal agents in an attempt to conceal the alleged conspiracy. Authorities indicted the other four suspects on violation of the Arms Export Control Act, as well as on conspiracy counts.
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Noted U.S. Pediatrician Disturbed by Visit With Yugoslavian Children By PAUL RAEBURN AP Science Editor NEW YORK (AP) - A 5-year-old boy who swats at imaginary flies after having watched his older brother's mutilated body decay is a tragic example of the Balkan civil war's effect on children, a UNICEF emissary said Wednesday. Dr. T. Berry Brazelton, who recently returned from a four-day trip to the war-shattered republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina and neighboring Croatia, said the children are so deeply scarred they could erupt with a repetition of the violence and torture they've witnessed. ``No treatment will help until this terrible war has been brought to an end,'' Brazelton said in an account of the trip, sponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund. Brazelton is a pediatrician at Harvard Medical School and is widely known for his books and television programs of advice to parents. The violence and torture has no justification, so ``there's no way the children can make sense of it,'' he said in an interview. ``That calls up primitive feelings in children, feelings it's their fault, that if I were a good kid this wouldn't be happening to me.'' Brazelton was asked by UNICEF to help devise a program of emergency care for the children of the civil war in what was once Yugoslavia. With Brazelton's help, UNICEF's director James Grant said he was able to get the warring parties to agree to a ``week of tranquillity'' in November to allow blankets, clothes and food to be shipped to the children. Previous efforts at a truce have stalled, but Grant said UNICEF has arranged brief truces in places like El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Uganda and Iraq. ``It's worth a try, and both the regular leaders and the leader of the Bosnian Serbs and his principal assistants have agreed,'' Grant said. ``I talked to them all on this mission, and we'll see.'' Brazleton said that when the Serbs invaded, the 5-year-old boy's family was lined up and his older brother's hands were cut off in front of them. The brother was shot and left in the street in front of the family's home. The brother's pregnant wife was then brought before the family. ``Her belly was opened by a long cut, which allowed her fetus to fall out and hang by its cord,'' Brazelton wrote. She was hanged. Flies swarmed over her, her fetus and the boy's brother, who were left to lie in front of the family. For days the boy remained glued to the window, before the family escaped to a refugee camp, where Brazelton met them. ``Ever since they escaped,'' Brazelton wrote, ``this child has been screaming about flies at night, brushing them away all day long.'' AP-NY-10-01-92 1403EDT _____________________________________________________________________________ Red Cross Mounts Operation to Evacuate Prisoners from Bosnian Camp GENEVA (AP) - The Red Cross today mounted an operation to evacuate more than 1,500 people released from a Bosnian detention camp. A convoy of 35 buses and ambulances picked up 1,560 former prisoners outside the Serb-run camp in Trnopolje and were expected to reach the Croatian town of Karlovac later today, said a spokeswoman for the International Committee of the Red Cross. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees operates a refugee camp in Karlovac. The warring factions in Bosnia-Herzegovina agreed at a London peace conference in August to close down detention camps. Pictures of starving inmates in some of the most notorious camps shocked the world and brought back images of Nazi-style concentration camps. The Red Cross has visited about 12,000 prisoners. The agency tried to enforce the Geneva conventions, which include standards for treatment of detainees during armed conflicts. More than 10,000 people have been killed since fighting broke out in Bosnia after Muslims and Croats voted on Feb. 29 to secede from Serbia-led Yugoslavia, sparking a rebellion by Serbs. Serbs have been blamed for waging the most severe ``ethnic cleansing'' campaigns to drive out other groups from captured areas.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 189, 1 October 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR UKRAINIAN PRIME MINISTER RESIGNS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Vitold Fokin offered his resignation on 30 September, Ukrinform-TASS and Western news agencies reported. The announcement was made by President Leonid Kravchuk in his address to the parliament. Kravchuk asked Fokin to stay on until a new head of government is appointed. Fokin was quoted as saying that his decision to resign was dictated by his desire to ensure peace and consensus in the country, and added that his economic program would continue in his absence. Fokin also blamed constant attacks by the media for his decision to resign; as he told Reuters: "This has been brewing for a long time and I see no sign of it ending." Meanwhile, Vyacheslav Chornovil, the leader of the opposition Rukh movement, declared that Fokin's departure was "a victory for reform and democracy in Ukraine." (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT SEEKING WAY OUT OF CRISIS. Heated debate, broadcast live by Radio Ukraine, continued in the Ukrainian parliament on 1 October following the resignation of Prime Minister Vitold Fokin. It confirmed not only the deep economic crisis in which Ukraine finds itself, but also the crisis in government and the division of political powers. Amid calls for the creation of a government of national conciliation, numerous deputies argued that the entire Cabinet of Ministers should resign along with Fokin, leaving the new prime minister freedom to create a new government capable of accelerating reforms. Rukh's leader Vyacheslav Chornovil on 30 September called on President Kravchuk to assume control of the government until the end of the year. (Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL Inc.) SHAPOSHNIKOV CALLS FOR RUSSIAN "STATEHOOD" FOR NUCLEAR WEAPONS. In a 30 September Krasnaya zvezda article, CIS Marshal Shaposhnikov suggested that the existence of nuclear weapons on the territory of four former Soviet republics would complicate the implementation of the START treaty. He proposed giving nuclear weapons their own "statehood," which would be Russian. This move would presumably entail greater Russian operational and administrative control over the weapons. Shaposhnikov noted that Belarus and Russia are close to agreement on this point, while Kazakhstan is drawing nearer. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINE REJECTS INCREASED RUSSIAN CONTROL OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk rejected CIS Marshal Shaposhnikov's call for increased Russian control over nuclear weapons in a speech to the Ukrainian parliament on 30 September, as reported by Interfax and Western news agencies. Kravchuk stated that Ukraine "does not want to keep its fingers on the nuclear button, but it should give the world community guarantees that the nuclear weapons stationed on its territory will not be used by a third state." While reiterating Ukraine's determination to become a non-nuclear state, his remarks reaffirmed Ukraine's commitment to maintaining substantial control over the weapons and their elimination. Kravchuk also rejected the idea of Ukraine joining any CIS defense alliance. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) SHAPOSHNIKOV RENEWS CALL FOR JOINT CIS MILITARY. In an article in Krasnaya zvezda on 30 September, CIS Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov urged closer CIS military cooperation. Criticizing US attempts to create a "unipolar world," Shaposhnikov warned of a possible new North-South confrontation and called for the CIS to act as a "stabilizing counterweight" between the North and South. To strengthen the military role of the CIS, Shaposhnikov called for a joint military structure, possibly including mixed troop formations made up of units from the CIS states. He also called for the CIS states to coordinate policies on military personnel to prevent rising disparities between the national armies and subsequent unrest within the military. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) MUSLIM LEADERS REACT TO SHAPOSHNIKOV'S REMARKS. The Co-Chairman of the Caucasus Supreme Religious Council, Sheikh Muhammad Karachai, said on 30 September that many Russian leaders were infected with an anti-Islamic virus, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Moscow. Karachai was reacting to a statement by CIS commander Evgeniy Shaposhnikov to Krasnaya zvezda, in which Shaposhnikov said a system of collective security for the CIS could counter growing Islamic influence. Karachai, who was attending an international Islamic conference in Moscow, said Russian leaders would have to face the reality that Muslims seek ways of unification. However, Salman Musaev, a Muslim official from the Caucasus, and the Kazakh mufti Aslanbek Abdurakhman Ali, who were also attending the conference, rejected the idea of a political union between the Central Asian states and other Islamic nations. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN REINFORCEMENTS ARRIVE IN TAJIKISTAN. Reinforcements for the Russian troops stationed in Tajikistan have arrived in Dushanbe and taken control of the city's airport; Tajik fighters who had been besieging Russian troops in the southern part of the country have ended their blockade, Western and Moscow agencies reported on 30 September. A Tajik security official said that roads into Dushanbe have been put under strict control to prevent arms being brought into the city. Acting President Akbar Iskandarov appealed to both CIS leaders and the UN to help stop the fighting, because Tajikistan's government cannot do so. The 30 September issue of Megapolis-Ekspress speculates that the commander of the CIS troops in Tajikistan, Major-General Mukhriddin Ashurov, might be named to the vacant post of Minister of Defense. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) MORE REFUGEES IN DUSHANBE. Refugees from the fighting in southern Tajikistan are flooding into Dushanbe, Western and Moscow agencies reported on 30 September, and hundreds of refugees from Kurgan-Tyube, the opposition stronghold, are picketing the Russian ambassador's residence demanding an end to Russian interference in Tajikistan. They are presumably reacting to rumors that the Russian forces have given weaponry and equipment to supporters of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev. Russian military sources insist that pro-Nabiev fighters from Kulyab Oblast forcibly seized equipment from the Russian troops to use in their battles in Kurgan-Tyube. According to the 30 September issue of Megapolis-Ekspress, law enforcement officials of the ministry of internal affairs and National Security Committee who are supposed to stay neutral in the interregional fighting are getting involved on the side of their region of origin. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) KULYAB PEACE DEMANDS. The 30 September issue of Megapolis-Ekspress lists demands made of the government in Dushanbe by pro-Nabiev forces in Kulyab Oblast that would have to be met before the Kulyab fighters would agree to lay down their arms. One of these demands, the appointment of Communist economist Abdumalik Abdullodzhanov as prime minister, has already been met. Other demands include the removal of prominent opposition figures from the government: Deputy Prime Minister Davlat Usmon of the Islamic Renaissance Party, Tajik Radio and TV Chairman Mirbobo Mirrakhimov of Rastokhez, and deputy National Security Committee Chairman Davlat Aminov. The Kulyab forces would also like to see Akbar Turadzhonzoda removed from his post as the highest-ranking Muslim clergyman in Tajikistan. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) VOUCHER PRIVATIZATION BEGINS TODAY AMID UNCERTAINTY. The Russian government will launch its mass privatization program today by beginning to issue vouchers to each Russian citizen. The distribution process is scheduled to last three months. The vouchers represent claims on state assets which will be auctioned off beginning some time next year. Western news agencies on 30 September catalogued the problems confronting the program. The major obstacles include: delays in printing and delivering the vouchers; delays in state enterprises transforming themselves into public share companies; outstanding questions about which state assets the vouchers can be traded for; and confusion among the Russian people over how the voucher program works. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) CONTROVERSY OVER VALUE OF RUSSIAN VOUCHERS. Issued with a face value of 10,000 rubles, the real value of the vouchers to its holder has been a focus of heated political debate. The real value of any given voucher will be decided by the "market" in which a holder chooses to trade. The holder may participate directly in auctions for state assets, in which case the value will depend on the bidding process for the assets. Holders may trade their vouchers for shares in an investment fund, in which case the value to holders depends on the quality of investment decisions the fund makes. Finally, if holders sell their vouchers for cash, the value will depend on supply and demand on this "secondary" market. In the uncertain economic conditions in Russia, it is very hard to predict the outcome of any of these choices. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL Inc.) SHEINIS DEFENDS ABKHAZIA STATEMENTS. Russian parliamentarian Viktor Sheinis told a press conference on 30 September that the documents adopted by the parliament the previous week (on 25 September) were fully in accord with international norms. According to international law, Sheinis said, "the protection of human rights is not an internal affair and Russia, like any other state, can raise the question of human rights, wherever they are violated." On the question of arms controlled by forces in Russia's Transcaucasian Military District, Sheinis said that under no circumstances should Russia transfer these weapons to Georgian authorities, ITAR-TASS reported. (Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL Inc.) CRIMEAN SEPARATISTS "REORGANIZE." The Republican Movement of the Crimea (RDK), which has spearheaded the drive for Crimean independence, has reconstituted itself as the Russian Movement of the Crimea (RDK), Radio Ukraine reported on 29 September. The name change was announced in a statement saying that the old RDK had been rendered "illegal" by the recent changes to the Crimean Constitution, that is, by the Crimean parliament's compliance with Kiev's demand that the peninsula bring its constitution and laws in line with the Ukrainian Constitution. The new RDK maintained that the Crimea's future lies in its union with the CIS, even if the latter is restricted to Russia. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) CONSTITUTIONAL COURT STILL DEMANDS TESTIMONY OF GORBACHEV, FALIN. In response to summons from the Russian Constitutional Court, Valentin Falin, the former chief of the International Department of the CPSU Central Committee, who is now receiving medical treatment in Germany, listed seven conditions which the court would have to meet before he would agree to testify, "Novosti" reported on 30 September. These included full reimbursement for round-trip airfare and other expenses related to his trip to Moscow. Moreover, according to Western agencies on 30 September, Falin said that he would testify only if former CPSU Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev did the same. ITAR-TASS reported on 30 September that the court was willing to pay for Falin's airfare, but that it rejected Falin's linking his testimony to that of Gorbachev. Also on 30 September, Reuters reported a statement by the court chairman, Valery Zorin, that he might have to order "executive authorities" to ensure Gorbachev's appearance. On October 1, the court will receive testimony from former USSR Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov, who has criticized Gorbachev for the latter's refusal to testify. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.) SITUATION IN KABARDINO-BALKARIA NORMALIZING. ITAR-TASS reported on the morning of 30 September that the situation in Kabardino-Balkaria was normalizing. The agency said that the Executive Committee of the Congress of the Kabardinian people had disassociated itself from the movement's fighters who were demonstrating, and that labor collectives were supporting the president and government. Roadblocks had been removed from all roads and the airport. However, supporters of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus and the fighters were preparing to hold a new meeting demanding the resignation of the president of the republic. Krasnaya zvezda of 30 September expressed concern that those meeting included more and more volunteers returning from Abkhazia. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc.) GAIDAR VISITS AZERBAIJAN, ARMENIA. A Russian government delegation headed by Prime Minister Egor Gaidar travelled to Baku on 30 September. Gaidar met with Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey and signed a number of bilateral economic agreements, ITAR-TASS reported. In a letter addressed to Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Elchibey expressed the hope that the visit marked the beginning of a new chapter in Azerbaijani-Russian relations. Gaidar then travelled to Erevan for talks with President Levon Ter-Petrossyan and Prime Minister Khosrow Arutyunyan. According to Interfax, Armenian officials requested that Russia create an air defence system on Armenian territory. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN BORDER TROOPS TO LEAVE GEORGIA BY MAY 1994. The head of Georgia's Central Border Protection Administration, Colonel Otar Gumberidze, told Interfax that an agreement has been reached whereby Russian border troops will be withdrawn from Georgia beginning in 1993; the withdrawal will be completed by 7 May 1994. Gumberidze conceded that at present Georgia is "physically unable" to protect its border with Turkey and has proposed that Russia and Georgia jointly finance protection of that section of the frontier for the time being. (A similar arrangement has been concluded between Russia and Azerbaijan over protection of the frontier between Iran and Azerbaijan). (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) MORE FIGHTING IN WESTERN GEORGIA. Clashes are continuing in western Georgia between Georgian National Guard contingents and supporters of ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Georgian forces retook the town of Khobi last week and on 30 September repulsed an attempt by Gamsakhurdia's supporters to occupy the police station in Senaki; four of the attackers were killed in an ensuing gunfight, according to ITAR-TASS. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COSIC, TUDJMAN SIGN ACCORD. Radios Croatia and Serbia report on 30 September that Croatia's President Franjo Tudjman and Dobrica Cosic, president of the rump Yugoslavia, signed a joint 8-point declaration in Geneva. The agreement calls for the withdrawal of the federal Yugoslav army from Croatian Prevlaka Peninsula, strategically located on the Croatian-Montenegrin border. The federal forces are to leave by 20 October, thus removing the threat of renewed attacks on Dubrovnik and formally achieving the withdrawal of the federal army from Croatia. Prevlaka would be demilitarized and placed under UN supervision. The leaders also renewed pledges to use their influence to end fighting in Bosnia, condemned "ethnic cleansing," reiterated existing commitments that borders can not be changed by force, and agreed to consider the normalization of relations between the Republic of Croatia and Yugoslavia (Serbia-Montenegro). (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) SERB REACTIONS. On 29 September, before the accord was signed, Col. Miodrag Miladinovic, the federal commander at Prevlaka, reportedly warned that his troops would defend the peninsula, which protects the key naval base in the Bay of Kotor, with force "if the politicians lose it." Upon hearing of the signing of the Tudjman-Cosic accord, Bozidar Vucurevic, the Serb leader from eastern Herzegovina, was said to have called it "harmful to Herzegovina's Serbs," because Croatian forces are now in a better position to penetrate Serb-controlled areas. Ultranationalist Serb leaders like Vojislav Seselj have allegedly described plans to withdraw the federal forces from Prevlaka as "shameful and treasonous." Radio Serbia carried the reports. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) ETHNIC CLEANSING COMES TO SARAJEVO. The BBC on 1 October quoted Muslim refugees as saying that armed Serbs had systematically forced them to flee their homes in two Sarajevo suburbs the previous day. They were given as little as 15 minutes to prepare, and one woman told the BBC that she was raped before she could reach Muslim lines. The Serbs have been trying to split Sarajevo into two for some time. In Washington, the Senate voted to approve up to $50 million in military aid to the Bosnian government, whose forces are greatly outgunned by the Serbs, but the measure is unlikely to be approved by the House or the White House, the Los Angeles Times says on 1 October. Meanwhile in Geneva, international mediators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen announced on 30 September that leaders of the two sides have agreed to start talks on demilitarizing the Bosnian capital under the good offices of UNPROFOR. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) CZECHOSLOVAKS HOLD FINAL DEBATE ON SPLIT. The Czechoslovak parliament held its final debate on 30 September on a draft law on the division of Czechoslovakia, with most opposition deputies rejecting the law and calling for a referendum on the issue. The parliament is to vote on the law on 1 October. Commenting on the prospective split of the country, former Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel told CSTK that a referendum on whether Czechoslovakia should split does not make sense any longer. He said he could not imagine a referendum in Slovakia which would decide anything. Havel, however, suggested that a referendum could be held to ratify the split. In the evening of 30 September, Havel met for dinner with Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus. Speaking to reporters afterwards, Klaus rejected the idea of a ratification referendum. He said that "the referendum issue is a game the opposition parties are playing" and that it is useless to "waste energy on referendum arguments." (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) SLOVAK PRIME MINISTER ON ARMY, FOREIGN RELATIONS. Vladimir Meciar told the Slovak Press Agency on 30 September that Slovakia will establish its own ministry of defense. Meciar also said that, with the exception of Hungary, Slovakia's relations with other countries are good. He argued that the relations with Hungary could improve but that, like Slovakia, Hungary must take steps in that direction. The Slovak premier further said that he was unhappy about a letter which he received on 30 September from Hungarian Prime Minister Antall in which, in Meciar's words, "Antall accused Slovakia of violating Hungary's borders and threatening Hungary's sovereignty." Meciar also defended the performance of his government during the first 100 days in office against sharp criticism from opposition parties. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM POSTPONES CONVENTION. According to MTI, the ruling party will hold its fourth national meeting at the end of January and not at the end of November as planned. The presidium of the party denied that the meeting was postponed for political reasons--i.e., because of the controversy surrounding the pamphlet written by one of the forum's vice presidents, Istvan Csurka. Rather, they say, more time is needed to concentrate on parliamentary work. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) RECOUNT IS CALLED IN ROMANIAN VOTE. Romania's electoral bureau said on 30 September that some 3.6 million votes had to be declared void because people failed to understand the complicated ballot papers. Rompres quoted a Romanian official as saying that 13.6% of votes cast for the Chamber of Deputies were annulled, along with 12.9% for the Senate, and 4.8% for the presidency. In a communiqui broadcast by Radio Bucharest on 30 September, Romania's Central Electoral Bureau called for a recount within 24 hours. The Democratic Convention, an alliance of the main opposition forces, pointing to the unusually high number of invalid ballots, expressed serious doubts about the accuracy of counting procedures. The counting will now probably take several more days. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ILIESCU CALLS FOR COALITION. On 30 September President Ion Iliescu called for a government of national unity to cope with Romania's "grave problems." Speaking at a press conference, Iliescu expressed hopes that his Democratic National Salvation Front and the centrist Democratic Convention could find "a platform of minimal understanding." He suggested that a wide-based coalition might include all political groups in the new parliament. Another alternative mentioned by Iliescu was that of a cabinet of technocrats accepted by all parties in parliament. Iliescu also described fears of a slowdown in economic reforms after his party's victory as unfounded, but added that reforms should be made "tolerable." (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) HOUSE REJECTS MFN TRADE STATUS FOR ROMANIA. The US House of Representatives rejected on 30 September by a 283 to 88 vote the restoration of most-favored-nation trade status to Romania. There was no debate before the vote, which had been delayed because some members of the Congress wanted to see the results of the elections. Romania is currently the only East European country which does not enjoy the MFN status, which grants low tariffs to exports to the United States. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ANOTHER SETBACK FOR POLISH MASS PRIVATIZATION. The Sejm voted on 30 September to postpone any decision on whether to send the government's mass privatization program to committee, pending an official reckoning of the costs of the program. Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski said the program would be self-financing, thanks to World Bank and EC assistance and fees paid by participants. But objections as to costs missed the point, he added, as mass privatization aims to improve the performance of 600 selected firms and rapidly broaden private ownership. Indeed, finances do not seem to have been the real concern of the program's opponents; their zeal for healthy state budgets is sporadic. Although the Sejm may still approve further work on the plan, the vote for postponement--172 to 147 (20 abstentions)--showed the parliamentary weakness of the government coalition and the potential strength of the state industry lobby. Mass privatization has been in the planning stage in Poland for two years. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) SEJM DEBATES DEFENSE INDUSTRIES. Sejm deputies also urged the government to save Poland's defense industries, which lost virtually their entire market with the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz reported on 30 September that 3 trillion of Poland's 26.5 trillion zloty defense budget is earmarked for equipment purchases in 1992. Domestic purchases will amount to 2 trillion zloty. The defense budget has been cut by nearly 60% since 1986, Onyszkiewicz noted, severely limiting state support for defense industries. Industry Minister Waclaw Niewiarowski said that planned restructuring would reduce military production to 19% of the 1988 level and eliminate 27,000 jobs. Of the 80 existing defense plants, only 28 would remain. Many deputies urged the government to expand international arms sales and exact payment for deliveries made to the former Soviet Union. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) HUNGARIAN BUDGET SENT TO PARLIAMENT. On 30 September, Finance Minister Mihaly Kupa presented next year's budget to the parliament. A deficit of 180-185 billion forint is anticipated. Kupa said two items are expected to spark debate: the introduction of a double-level value-added tax system and a change in the distribution of tax revenues between national and the local governments. Until now, this income was divided equally, but now local governments are to receive only 30% . Kupa said the new tax law is also ready to be sent to parliament. (Judith Pataki, RFE/RL Inc.) BANKING REFORM IN BULGARIA. On 30 September, as part of the government's economic reconstruction program, 22 of Bulgaria's commercial banks were merged. The resulting corporation, the United Bulgarian Bank (UBB), will commence operations in January 1993. UBB assets are estimated at 18 billion leva ($788 million) according to Western sources. The move is the first step in the direction of privatizing Bulgarian banking, a process expected to take up to three years. The next banking merger is expected to be between Bulgaria's two largest financial institutions, the Economic Bank and Mineral Bank, which between them are expected to control over one third of the country's banking business. (Duncan Perry, RFE/RL Inc.) BULGARIA MAY FACE ENERGY CRISIS. The consequences of an incident at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant last week, when short circuits caused a brief fire, could lead to severe power rationing Bulgarian officials warned on 30 September. Plant spokesman Yordan Yordanov first told Western agencies that a single 440-megawatt reactor would be operating during the next two months, though he later said experts are investigating a temporary solution that would allow a 1000-megawatt unit to be connected to the power grid within two weeks. In the meantime the Bulgarian National Electric Company has signed contracts for emergency electricity supplies from Ukraine and Moldova. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.) LITHUANIA, RUSSIA SIGN MUTUAL ACCOUNTING AGREEMENT. On 30 September in Moscow Lithuanian Deputy Prime Minister Bronislavas Lubys and his Russian counterpart Aleksandr Shokhin signed an agreement on settling accounts between the two states after 1 October, when Lithuania leaves the ruble zone and introduces its temporary coupons, Radio Lithuania reports. A similar agreement was also signed for the time when Lithuania introduces its currency, the litas. A further protocol provides for the settling within a month of all bills for goods and services made prior to 1 October 1992. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) ESTONIA'S FIRST BANKRUPTCY. A regional court in Estonia declared a merchandising company bankrupt on 30 September, marking the first bankruptcy in Estonia in the postwar period. The case against Norten, Ltd. is the first in what is expected to be a series of suits the government will bring in compliance with new bankruptcy regulations, which took force on 1 September. As of that day, Estonian companies owed the state some 235 million kroon, BNS reports. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) MAYOROV PROTESTS TREATMENT OF MILITARY. Diena reported on 28 September about letter of protest addressed to the Latvian government by Col. Gen. Leonid Mayorov, commander of the Northwestern Group of Forces, demanding a halt to what he terms as provocative behavior of Latvian authorities against the Russian military. Mayorov also threatened that the army would use all means at its disposal to protect its own interests. The letter was prompted by Latvian efforts to monitor the movements of Russian military around several buildings in Riga and Jurmala that have been turned over to the Latvian authorities--but not yet vacated--by the military. One incident specifically mentioned in a report by Latvijas Jaunatne on 25 September involved attempts of the Latvian Home Guard to verify the documents of Mayorov's second in command, R-Adm. Shestakov. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIA STEPS UP VERBAL ATTACKS ON BALTS. On 30 September Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi urged Belgium to help defend the rights of Russians in the Baltic States. According to Interfax, Rutskoi made the statement to visiting Belgian Foreign Minister Willy Claes, who responded that Russia should remove its troops from the Baltic States. Rutskoi, in turn, said Russia wants to remove the troops, but has no place to house them. Meanwhile, Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis was quoted by Interfax as saying that Moscow is carrying out a new "Cold War" against the Baltic States. Landsbergis told reporters in Vilnius that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev is leading a campaign against the Balts in talks in various international forums. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.)
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RFE/RL Daily Report No 190, 2 October 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES OF THE USSR UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT VOTES OUT CABINET. The Ukrainian parliament on 1 October overwhelmingly approved a motion of no confidence in the cabinet of ministers, Western agencies reported. The decision followed Prime Minister Vitold Fokin's request to step down as head of government the day before. Ukrainian lawmakers gave President Leonid Kravchuk ten days to appoint a new prime minister, who then will work together with the President to form a new cabinet. The fall of Fokin and his cabinet was the result of constant charges by the opposition that the government was failing to implement economic reforms in the country. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) KRAVCHUK VS CENTRALIZED CIS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk told parliament on 30 September that Ukraine will never allow itself to be subordinated to any kind of centralized CIS structures, Ukrinform-TASS reported. Kravchuk said that these kinds of ideas are currently being propagated, and that they are oblique references to recent proposals for tighter CIS integration made by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev. At the same time, Kravchuk emphasized that as in the past, the closest possible ties will be maintained with Russia. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc.) ADMIRAL KASATONOV REASSIGNED FROM BLACK SEA FLEET. Interfax on 1 October reported that the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Igor Kasatonov, has been reassigned to the position of first deputy commander of the Russian Navy. The report indicated that a Russian-Ukrainian group of officers would assume command of the fleet in accord with a Russian-Ukrainian agreement to place the fleet under joint command until the end of 1995. The removal of Kasatonov had long been demanded by the Ukrainian government, which recently accused him of illegally selling off fleet assets to private concerns. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY AFFIRMS KURIL WITHDRAWAL PLANS. Japan's Kyodo news service reported on 30 September that the Russian government has reaffirmed its commitment to withdraw all Russian troops from the disputed Kuril islands. In a written reply to a query from Kyodo, the Russian Defense Ministry stated that the withdrawal, announced by President Yeltsin in May, will start after "politicians' decisions." No timetable was given for the withdrawal, although earlier Russian-Japanese talks had specified a one to two year time period. The Russian Defense Ministry has in the past opposed any such withdrawal. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN SUBMARINE SALE TO IRAN STILL ON? A Russian submarine is still sailing to Iran, the Washington Post reported on 2 October, despite Russian indications that the submarine sale was cancelled. The Post article indicated that the submarine was nearing the English Channel en route to the Persian Gulf. In response to the Russian sale, the US Senate on 1 October attached an amendment to a foreign aid bill that would cut assistance to Russia if it sells arms to Iran, Western news agencies reported. While the final bill must still be coordinated with the House of Representatives, the amendment was a sign of the seriousness with which the arms sale was being viewed. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) CONTINUED STRIFE IN TAJIKISTAN. Fighting continued in southern Tajikistan on 1 October, ITAR-TASS reported, and the Russian division stationed there was taking additional measures to protect its equipment, some of which supporters of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev have already stolen or otherwise acquired. Troops of the Tajik Ministry of Internal Affairs and prison administrators issued an ultimatum to the government and party leaders that they will release the inmates of correctional institutions if attacks on them are not stopped; armed groups have been raiding prisons in order to obtain arms from the guards. Meanwhile, Russian border guards reported more battles with persons seeking to cross the Tajik-Afghan border illegally. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc.) ABKHAZ FORCES LAUNCH NEW OFFENSIVE, TAKE STRATEGIC TOWN. A spokeswoman for the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet told an RL/RFE correspondent in Moscow on 1 October that the withdrawal from Abkhazia of volunteers from the North Caucasus had been suspended because Georgian troops were attempting to advance on Gudauta, where the Abkhaz leadership is currently based. Abkhaz and North Caucasian troops subsequently launched an attack on the coastal town of Kolkhida, ten kilometers south of Gagra, using tanks and rocket launchers, and took the town, inflicting heavy casualties on Georgian troops; they then advanced towards Gagra. The Georgian State Council convened an emergency session to discuss the situation. Whether State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze attended the session is unclear; all scheduled sessions had been cancelled on 29 September because Shevardnadze was sick, according to ITAR-TASS. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL Inc.) RUBLE PLUNGES ON CURRENCY EXCHANGE. The ruble lost nearly 22% of its value against the dollar in narrow trading on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange on 1 October, Interfax reported. The dollar rose from 254 rubles to 309 rubles. The fall in the value of the ruble was generally attributed to fears of very high inflation (an annual rate of over 2,000% is expected in 1992) or hyperinflation. Acting Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko blamed the pending increase on the price of energy-carriers. Government adviser Aleksei Ulyukayev promised that the government would take unspecified joint measures with the Russian Central Bank to stabilize the exchange rate of the ruble, ITAR-TASS reported. And writing in Trud, Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko called on the West to expedite the $6 billion stabilization fund to "correct" the ruble exchange rate. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIAN RUBLE TO BE INTRODUCED? The Acting Chairman of the Russian Central Bank, Viktor Gerashchenko, told Interfax on 1 October that while his bank favored the retention of the ruble zone, Russia may have to introduce its own monetary and currency unit if other CIS governments insist on pursuing different economic policies and fail to agree upon and to coordinate policies. He called for clear government agreements on the size of credit emission in the ruble zone and on regulating credits provided to importers of Russian goods. Many observers believe that the ruble zone exists only on paper and that "Russian rubles" are already distinct from "Moldovan rubles" or "Kazakh rubles." (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) OTHER CURRENCY DEVELOPMENTS. Belarus replaced the ruble on 1 October with a special coupon system in areas near the Lithuanian and Ukrainian borders, ITAR-TASS reported. A Belarusian National Bank official explained that the move was made because the introduction of non-ruble currencies in Lithuania and Ukraine could prompt an unwanted influx of rubles into Belarus. Lithuania replaced the ruble on 1 October with temporary coupons that will be used until the new Lithuanian currency, the litas, is introduced, Reuters reported. And Moldovan Economics Minister Sergiu Certan was quoted by Interfax on 1 October as saying that it would be a mistake to introduce a national currency now when Moldova is in an economic crisis. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) GORBACHEV ATTACKS YELTSIN. Former CPSU Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev told journalists that he is thinking about creating his own political party as part of a political comeback, but he added that the time for this was not yet right, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 30 September. He called President Boris Yeltsin "a loss," arguing that terrible mistakes had been committed in foreign and economic policies. He said Yeltsin's privatization plan was a "deception." He also criticized Yeltsin for not responding to Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev's proposal for tighter integration of CIS member states. Gorbachev recommended that President Yeltsin and other Russian leaders welcome Gorbachev advisors like Aleksandr Yakovlev into the inner circle of government decision-makers. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) FILATOV SUPPORTS YELTSIN. First deputy parliamentary speaker Sergei Filatov has joined forces with the democrats and called for an expansion of President Boris Yeltsin's executive powers. In an interview with Stolitsa (no. 38) he warned that parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov is violating the constitution and seeking to create an administrative-command system in parliament, thereby restricting the rights of the deputies. He argued that the president should be given the right to dissolve at least part of the legislature, since parliament has the right to impeach the president. He noted that at the moment, the balance of power in Russia is distorted to the disadvantage of the executive branch. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL Inc.) RYZHKOV TESTIFIES AT THE CPSU TRIAL. Speaking at the CPSU hearing in the Constitutional Court on 1 October, former USSR Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov denied receiving instructions from the Communist Party leadership, Russian TV reported. Since the abrogation of the provision in the Soviet Constitution on the leading role of the Communist Party, Ryzhkov said that he answered only to the USSR President and his Presidential Council. However, Ryzhkov said that Gorbachev, who had combined the post of the CPSU General Secretary with that of the President, had often mixed up these two roles. Ryzhkov denied that the CPSU was the sole cause of the country's crisis. He said that immediately following the election of Boris Yeltsin to be Speaker of the Russian parliament in 1990, the CPSU in fact ceased to be the governing party, since its largest component, the Russian communists, became an opposition movement and could not act in the party's traditional manner. Ryzhkov also denied any wrongdoings by his government during the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc.) TWO CHERNOBYL REACTORS TO BE RESTARTED? The director of the Chernobyl nuclear energy station told Reuters on 1 October that two of the station's four reactors will be restarted soon. The No. 3 reactor will be restarted in October and the No. 1 in November to meet increased demands for electric power in winter. Official pronouncements on whether the Chernobyl reactors will be recommissioned have been inconsistent and contradictory. The current intention appears to be that all power generation at the Chernobyl station shall be halted at the end of 1993 (see The Guardian, of 10 September). (Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc.) KGB EXTERNAL SURVEILLANCE CODE MADE PUBLIC. The voice of the right nationalist opposition, Den, (Numbers 37-39) has published the complete instructions of secret surveillance methods employed by the former KGB. The document describes the techniques and equipment used by the KGB in overt and covert monitoring of its victims and opponents. The weekly obtained the instructions from former KGB officers, which left the agency because of "chaos and uncertainty prevailing in the present state security organs." Giving its own reason for the publication, Den wrote that the instructions can be used in support of the so-called "patriotic resistance" and underground activities in case pro-Western forces attempt to impose a direct dictatorship". (Victor Yasmann, RFE/RL Inc.) SENATE RATIFIES START TREATY. On 1 October the US Senate ratified the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) which calls for Russian strategic to be reduced to approximately 6000 nuclear warheads, Western news agencies reported. The agreement must still be ratified by Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Kazakhstan has ratified the Lisbon protocol, which commits the former Soviet republics to observe the treaty. A second US-Russian agreement to reduce Russian warhead levels to approximately 3,000 by the year 2003 has not yet been formalized as a treaty. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) UKRAINE PLANS TO RATIFY START TREATY. In Washington on 1 October, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatoly Zlenko said he hoped that Ukraine would ratify the START treaty but noted that there were many opponents of ratification. Zlenko also met with U.S. Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney to seek US assistance in dismantling ex-Soviet nuclear weapons in Ukraine, according to RFE/RL correspondents' reports. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL Inc.) MILLENNIUM OF CHRISTIANITY IN BELARUS. The Belarusian Orthodox church,the largest in the republic,is concluding celebrations of its thousand year anniversary in Belarus, Radio Minsk reported on 29 September. In addition to special church services, an international conference in the Academy of Sciences was held, as well as a festive gathering in Minsk attended by state leaders. Speaking to journalists, Belarusian Metropolitan Filaret rejected accusations that the church is an instrument of Russian imperialism, arguing that priests are now encouraged to use the Belarusian language in sermons. However, the Belarusian eparchy is still a part of the Moscow Patriarchate.(Alexander Lukashuk, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIAN, MOLDOVAN PRESIDENTS ON MOLDOVAN STATEHOOD. Challenged by an interviewer to speak out for the unification of Romania and Moldova, Romanian President Ion Iliescu told ECO Magazin (see the September-October 1992 issue , RFE/RL Inc.) that pro-unification propaganda in Romania "has backfired in Moldova, and not just among the Russian-speakers but among the Romanian Moldovans themselves. During the last two years one has witnessed there a movement away from unification...The [Moldovan] people's reservations on the issue of unification have grown." Moldovan President Mircea Snegur in turn told visiting Hungarian journalists on 30 September, as cited by Moldovapres, that "Moldova's independence is the choice of its people and no one has the right to conduct a policy opposing that choice...The existence of a Moldovan independent state is in the interest of all its neighbors, including Romania. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CZECHOSLOVAK PARLIAMENT REJECTS LAW ON MODES OF SPLIT . . . On 1 October the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly failed to pass a law on the modes of dividing the country. CSTK reports that in each chamber of the parliament the measure fell just short of the required three-fifths majority. The law would have allowed the federation to be dissolved without a referendum, which would represent only one four possible courses; the others would be a Federal Assembly declaration, an agreement by the republican parliaments, or unilateral declaration by one of the republics. Currently, secession by one republic based on the results of referendum held in that republic is the only "constitutional" way of dissolving the country. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) . . AND ADOPTS RESOLUTION ON UNION. The Federal Assembly approved a resolution calling for legislation to create a "Czech-Slovak Union," which would replace the current federation. The resolution proposes a union consisting of a president, legislature, and governing council. The resolution was approved when deputies representing Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia banded together with opposition parties in voting for the resolution. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus opposes the idea of the union. CSTK reports him as saying that the union "is not in the interest of the citizens of the Czech Republic, and we will not create it by any means." Klaus also sharply criticized the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia for supporting the resolution. (Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc.) ETHNIC CLEANSING CONTINUES APACE IN BOSNIA. The 2 October New York Times reports at length on the ethnic cleansing of some Muslim neighborhoods in central Sarajevo by Serb militants under the paramilitary leader known as Arkan. Their actions are in violation of pledges made by Serbian leaders at the London Conference in late August to halt the practice. The Washington Post adds that detention camps continue to operate despite similar promises by the Serbs to close them, although 1,500 Muslims were taken by 35 buses from the Trnopolje camp to Croatia on 1 October, the first such evacuation of inmates. Some of these refugees told reporters about massacres at the camp, including one of 125 Muslim men between 14 and 40 from the village of Hambarina near Prijedor in northwest Bosnia. Trnopolje has since been turned into "a kind of gruesome sanitized tourist attraction" for foreign visitors, but experts know of at least 21 other camps and suspect that many more exist unknown to the outside world. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) SITUATION TENSE IN EASTERN CROATIA. A Russian colonel serving with UNPROFOR in Sector East near Osijek, Croatia, persuaded some 1,000 refugees not to continue a march to reclaim their homes in what is now Serb-held territory. Croatian politicians and the media have widely accused UNPROFOR, which they expected to return Serb-held areas to Croatian control, of helping to consolidate the Serbs' hold there instead. Osijek's outspoken mayor Branimir Glavas told Reuters that "patience is at an end." Meanwhile, international media said on 30 September that UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali warned in a report that ghting could resume in Sector East, given the determination of the Croats and the presence of lawless armed bands of Serb militias, estimated at 16,000 men. One UN official called the situation "profoundly insecure." (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc.) PANIC RETURNS TO BELGRADE AFTER US VISIT. Milan Panic, Prime Minister of the rump Yugoslavia, told reporters in Belgrade on 30 September that his trip to the US was "incredibly successful." He said the US was supportive of his peace efforts and that his request for oil imports for humanitarian purposes would be met on time, i.e. before the winter. Panic described the Tudjman-Cosic talks in Geneva, as positive and expressed hope that their agreement will ease the way to a final peace agreement with Croatia. Regarding Kosovo, Panic said Pristina University must be opened to the Albanians and that a solution must be found to reinstate "the several hundred professors" who were dismissed by Serbian authorities. Panic also reiterated his call for democratic elections and a free press. He proposed the "division" of Serbian TV, with its first channel presenting the views of the federal government and the second channel those of the Serbian government. Over the past three years, Serbian opposition parties have waged an intense struggle against the Socialist domination of TV editorial policies. Radio Serbia reported Panic's remarks. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIA'S OPPOSITION CHARGES ELECTORAL FRAUD. The Democratic Convention , an alliance of 18 centrist parties and organizations, stated on 1 October that it had "irrefutable proof" of manipulation of election results in at least one county--Dolj. The DC said it would ask prosecutors to annul the election and order a new vote there. Rompres quoted other instances of possible fraud from the Prahova and Dimbovita counties, where electoral officers had reportedly campaigned in the polling stations and spoiled ballots vanished before they could be verified. Meanwhile, the DC launched a drive to win the rural vote for Emil Constantinescu, its candidate in the 11 October presidential runoff. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) ROMANIA REACTS TO MFN VOTE. President Ion Iliescu expressed bitterness over the vote in the US House of Representatives against restoration of most-favored-nation trade status for Romania. Radio Bucharest quoted him as saying that the decision "protracts the discrimination to which Romania is unfairly subjected." Iliescu accused Hungarian-born US Congressman Tom Lantos of having "misinformed" the House on the situation in Romania. In a separate statement, the Foreign Ministry said that the House vote demonstrates both "a lack of understanding" for the changes in Romania and the "virulence of the anti-Romanian lobby in the US." (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc.) PRESSURE INCREASING ON BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT. Osman Oktay, Secretary of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF, RFE/RL Inc.), said in an interview with RFE/RL on 1 October that his party is considering lodging a vote of no confidence against the UDF minority government next week. According to Oktay, the UDF should initiate a "joint analysis" of the present political situation with the MRF or risk standing alone in parliament. He also warned that the MRF has lost confidence in Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov. Meanwhile, President Zhelyu Zhelev told RFE/RL that the UDF cabinet under Dimitrov has gradually been isolating itself in Bulgarian politics. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.) OECD RECOMMENDS DEBT REDUCTION FOR BULGARIA. In a report released in Paris on 2 October, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development suggests that Bulgaria be offered a "substantial cut" in both its principal foreign debt and interest burden, Western agencies report. Without debt reduction, the report argues, Bulgaria can neither expect a significant inflow of foreign capital, nor will it be able to consolidate its economic achievements and speed up structural reforms. After a vote passed by the National Assembly last Friday, Bulgaria will be paying some 25% of the interest due for the last six months of 1992. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc.) HUNGARIAN PROSECUTOR REFUSES TO INVESTIGATE 1956 KILLINGS. The head of the Military Prosecutor's Office in Gyor, Gyula Varadi, says that the killings did not constitute war crimes and after 15 years, in 1971, fell under the statute of limitations. Members of the Christian Democratic People's Party initiated proceedings against those who ordered soldiers to fire into a crowd at Mosonmagyarovar during the 1956 revolution. Some 100 died and 200 were injured. A CDPP representative says that he will appeal the decision. Defense Minister Lajos Fur commented that the killings should be considered war crimes and called it "unacceptable to close a case involving mass murder even if it took place 36 years ago," MTI reported on 1 October. (Edith Oltay, RFE/RL Inc.) WALESA VISITS FSM PLANT. Polish President Lech Walesa visited the headquarters of the plant in Bielsko-Biala on 1 October. Walesa said he is fulfilling an election campaign pledge to help solve economic problems. He urged workers to take responsibility for their own fate. Citing unofficial sources, Polish TV reported that the president made Fiat's initiation of its formal takeover of the plant a condition of his visit. The final agreement between Poland and Fiat is now prepared, the TV report said, and will be signed in a few days, to take effect on 1 October. PAP reports that the plant's enormous debts were the sticking point in talks with Fiat, and that the state treasury has stepped in to guarantee nearly 2.5 trillion zloty ($180 million, RFE/RL Inc.) in debts. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) SEJM GRUDGINGLY APPROVES BIELECKI'S PERFORMANCE. By a margin of 181 to 167 (25 abstentions, RFE/RL Inc.), the Polish Sejm voted on 2 October to accept the performance of Prime Minister Jan Krzysztof Bielecki's government, which left office nearly a year ago. The vote had no legal implications, but offered an occasion for a test of strength between the opposition and the current government. Bielecki and two of his ministers now sit on the cabinet. The Sejm budget commission had recommended a disapproval vote, charging that Bielecki had caused a "collapse of public finances." Bielecki argued that no one could accuse him of shirking decisions and that a budget deficit of under 4% of GDP was hardly a catastrophe. The Center Alliance, which has been balancing between government and opposition, supported Bielecki, a move that may signal readiness to join the ruling coalition. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc.) ABISALA ON POLISH-LITHUANIAN RELATIONS. At a press conference on 1 October Lithuanian Prime Minister Aleksandras Abisala said that results of his recent trip to Poland were better than he expected, BNS reports. The talks were "correct, open, and friendly," and for the first time the problems of Lithuanians in Poland were discussed at a high level raising hopes that more attention will be paid to them. Polish Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski will visit Lithuania on 2 October. He noted that the ministries of justice should speed up the preparation of an agreement on legal assistance and that a planned visit by Polish businessmen should improve economic and trade cooperation. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.) COUNCIL OF EUROPE CRITICIZES ESTONIA. Members of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly have criticized Estonia for not having allowed noncitizens to vote in the national elections. According to Estonian delegation member and former deputy speaker of the Estonian Supreme Council Marju Lauristin, quoted by BNS on 1 October, even the conservatives "attacked us very sharply. The psychological attack against Estonia has proved fruitful." The Council of Europe delegation that monitored last week's election has not yet filed its official report. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) RUSSIA DENIES ANTI-BALT CAMPAIGN. Foreign Ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky told BNS on 1 October that reports of an aggressive anti-Baltic Russian diplomatic campaign in the spirit of the Cold War are unfounded. "Such a campaign is just out of the question," Yastrzhembsky said, adding that the Baltic response to Russia's concern over the plight of Russians living in the Baltic "reminds me of the former Soviet Union's reaction to criticism for its violations of human rights." Earlier this week, Yastrzhembsky said that the way Estonia and Latvia are currently treating non-Balts could lead to a policy of "ethnic cleansing" along Serbian lines. (Riina Kionka, RFE/RL Inc.) LATVIAN REPLY TO MAYOROV. In response to the protest note of Col. Gen. Leonid Mayorov, commander of the Northwestern Group of Forces, concerning Latvia's efforts to monitor the movements of Russian military personnel in Riga and Jurmala, the Foreign Ministry expressed regret about the inconvenience caused to R-Adm. Shestakov when he was briefly detained and asked to show his documents. The ministry pointed out that the guardsmen were acting on valid instructions and said that monitoring would continue. The incident occurred during the latest round of Latvian-Russian talks on troop withdrawal in which Shestakov participated, local media reported on 30 September. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) NATO NAVAL DELEGATION IN LATVIA. On 1 October eight ships from five NATO member states arrived in Riga for a five-day visit. During their stay, members of the NATO delegation are to get acquainted with Latvia's defense and security situation, including the problems resulting from the continued presence of Russian naval forces. The arrival coincided with a conference on Latvia's defense policies, plans, training facilities, and future plans for foreign diplomats and specialists held by Latvia's Ministry of Defense. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc.) FUTURE OF "NORTHERN TOWN" IN VILNIUS. The city government is engaged in discussions on the future of Vilnius's so-called Northern Town, 60 hectares of land now housing the 107th Motorized Rifle Division of the Russian army, BNS reported on 1 October. According to the 8 September agreement on troop withdrawal, the Russian troops should depart from the territory by 30 November. All fences, barracks, garages, and other worthless structures will be demolished and replaced by a modern social and commercial center with offices, conference halls, hotels, and restaurants. Since Lithuanian firms will be unable to build everything on such a huge territory, foreign investment is being sought. Depending on the pace of foreign investment, the project should begin in 1993. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc.)
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===================================================================== F E R A L T R I B U N E _____________________________________________________________________ U broj! U broj! 392 El Splitt, 19. ruJNA 1992. _____________________________________________________________________ U Grudama potpisan povijesni dokument: HRVATSKA PRIMLJENA U BOSNU I HERCEGOVINU GRUDE, 23. IX (Od naseg posebnog sagolja) - Pobjedonosni mars hrvatske diplomacije svjetskom poyornicom i njena puna afirmacija na medjuna- rodnom planu nastavljeni su danas u Grudama, gdje je dr. Franjo Tudjman medjusobno potpisao dokument kojim je Republika Hrvatska - nakon uclanjenja u sve vaznije svjetske organizacije, od Ujedinjenih naroda do "atomskog lobija" -- primljena i u sastav Bosne i Hercegovine. Ovom povijesnom trenutku bio je nazocan i sam predsjednik Republike Hrvatske koji je potpisavsi dokument, srdacno pruzio sebi lijevu ruku -- kako je rekao - "od srca", nakon cega je, po strogom protokolu prijema u ovu medjunarodnu organizaciju, predsjednik HZ Herceg-Bosne Mate Boban uklonio perut sa Predsjednikova sakoa i glasno zajecao od srece. Doktor Franjo Tudjman je potom obavio smotru Bruna StoJica, a specijalni vod Hrvatskog vijeca obrane i drustvene samozastite u obliznjem je kaficu "Kod Dzeme" ispalio sesnaest pocasnih plotuna iz raznog pjesackog naoruzanja. Upitan za znacenje prijema Hrvatske u sastav BiH, dr. Tudjman je novinaru "Tomislava" odgovorio da prijem Hrvatske u BiH znaci da je ona primljena u sastav Bosne i Hercegovine i da on govori hrvatski a ne kineski dok je na pitanje novinara Hrvatskog radija, postaje Split, odgovorio da "hvala Bogu, dobro, samo malo aritmija srca, ali to nije nista novo", dodavsi na potpitanje istog novinara da "u redu, puna je obaveza, ali ona to bolje podnosi". Ovim cinom, zavrsio je dr. Tudjman, Republika Hrvatska postaje punopravna clanica Bosne i Hercegovine sa svojim pravima i nuznostima. Formalno verificiranje ove odluke ocekuje se na prvom sljedecem zasjedAnju Hrvatskog vijeca sigurnosti, kada ce se raspravljati i o prijedlogu nekih zemalja clanica o izbacivanju Bosne iz sastava Bosne i Hercegovine.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Another draw for Fischer and Spassky Subject: Eagleburger: Yugoslav no-fly- zone decision imminent Subject: Serbian economy suffers effects of war, U.N. sanctions Subject: Serbian forces hammer Bosnian towns with artillery, mortar fire Subject: UN hopes to resume aid flights Saturday Subject: Bosnia-Hercegovina prisoners freed in Croatia ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Another draw for Fischer and Spassky Date: 1 Oct 92 21:42:42 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- The 13th game of the controversial Fischer and Spassky Yugoslav re-match ended in a draw Thursday after more than five hours of play. Former world chess champion Bobby Fischer, playing with white pieces, offered to draw after 45 moves. His longtime rival, former Soviet grandmaster Boris Spassky, accepted almost immediately. The game was Sicilian defense. Fischer is still leading by 5-3, and needs another five wins to get the $3.35 million prize. This was the fifth draw, and the 13th game of the match that started on Sept. 2, in Przno, near the plush Montenegrin resort of Sveti Stefan in the southern Adriatic. After the 11th game, the set was moved to Sava Congress Center in the Serbian capital of Belgrade. Fischer, who withdrew from public competition after he won the world championship title from Spassky in Rejkyevik in 1972 lost the first Belgrade game Wednsday. His comeback was marred by a possible $250,000 fine and a maximum of 10 years in jail for ``knowingly and willingly'' defying the U.S. Treasury Department's order not to play in the rump Yugoslav union of Serbia and Montenegro. The order endorsed U.N. sanctions against the truncated federation because of Serbia's role in the war in neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina. But Fischer publicly spat on the U.S. Treasury document at the news conference on the eve of the match. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Eagleburger: Yugoslav no-fly- zone decision imminent Date: 1 Oct 92 23:08:28 GMT WASHINGTON (UPI) -- Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger said Thursday the administration must decide within days whether to support a ban on Serbian military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina. Eagleburger told reporters a sense of urgency results from the circulation among the U.N. Security Council of a draft ``no-fly'' resolution. U.S. officials say the draft resolution calls on nations participating in the possible ban to ``interdict'' any Serbian military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina, which Belgrade is seeking to annex and ``cleanse'' of all Muslims and Croats. Eagleburger said there are different views in the government on the subject because ``it implies certain military commitments.'' ``We have to be very careful about...where they may lead,'' he said. ``We will clearly have to make up our minds in the course of the next few days.'' Eagleburger and top members of the national security team met with President Bush to review the issue. Others meeting with the president were James Baker, the former secretary of State and now White House chief of staff;, CIA Director Robert Gates; Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney; national security adviser Brent Scowcroft; and Gen. Colin Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. ``We have nothing to announce,'' spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said. The United States and its allies agreed in principle at a conference on the crisis in Yugoslavia last month to establish a no-fly zone, but there have been no firm results. The administration several months ago offered its air and naval assets to ensure the delivery of humanitarian aid to Sarajevo. But Gen. Colin Powell,chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other administration officials have expressed reservations about sending U.S. troops into an open-ended military conflict with no set objective. Humanitarian flights have been suspended since a shoulder-fired, surface-to-air missile downed an Italian cargo plane last month. Investigators have been unable to detemine which of the many warring factions fired the missile. It is believed that jet fighter patrols would discourage military action -- from the ground or from the air -- against relief flights. The risk to U.S. fliers, however, has never been underestimated, a Pentagon official said Thursday. ``I don't believe we've ever felt since the operation started in July that the safety of these missions could be guaranteed,'' Pentagon spokesman Pete Williams said. He said the United States is now ready to resume flights, and that planes would be equipped with ``defensive measures'' to guard against attack. Eagleburger said Belgrade has given general assurances that the flights could proceed unhindered. He said, however, that Belgrade's ``assurances are not necessarily always to be relied upon.'' There is a critical need to stockpile supplies as another brutal Yugoslav winter approaches. The CIA estimated this week that 150,000 people in the former Yugoslavia could die this winter unless urgent action is taken. As a result of winter's onset, and despite the risk, Eagleburger said ``we've simply got to provide humanitarian assistance or we're going to have a lot of people starving to death.'' The Serbians as well, who are beginning to feel the pinch of sweeping U.N. sanctions, fear that winter will exact a heavy toll. Prime Minister Milan Panic asked Eagleburger and congressional leaders this week to ease the embargo to allow for the purchase of heating oil. Eagleburger said he promised Panic he would consider the request. The secretary of state said the administration would support Belgrade'srequest to the U.N. sanctions committee if children, schools and hospitals suffer the effect of heating-oil shortages, if Serbia has no domestic production capacity, and if it is not diverted for other uses. Then, he said, ``we ought to let it come in.'' Serbian Foreign Minister Ilija Djukic said Thursday in New York that he had ``submitted a formal request to the sanctions panel for the importation of heating oil.'' Based in part on Eagleburger's assurances, Djukic expressed confidence that the exemption would be granted. ``Nobody will let something terrible to happen in the winter to innocent people,'' he said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian economy suffers effects of war, U.N. sanctions Date: 2 Oct 92 02:08:10 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- What used to be a prosperous, booming Yugoslavia, has turned into a gloomy Serbia with soup kitchens, hospitals lacking supplies to treat patients and lengthy lines of motorists waiting for gasoline, unavailable for days at a time. Yugoslavia's economy slipped deep into crisis two years ago when the communist leadership of Serbia, the dominant state of the six-republic federation, prevented economic reforms that should have led the now defunct multi-ethnic country to a free-market economy. With harsh economic sanctions imposed earlier this year by the United Nations on Serbia for its involvement in the ongoing war in the former Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina, citizens of Serbia are feeling the pain of economic and political isolation. Serbia's economic woes are best measured by the 5-mile-long gasoline lines, the reopening of soup kitchens for the first time since World War II and the hopeless situation in local hospitals, which are on the verge of turning out patients for the lack essential medical supplies. The U.N. sanctions, imposed May 30, bar all trade, financial transactions and oil imports. ``I've been trying to buy gas for the past two weeks,'' said Srdja Adamovic, a 28-year-old taxi driver. ``Even though I have managed to buy gas coupons on the black market, there is no gas at the pumps to buy. ``The only way to get gas these days is to buy it directly on the black market at five German marks a liter and even then one risks buying some type of mixture which may damage the engine.'' For the most part, citizens of Belgrade are resigned to parking their cars and using public transportation. But the lack of gasoline has caused a 40 percent cut in bus schedules, leaving people stranded and frequently late for work. Although sanctions imposed on the truncated Yugoslavia are not supposed to affect the import of medical supplies, the overall situation has contributed to a major crisis in public health care. ``The situation is really terrible in the hospitals,'' said Jasminka Maksimovic, a nurse at Bezanijska Kosa Hospital in Belgrade. ``If not in critical condition, patients who have an appointment for an operation have to provide all essential medical supplies needed, including anaesthesia, infusion, surgical stitching thread, dressing material, etc.,'' Maksimovic said. ``The total cost of simple appendix operation stands about 5,000 dinars (dlrs 110) while an average paycheck of a nurse is only 28,000 dinars (dlrs 75),'' she said. Because of hyperinflation, which now runs about 3 percent a day, hospitals have been financially unable to provide a balanced diet for their patients. ``We have not been able to provide meat for our patients for the past three months,'' said Maksimovic, adding that patients mostly are served vegetable soup, potatoes and milk. Soup kitchens have been reopened in Belgrade but can feed only 650 people a day while up to 10,000 are in need of warm meals. With insufficient funds from the government, the Red Cross of Serbia says that it is taking donations from private organizations. Red Cross officials estimated there were more than 500,000 refugees in Serbia, of which only 150,000 are registered. ``About 95 percent of the refugees have found shelter with friends and family,'' said Belgrade Mayor Slobodanka Gruden, president of the Red Cross of Serbia. ``But because of the increasingly difficult economic situation in the nation and the inability of families to withstand the financial burden, we expect the registration of 'new' refugees to jump drastically,'' said Gruden. Despite the efforts of international and domestic humanitarian organizations to distribute aid and provide housing for refugees in Serbia, it is apparent that many will be left without adequate help this winter. A recent housing agreement between the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and the Serbian and Yugoslav Red Cross organizations will provide shelter for only 8,000 refugees in the coming months. The UNHCR has provided $5.19 million from various donor countries as part of a first-phase housing project for refugees in Serbia. ``To be very honest, this is a drop in the ocean of needs as we have in Serbia half a million refugees,'' said Belgrade based UNHCR representative Judith Cumin. Meanwhile, Serbia's factories are idle and its industry is rapidly disintegrating, with 70 percent of the workers either on ``forced leave'' or jobless. ``Only a half million people will hold jobs toward the end of the year,'' said trade union leader, Danilo Popovic, adding that three and one-half million people will be jobless. But the end of Bosnia-Hercegovina's bloody ethnic war is nowhere in sight as leaders of all three ethnic groups are unwilling to compromise, perpetuating the wrath of the international community and its stranglehold on Serbia's desperate economy. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian forces hammer Bosnian towns with artillery, mortar fire Date: 2 Oct 92 12:49:51 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Artillery battered this besieged Bosnian capital Friday as its war-weary residents anxiously awaited resumption of humanitarian aid flights and restoration of water and electricity. U.S. officials said the U.N.-organized flights, suspended a month ago after an Italian transport plane was shot down, could resume as early as this weekend. Acting U.S. Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger said the main players in the conflict had given guarantees of safety for such flights. A U.N. official said two U.S. planes and one British plane were ready in Zagreb, awaiting orders to depart. Members of the U.N. Protection Force in Sarajevo agreed to accompany utility workers to water and electricity plants into Serb-controlled areas west of the capital to help restore supplies that have been cut for several days. But the Bosnian head of the city's water supply said he knew of no mechanical failure at the pumping plant in nearby Serbian-controlled Bacevo, and U.N. officials questioned the Serbian commitment to restoring utilities. Bosnian Vice President Ejub Ganic again urged the world community in general and the United States in particular to make a commitment to end Serbian military aggression. Ganic said he was encouraged by possible U.S. action on resuming the aid flights and talk in Congress of providing Bosnian military aid, but said he remained pessimistic about U.S. policy. Temperatures dipped Friday morning to 40 degrees in Sarajevo, where aid supplies were arriving by truck at about one-fifth the minimum level necessary, as estimated by U.N. officials. Residents with no oil were chopping down trees in parks and along roadsides to cook food and to store for winter fuel. ``It looks like we are facing the biggest disaster ever,'' Ganic said. ``America will be a great nation if they can stop this.'' The artillery attacks from Serbian forces in the hills overlooking Sarajevo continued Friday. Tank shells, mortar rounds and grenades were fired on the city from Vogosca, a suburb behind the hills north of the capital, and from Borija, a neighborhood on a hill to the east of the city. Radio reports said Serbian forces attempted an infantry attack across the bridge at Vrbanja, crossing the Miljacka River running through central Sarajevo, but were pushed back by Bosnian defenders. Ground fighting also was reported morning in Bosnian-controlled Stup on the western fringe of Sarajevo. Sarajevo's two main hospitals reported Friday that at least five people were killed and 105 injured during attacks on the city thursday. Maglaj, a city about 75 miles north of Sarajevo, on Thursday suffered its worst day of the conflict, with artillery fired repeatedly into civilian and industrial areas, the radio said. Jajce, in central Bosnia-Hercegovina, and Gradacac, in the northeastern part of the republic, also faced aerial and artillery bombardments, Sarajevo radio said. Fighting also was reported in the northern bosnian city of Bosanski Brod. A total of 1,360 prisoners from a serbian-run camp in Trnopolje in northwest bosnia-hercegovina were sent Thursday in a convoy of 35 buses to karlovac in croatia, sarajevo radio reported. The United States announced Thursday it would resume the airlift and the other 18 participating countries have previously stated they would follow suit if the U.S. began. Serbian forces are fighting to carve a separate homeland out of territory in the predominantly Muslim Slav republic of Bosnia- Hercegovina. Some moderate Serbs and Croats have joined the Muslim Slavs in trying to retain the territorial integrity of the newly independent republic. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: UN hopes to resume aid flights Saturday Date: 2 Oct 92 16:33:08 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- The United Nations hopes to resume its relief airlift to Sarajevo Saturday provided the various warring factions in Bosnia- Hercegovina give assurances they will not shoot at the planes, a U.N. spokesperson said Friday. Sylvana Foa, spokeswoman for the U.N. High Commission for Refugees said provided there are no hitches and that assurances of cooperation from Serbs, Muslims and Croats on the ground have been received, the airlift could start again Saturday. The U.S. has already said it is prepared to provide planes, she said. ``We have said we are going to start this weekend with U.S. planes, but we had to give the various factions 24 hours notice and we're doing that today,'' Foa said Friday. Initially only U.S. planes will be used, as other countries initially involved in the airlift are still fitting their planes with devices designed to deflect anti-aircraft fire or rockets and may not be ready to start flying this weekend, Foa said. The airlift has been on hold since Sept. 3 when an Italian plane flying for the U.N. was shot down by unidentified rocket fire. The 19 nations have since demanded the U.N. provide them with guarantees that the warring factions on the ground will not repeat the incident. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees said millions of persons face starvation in Bosnia-Hercegovina this winter unless the food situation is drastically improved. Friday Foa and Michele Mercier, spokeswoman for the International Committee of the Red Cross said not only food aid is needed, but aid for refugees liberated from prison camps in Serbian-held areas of Bosnia- Hercegovina. The ICRC brought out 1,651 detainees from some of these camps Thursday Mercier said ``and some of them were in pitiful condition.'' Negotiations are continuing with representatives of the Serbian faction in Bosnia-Hercegovina to obtain access to other camps in the area, she said. Asked whether the ICRC has full access to all camps in the area or is just being allowed to visit a sampling of them, Mercier said: ``An honest answer to the question is no, we don't have full access. We are not confident we are getting full information (on prisoners), we have never had assurances that we are being allowed full access, nor notifications of lists of people being held or even where the camps are. In a word, we are not confident that we have the right access.'' Foa said UNHCR operatives on the ground report the refugee situation in the Bajna-Luka region is worsening rapidly. ``We have people coming up to U.N. vehicles and pounding on the doors and pleading with us to get them out,'' she said. ``For the 200,000 non- Serbs there it's a situation of sheer terror.'' Latest ICRC figures show a total of 1,976,914 persons registered as being displaced persons inside former Yugoslavia, of whom 681,000 are in Bosnia-Hercegovina itself. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnia-Hercegovina prisoners freed in Croatia Date: 2 Oct 92 16:40:06 GMT KARLOVAC, Croatia (UPI) -- Some 1,560 prisoners from a Serb-run detention camp in northern Bosnia-Hercegovina experienced their first day of liberty in months Friday after being freed Thursday night. The prisoners, the largest single group yet to be released, arrived in a convoy of 35 buses late Thursday night in Karlovac, about 25 miles southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb. The convoy had made a 12-hour overland journey from a camp in Trnopolje, northern Bosnia-Hercegovina, where the prisoners had been held. Looking relatively healthy, many carrying small plastic bags of clothing and other belongings, the mostly Muslim Slav detainees were not allowed to speak with reporters but were quickly shuffled into a former Austrian army barracks for registration. ``We are very very happy that these people who have been living under very bad conditions are now out and alive,'' said Lars Nielsen, field coordinator for the U.N. High Commission for Refugees, which organized the evacuation jointly with the International Committee of the Red Cross. The release came two weeks after 68 prisoners were flown to Britain in what was planned to be the start of the release of all prisoners in detention camps in the embattled former Yugoslav republic. The prisoners' release was agreed under the terms of the London peace talks on Yugoslavia. Under the agreement, all camps were to be closed ``without delay'' and humanitarian aid organizations such as the Red cross and the UNHCR were to be given ``free and immediate'' access to the camps. But representatives of the Bosnia-Hercegovina government claimed those released Thursday were groomed for their release. Trnopolje is one of the only camps where journalists have been allowed free access for the last two months. ``Journalists were allowed to visit because it is a much better better situation there, the prisoners were actually prepared for visits, '' said Borogovar Musadik, coordinator of department for the research and discovery of war crimes for the Bosnian government. ``You see the prisoners are eating and sleeping and that is not the case in other camps,'' Musadik said. Following their release, the prisoners were to be supervised by the UNHCR in the former Austrian barracks. The Croatian government has given the organization two weeks to find another location for the ex- prisoners. The Croatian government says it cannot accept the refugees as it is already overburdened with about 650,000 refugees who have fled from the war-torn region. It has closed its borders to all trying to escape the conflict. The UNHCR is trying to find another country which will take the refugees but has no prospects yet. The UNHCR and the ICRC now have access to 31 camps run by all sides of the conflict, but say they are not allowed access to several areas in eastern Bosnia-Hercegovina which are in Serbian controlled territory. Since the London conference, two other camps, Omarska and Keratin have been closed but the whereabouts of many of the detainees are unknown.
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NEWSWEEK, October 5, 1992 ------------------------- HELP FROM THE HOLY WARRIORS Inside a secret military camp: how mujaheddin fighters are training Bosnia's Muslims Until the mujaheddin arrived last June, Alma Halep rarely stepped inside a mosque. Like most Bosnian's Muslims, the 16-year-old girl had a lot more in common with her ethnic Serb and Croat neighbours than her Islamic "brethren" from the Middle East. War has changed her habits. Now she prays the traditional five times a day at a mosque in Travnik, the central Bosnian town where she, her mother and her younger brother fled after Serbs destroyed their home nearby Turbe. Besides religious instruction, the visitors from the east are offering military assistance. "They are very good men," says Alma, tucking a few strands of blond hair under the blue scarf that covers her head. "In our country, some of the men don't want to be killed and are afraid to fight." As for mujaheddin, "They are the only ones who have come here to help us." They have come from a host of Islamic countries -Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia, among them - to fight a holy war. As they explained to a NEWSWEEK reporter who went inside a secret training camp and spoke with their elusive leader Abu Abdul Aziz, they are supporting a struggle for survival because no one else will. The European Community, the United Nations and the United States have all ignored Bosnian pleas for military intervention. In the absence of Western help, someone must keep the heavily armed Serbs from "killing the Muslims like sheep," argues a uniformed mujaheddin from the Middle East (he won't say what country). "I am just doing what I can," he says, tugging his thick black beard while lounging outside the Travnik headquarters of the Muslim Forces, an offshoot of the Bosnian Army. Like other Islamic volunteers, he came to train Bosnian Muslims, provide them with money for small arms and fight side by side with them on the front line against the Serbs. The Islamic warriors began to trickle into the Travnik area this summer, first posing as journalists, then appearing more openly in locally purchased camouflage jackets and pants. Today there are said to be 200 or 300 mujaheddin around the town and an additional 200 or so in the central part of the republic. Their training camps put Muslims, who were poorly prepared for war, through two weeks of boot camp plus religious indoctrination. In the final two days mujaheddin instructors lead groups of 15 to 20 Muslims in exercise near the front. "Nobody can stop the people who come here from the Middle East or Turkey to help the Bosnian People," says former Yugoslav Army Col. Emir Redzic, who now commands the Muslim Forces in Travnik. "You can't keep them from coming." Few Bosnians would want to. "They are very good fighters," says Osman Sekic, a 46-year-old woodworker from Visenjevo. "They have no fear for their lives." Local soldiers who have fought with the mujaheddin are impressed with their bravery and their ability to strike terror in the hearts of Serbian fighters, who cringe at the sound of war cries to Allah. The Islamic warriors are admired as martyrs. "They came here to be killed," says Elis Bektas, a 22-year-old platoon leader in the Bosnian Army and former philosophy student. "For them there is no going back." Small villages like Mehurici are enormously grateful to Islamic warriors whose secrecy they jealously protect. "The mujaheddin don't exist here," insists a local man. But when mujaheddin commander Aziz drives through Mehurici in his new black four-wheel-drive Nissan, the town turns out for him. Children wave, old people turn and smile, and other villagers approach with invitations to weddings and parties. Aziz, who arrived in Bosnia three months ago, has little time for celebration. He heads up the road to a field outside town and parks his vehicle. As he pulls off his black plastic sandals and reclines on a couple of vividly colored prayer rugs, two Bosnian Muslims jump out of the Nissan and take up positions 10 yards to either side, scanning the terrain with their AK-47s. Now 50, the red-bearded Aziz claims to be a veteran of holy wars in Africa, Kashmir, the Philipinnes and Ahghanistan. "I come from Islam," he says guardedly. People who know him in nearby Travnik say his home is Saudi Arabia, where his wife and nine children see very little of him. The warlord spends part of his time proselytizing. Every day, with the help of a translator, Aziz teaches the Koran and Islamic tradition to a class of 15 children, 8 to 13 years old. But his main purpose isn't pedagogical or humanitarian. "We are not here to bring supplies like food and medicine," he says, a silver revolver gleaming from his waistband. "There are a lot of organisations that can do that. We bring men." How many? "Enough." They come from Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Pakistan, Sudan, Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, say villagers. Seventeen of his men, Aziz admits have been killed in the conflict; he expects many more will die. "It will be a long war if the United Nations and the United States don't do anything," he suggests. "If the Muslims in Bosnia are not secure, we will fight until they get their freedom." No marriage: While Bosnians want their freedom, they worry about the price. Some fear the mujaheddin haven't shown their real extremist side. "If they want to offer people religion, culture and language, that's good," says 27-year-old Zafir, a Muslim from Travnik who asked that his last name not be used. "But if they insist on it, that's not good." Bektas, the platoon leader, is concerned the mujaheddin really fighting for Islam, not Bosnia. "It's good for us that they are here," he says. "But after the war, who knows?" So far, at least, locals have been more eager to embrace Kalashnikovs than the Koran: men still drink beer unmolested, and women have resisted the chador - as well as several proposals of marriage from Arab fighters. But Croatians aren't taking any chances. The mujaheddin must pass through their borders to enter Bosnia; Croat dealers control the arms flow. Zagreb has tolerated the Islamic warriors - except when it's expedient not to, as in the recent seizure of an Iranian 747 loaded with guns or the slaying of six Saudi Arabians by Croats who stole the weapons being brought to local Muslims. The Croats may be sometimes allies of the Bosnians in the war against the Serbs. But they may not hesitate to use the threat of an Islamic state to turn against their Muslim neighbours. Tom Post with Joel Brand in Travnik NEWSWEEK, October 5, 1992 _ |-| /-\ |_ |_| |< {"God protect us from ceasefires. It seems that whenever we have a ceasefire, the level of fighting goes up." Major Lewis Mackenzie, UN Commander in Sarajevo}
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NEW YORK TIMES, Sturday, October 3, 1992. BUSH'S BOSNIA REMARK: HALTING A `CRUEL WAR' WASHINGTON, Oct. 2. (Reuters) - Followinf are excerpts from a statement issued today by President Bush on steps to ease the violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Elsewhere in the former Yugoslav federation: All Americans, and people of compassion everywhere, remain deeply troubled by the cruel war in Bosnia and broader turmoil in what was Yugoslavia. We took several important initiatives in August, and today I am announcing further steps to help ease the conflict. The United States has been working intensively with other concerned nations to contain the conflict, alleviate the human misery it is causing, and exact a heavy price for aggression. This international effort has produced some results. The recent London Conference set up an international mechanism for addressing all aspects of the Yugoslav problems and put in motion an active negotiation . The tenuous truce in Croatia is holding. ... The U.N. trade embargo has idled roughly half the industry of Serbia, whose leaders bears heavy responsibility for the aggression in Bosnia. Our demand that the Red Cross be given access to detention camps has begun to yield results, and the release of detainees has now begun. The U.N. resolution we obtained to authorize "all necessary measures" to get relief supplies into Bosnia has led to the creation of a new U.N force to be deployed for that purpose. We will continue to honor our pledge to get humanitarian relief to the people of Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia. To this end, I have directed the Secretary of Defense to resume American participation in the Sarajevo airlift tomorrow morning. I wish I could say that there is no risk of attack these flights, but I cannot, although we are taking precautions. Still, the savage violence persists in Bosnia. Despite agreements reached at the London Conference, Bosnian cities remain under siege, the movement of humanitarian felief convoys is still hazardous, and innocent civilians continue to be slaughtered. At London the parties agreed to a ban on all military flights over Bosnia. Yet the bombing of defenseless population centers has actually increased. This flagrant disregard for human life and for clear agreement requires a response from the international community, and we will take steps to see that the ban is respected. Now, a new enemy is about to enter the battlefield: winter. Some weeks ago, I asked for an assesment of the effects that the combination of war and winter could inflict on the suffering people of Bosnia. The answer was profoundly disturbing: thousands af innocent people... could perish from cold, hunger, and disease. Anticipating this danger, the United States has been working with other nations and with U.N. to mount a major expansion ao the international relief effort and to support the tireless negotiations of U.N. and E.C. envoys Cyrus Vence and David Owen, to get the fighting stopped... I have decided to take a number of further steps: First, having authorized a resumption of U.S. felief flights into Sarajevo, I am prepared to increase the U.S. share ot the airlift. Second, we will make available air and sea lift to speed the deployment of the new U.N. force needed immediately in Bosnia to protect relief convoys. The United States will also provide a hospital and other critical support for this force. Third, the U.S. will furnish $12 million in urgently needed cash to the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees for the purpose of accelerating preparations for the winter. This in addition to the $85 million in financial and material support we have already commited. Fourth, we will offer U.N. and the Red Cross help in transporting and carring for those who are being freed from detention camps. We have already provided $6 million for this purpose. Fifth, in cooperation with our friends and allies, we will seek a new U.N. Securitu Council resolution, with a provision for enforcement, banning all flights in Bosnian airspace except those authorized by the U.N. If asked by the U.N., the U.S. will participate in enforcement measures.
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Vjesnik 5.10. Mate Boban Tragovi razaranja MARIO MARUSIC RAZGOVOR S MATOM BOBANOM, PREDSJEDNIKOM HRVATSKE ZAJEDNICE HERCEG-BOSNA Muslimani odustaju od unitarne drzave Ponavljajuci politicku opciju: nezavisna drzava BiH, s jednakim pravom hrvatskog naroda na nju, Mate Boban ocjenjuje da su se pregovori s Muslimanima pomakli s mrtve tocke. O zimskom pre (....) pristao bi na njega samo ako ne ugrozava hrvatski nacionalni interes. Tvrdi da ce vojni rasplet u Posavini uslijediti vrlo brzo (....) Razgovarajuci s Matom Bobanom koji nas ljubazno, makar se nismo najavili, prima u hotelu "Intercontinental" tek sat prije polijetanja za Split, postaje nam jasno da hrvatska i muslimanska strana u ratom zahva- cenoj drzavi ipak nisu na samom pocetku, kada je o dogovorima rijec, ali da jos uvijek nema koraka "od t (....) postici kompromis oko buduceg ustavnog ustroja Bosne i Hercegovine. Hrvatska strana ostaje dosljedna, u beskraj ponavljajuci i ne odustajuci od teze da Bosnu i Hercegovinu mogu ciniti samo tri naroda kao konstitutivni i suvereni dijelovi te zemlje. Muslimanska strana vise nije onako cvrsto ukopana u stavu o uni- tarnoj drzavi. Ocito, predstoji jos puno, puno koraka. U drugoj tocci Dodatka sporazuma o prijateljstvu i suradnji potpisanog u Americi izmedju Hrvatske i BiH iznova se naglasava potreba jacanja napora na iznalazenju politickog rjesenja za prestanak rata i provedbu nacela o ustrojstvu Republike BiH kao ravnopravne i cjelovite zajednice triju konstitutivnih naroda. Ocito, razgovori Boban - Silajdzic u hotelu "Intercontinetal" dio su tih napora. "O cemu ste, gospodine Bobane, razgovarali i s kakvim rezultatom?" - Da, sastali smo se u Zagrebu, ja predvodeci delegaciju Hrvata, a Silajdzic na celu muslimanske delegacije. Razgovarali smo o trenutnim zbivanjima u nasoj zajednickoj domovini, o medjusobnim odnosima i, naravno, razlikama u vidjenju ustavnog ustroja BiH nakon rata. Razgovor je posluzio kao priprema za razgovore izmedju predsjednika Hrvatske dr. Tudjmana i predsjednika Predsjednistva BiH Izetbegovica. Nasa je poli- ticka opcija jasna: nezavisna drzava BiH, s jednakim pravom hrvatskog naroda na nju. Unutar takve drzave hrvatski narod mora biti konstitu- tivan, s najbitnijim elementima suverenosti, sto znaci da hrvatski narod mora biti tako organiziran da moze osigurati svoju drzavotvornost u BiH i trajno pravo na oplemenjivanje svih narodnosnih cimbenika hrvatskog naroda, od gospodarskih i kulturnih, do politickih i upravnopravnih. "U kantonu?" - Mi ne upotrebljavamo taj izraz. U hrvatskoj nacionalnoj jedinici, dakle u odredjenom prostoru. "Kakva je muslimanska opcija, u cemu se razlikujete?" - Razlika je u tome sto je muslimanska strana odustala od konstitucije BiH kao drzave sastavljene od tri konstitutivne jedinice, hrvatske, muslimanske i srpske, u opravdanoj bojazni da netko od trojice ne bi nekada pomislio na izdvajanje i razbijanje BiH. Medjutim, pravo naroda na samoopredjeljenje je trajno, nepotroseno, pa je to iluzoran argument jer se on moze dogoditi uvijek i u svako vrijeme, i bez obzira kako drzava bila konstituirana. Ali, hrvatskom narodu ne vjerovati, povijesno je sljepilo. Hrvatski narod svoje pravo na BiH nikada i nikome ne zeli pokloniti. BiH je prije svega domovina hrvatskog naroda, prije svih i svakoga. Danas je drzava tri naroda. To je pitanje od globalnog znacaja za hrvatski narod, temelj svega. "Je li vam Haris Silajdzic povjerovao?" - Morate pitati njega. Ne vjerujem da mi vjeruje. "Jeste li se usprkos tome dogovorili?" - Dogovorili smo se da moramo trajno razgovarati kako bismo na kraju ipak dosli do trajne osnove ustavnog ustroja BiH. "Do kada cete razgovarati?" - Do trenutka kada i nama drugi budu priznali narodno hrvatsko pravo na BiH, kako i mi priznajemo drugima. "Ipak, netko mora poceti popustati da bi se krenulo s mrtve tocke. Je li u Zagrebu bio start?" - Pocelo je. Uvjeren sam da je koncepcija unitarne gradjanske drzave kod muslimanskog politickog rukovodstva uocena kao nerealna, ma koliko zeljena bila. To je taj prvi korak. "Potpuno je odbacena koncepcija unitarne drzave?" - Moram u to vjerovati. Kako razgovarati ako ne vjerujete? Ja smatram, a mislim da ce i oni doci do toga, da ne moze postojati nikakva BiH osim uredjene na nacin jednakih prava sva tri naroda. "Cak i da se dvojica uspiju dogovoriti, sto je s trecim?" - Pa vrijednost hrvatsko-muslimanskog dogovora i jest u tome sto ce, kao racionalan i objektivan, prisiliti trecega na razum i na prestanak agresije, zlocina i svih zala i namjerama sto ih je tako jasno ekspli- cirao pred cijelim svijetom. To je put politickog rjesenja krize i rata u u BiH. "Kako ste reagirali na prijedlog sto je, navodno, dosao iz "Izetbegovi- cevih redova" o "zimskom ratnom snu"?" - Ne znam za taj prijedlog, nas nitko o tome nista nije pitao, niti nam je sto predlagano, ali u ratu koji je tako jasno definirao namjere agresora, zlocinca, i namjere hrvatskog naroda kao zrtve koja se brani, dakle u tom ratu hrvatski narod ne zna za zimu, ljeto, proljece ni jesen. Mi cemo jednostavno svoje pravo ostvariti, i to prije svega poli- tickim sredstvima, budemo li mogli, ali ako nam drugi natovare druge oblike rjesavanja tog pitanja, prihvatit cemo ih. "Vjerujete da se srpska i muslimanska strana mogu dogovoriti o zimskom prekidu rata?" - Ja bih bio sretan da se na bilo koji nacin i na bilo koje vrijeme zaustavi rat, ali, kazem, nikada pod uvjetima da hrvatski nacionalni interes bude ugrozen. Mislim da je, kad ste to vec spomenuli, veoma vazna cinjenica da u BiH Hrvati imaju naspram agresoru liniju fronte duzu od 300 kilometara. "U dodatku Sporazuma govori se o zajednickoj obrani od agresije, usklad- jivanju obrambenih napora izmedju dviju suverenih drzava, Hrvatske i BiH. Sto to konkretno znaci?" - BiH je, kao i Hrvatska, napadnuta, a agresija se, i zbog geostrateskog polozaja, moze djelotvornije suzbiti zajedno. Vi znate da je najveci dio zlocina protiv Hrvatske pocinjen s prostora BiH, sto potvrdjuje prethodnu tvrdnju. Zato je taj dodatak Sporazuma izmedju drzava Hrvatske i BiH oplemenjen novom, rekao bih, institucijom, Odborom za koordi- niranje obrane. Hrvatska je delegirala svoja tri predstavnika, a BiH ce ovih dana izabrati svoja tri clana. "Tko su hrvatski clanovi?" - Generali Janko Bobetko i Slobodan Praljak, te Vice Vukojevic. "Vec rade?" - Ne, jer jos nisu poznata tri bosanskohercegovacka clana. Odbor ce imati puno posla, a osnovna ce mu zadaca biti sukladnost obrane od agresora dvije napadnute drzave. "U dodatku Sporazuma pise da ce dvije drzave zajednicki zatraziti uki- danje embarga na izvoz oruzja u BiH i Hrvatsku. Hoce li biti sto od toga?" - Obje strane to trajno traze. I ja sam osobno uvijek, kao predstavnik hrvatskog naroda iz BiH, pred predstavnicima UN na konferencijama o BiH to trazio. "Odgovor ne stize?" - To su tek pokusaji informiranja svjetske javnosti o neravnopravnosti napadaca i napadnutih. Ne vjerujem da ce uvaziti nas zahtjev. Ali treba ga postavljati. "Kakav ce biti vojni rasplet u Posavini?" - Ako se, u skladu s odlukom o zaustavljanju rata u BiH na Londonskoj i Zenevskoj konferenciji vrlo brzo ne pronadje politicko rjesenje, mi tocno znamo kako cemo to vojno zavrsiti. U nasu korist. "Kada?" - Rekao sam, vrlo brzo. "Jesu li rijeseni problemi na relaciji HVO - HOS?" - Ti problemi bili su jednostrani, odnosno, nije HVO imao problema s HOS-om vec HOS sa HVO. Ali, rijec je o marginalcima koji su se uspro- tivili svehrvatskom BiH organiziranju protiv agresora kroz postrojbe HVO. Marginalna je to pojava koja je sama od sebe nestala. U BiH vise ne postoji HOS. Svi momci, pretezno veoma hrabri hrvatski vojnici, shvatili su gdje im je mjesto i vratili su se u postrojbe HVO. "Sto biste izvukli kao najznacajniji dio dogovora s muslimanskom delega- cijom?" - Dogovor o zajednickom prijedlogu buduceg ustavnog ustroja BiH. Nas politicki cilj je konzistentan, konstantan i poznat svakome u svijetu i ocijenjen je kao realan, moguc, moralan i etican. Mi cekamo, naglasava Mate Boban.
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Vjesnik 5.10. Slika zlocina koja je obisla svijet NEOPISIVA ZVJERSTVA U LOGORIMA KOD PRIJEDORA Zemlja masovnih grobnica Prema svjedocenjima slucajno prezivjelih logorasa, poslije 2. kolovoza, odmah nakon pocetka medijske kampanje protiv logora, zvjerski je ubijeno vise desetaka tisuca logorasa Omarske, Trnopolja, Keraterma Price logorasa koji su samo slucajem prezivjeli, medjusobno se podu- daraju u rekonstrukciji masakra nakon otkrica logora. U tome nam je posebno pomogao razgovor s Fikretom, cija je slika iza zice logora Kera- term obisla svijet. Ipak, mozaik stravicnih slika jos ni priblizno nije kompletan. Poslije 2. kolovoza, odmah nakon pocetka medijske kampanje protiv logora, ubijeno je vise desetaka tisuca logorasa. U prvim danima kolo- voza ubijani su posebno "stari" logorasi u najtezem stanju - da bi se sklonili od ociju svjetske javnosti. U kamione i autobuse potrpani su i odvezeni deseci tisuca logorasa. Na stanicama tih konvoja izvlaceni su iz autobusa i ubijani mladici koji su tretirani kao zdraviji i koji bi se uskoro mogli oporaviti. Posljednja saznanja govore da se na podrucju planine Vlasic u sredisnjoj Bosni i Hercegovini, kod sela Donji Koricani, a na putu od Skender Vakufa prema Travniku, na mjestu poznatom kao Koricanska stijena, nalazi masovna grobnica logorasa iz logora oko Prijedora. Svjedoci procjenjuju da je na toj lokaciji zakopano od 3000 do 5000 ljudi. Vojni izvidjaci Vojske BiH bili su svjedoci zatrpavanja tijela oko 750 ljudi samo u jednom danu. Tijela su zatrpavana bagerima u fortifika- cijske objekte i rovove za topove koji su prethodno uklonjeni. Stradali su uhvaceni civili i mnogi logorasi iz konvoja koji su isli iz podrucja Prijedora, Banje Luke, Kljuca, Mrkonjica i Skender Vakufa. O kakvom je karakteru i razmjerima genocida rijec, najvise govore mjesta odakle su konvoji kretali. Trnopolje, naselje nedaleko od Prijedora, pretvoreno je u kombinaciju lo (....) sluzile su kao mucionice, a logorasi su bili na otvorenom i opkoljeni zicom. Jedan dio stanovnistva, odnosno nesto zena i staraca, bili su u kucama izvan zice radi poslova potrebnih zlikovcima. Ovaj logor sluzio je cetnicima posebno za izivljavanje nad zenama i maloljet- nicama. Muskarci su uglavnom sluzili za skupljanje leseva svojih susjeda po okolnim selima i njivama. Jedna grupa je samo u jednom danu skupila i u masovnu jamu zakopala 700 tijela. Mjesto jame je kraj puta prema Pri- jedoru, na rubu sume Gaj, pored gostionice koja se zove "Evropa". U samom Trnopolju nalaze se masovne grobnice gotovo pored svake kuce sa pet, deset, ili 20 tijela. Omarska, rudarski kompleks nedaleko od Prijedora, pretvoren je u logor smrti krajem svibnja, kada je tu dovedeno oko 3000 ljudi da bi se taj broj povecavao i do 12.000 ljudi. Ljudi su u jednom razdoblju bili smjesteni u metalne tornjeve za utovar rude po katovima, 300 na svakom od cetiri kata. Dnevno se gusilo oko 20 ljudi. Odmah po pristizanju prvog transporta iz Kozarca ubijeno je 60 ljudi. Tih prvih dana strijeljano je i 20 milicionara iz Prijedora koji nisu Srbi. Tijela su kamionom odvezena u nepoznatom pravcu. U toku aktivnog postojanja logora u vremenu od tri mjeseca svakodnevno je ubijeno deset do dvadeset ljudi, cija tijela su odvozena i dijelom ili u potpunosti zakopavana na lokacijama rudnika: Otvoreni kop Jezero, Stari rudnik Tomasica, Novi kop Buvac, jezero kod brane Medjedja. Keraterm, tvornica kod Prijedora, pretvorena je u logor smrti kada i Omarska. Tome logoru pristup inozemnih promatraca i novinara nikad nije omogucen. U cetiri logorske prostorije uvijek je bilo smjesteno oko 3000 ljudi. Zna se pouzdano da je 27. srpnja ubijeno 190 ljudi tako sto je u pros- toriju pusten plin. Kada su logorasi posli prema izlazu, cuvari su otvorili vatru iz protuavionskih mitraljeza i iz neposredne blizine, tako da su meci bukvalnokomadali ljude. Tada je na mjestu ubijeno oko 145 ljudi a oko 45 ranjenih pusteno da iskrvari. Nakon toga tijela su potrpana u kamione i odvezena u nepoznatom pravcu. Kada su ocekivali posjet novinara, 5. kolovoza, cetnici su 120 logorasa (....) logor Omarsku. Prema tvrdnjama prezivjelih iz te grupe, odmah na putu je zaklano devet, a dio je ubijen u Omarskoj. Samo deset iz te grupe dospjelo je do Manjace. Istog dana u "radnu jedinicu" odvedeno je 25 ljudi i nikada se vise nisu vratili niti su se u nekom logoru pojavili. Takodjer toga dana deset autobusa logorasa odvezeno je za Trnopolje. Zadnji autobus koji je stigao u sumrak zadrzan je na pisti logora Trnopolje i mnogi logorasi su maltretirani te ubijani ili kasnije podlegli ranama. Obaveza svih medjunarodnih institucija i subjekata je da hitno istraze sva ta stratista, posebno "Koricanske stijene" i upoznaju svjetsku jav- nost o tim stravicnim zlocinima. MUSADIK BOROGOVAC Autor je clan grupe za istrazivanje genocida pri Uredu za humanitarnu pomoc i izbjeglice Republike BiH u Zagrebu
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian leaders beat the drums of war Subject: Red Cross, U.N. appeal for end to ethnic violence Subject: U.S. aid flights reach Sarajevo Subject: Humaniatarian-aid flights to Sarajevo resume Subject: W.H.O. cites 'desperate race against time' Subject: Bombardment of Sarajevo intensifies Subject: Bosnian Serb leader warns against ``no-fly'' zone proposal Subject: U.N. readies vote on war-crimes commission for former Yugoslavia ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian leaders beat the drums of war Date: 2 Oct 92 18:36:38 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- The leader of Serbian forces occupying parts of Croatia threatened Friday to launch another war if the new Yugoslav federation recognizes Croatia, and he defended the brutality of the conflict, saying this ``kind of ethnic war cannot be ended until one side is utterly exterminated.'' Goran Hadzic, the leader of ethnic Serbs in Croatia, said that Serbs would ``have no choice but (to) fight for their lives'' if the newly forged federation of Serbia and Montenegro recognized the neighboring republic of Croatia, which views Hadzic's forces as aggressors. ``If Croatia is recognized, its authorities would treat us as rebels, and we will have to fight them,'' Hadzic told reporters in Belgrade. The statement came in reaction to the first session of negotiations in Geneva between Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic and Croatian chief of state Franjo Tudjman. Pressed by the U.N. sanctions imposed on the two-republic Yugoslavia, the authorities in Belgrade have recently started talking peace with neighboring Bosnia-Hercegovina, which is beseiged by Serbian forces, and Croatia, which is under U.N. protection after an earlier war. Hadzic, answering questions from reporters, initially denied recent claims that Serbian militiamen had been killing Croatian and Hungarian civilians. ``But, let's face it: This kind of ethnic war cannot be ended until one side is utterly exterminated,'' he said. ``I am sorry, but that is a fact of life,'' he added. Hadzic then admitted that ``some members'' of his militia ``were involved in the war crimes,'' but he said most of the alleged attrocities were commited by the other side in order to discredit the Serbs. In another development, the leader of the Serbs from Hercegovina, Bozidar Vucurevic, said that his men are ready to attack the Yugoslav federal army if it tries to pull out its heavy weapons around the region of the historic Adriatic port of Dubrovnik. Cosic and Tudjman agreed in Geneva Thursday that the army should retreat from its positions around and south of Dubrovnik by Oct. 20. ``The federal army is not retreating -- it's running away'', Vucurevic told the Belgrade-based Tanjug news agency from his mountain stronghold of Trebinje, 20 miles north of Dubrovnik. ``The runaways will be allowed to take their food rations and their water-bottles with them. If they try to take their weapons, we will fight them,'' he said. The self-proclaimed president of ``Serbian Hercegovina'' said that the Serbs would not be happy if failed to get a piece of the Dalmatian coast. Vucurevic accused the leadership of the new Yugoslav federation of deceiving the Serbs in Hercegovina. ``They started a war, and now they want us to finish it,'' he said bitterly. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Red Cross, U.N. appeal for end to ethnic violence Date: 3 Oct 92 17:26:21 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- The International Red Cross and the U.N. High Commission for Refugees appealed jointly Saturday for an end to ethnic violence in Bosnia-Hercegovina and admitted humanitarian efforts to stop it have had little effect. Cornelio Sommaruga, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and Sadako Ogata, director-general of the UNHCR, issued the appeal at a joint news conference. They said atrocities continue despite repeated appeals to the three ethnic groups involved in the fighting in Bosnia-Hercegovina and on-the- ground intervention by the two humanitarian organizations and others. Sommaruga said, ``The most basic principles of international humanitarian law continue to be ignored in the field,'' despite repeated promises by leaders of the Muslim, Serb and Croatian factions in Bosnia- Hercegovina that human rights would be respected. Ogata said reports from her own staff showed thousands of prisoners have been ill-treated and many have disappeared or been summarily executed in camps as part of Serbian so-called ``ethnic cleansing'' efforts. Sommaruga said this was true even in camps visited by the Red Cross. ``Acts of vengeance and indiscriminate attacks have been carried out on a massive scale, and entire regions are inaccesible to humanitarian organizations for months,'' Sommaruga said. Both Sommaruga and Ogata said tens of thousands of minority groups are still at the mercy of ``ethnic cleansing.'' They also said claims by the leaders of the Muslim, Croat and Serbian groups in Bosnia-Hercegovina that the atrocities are carried out by undisciplined guerrilla groups simply do not hold water. They repeated the call made at the London conference on Yugoslavia for humanitarian organizations to be given unrestricted access to all civilian victims and for the unconditional release of all prisoners. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.S. aid flights reach Sarajevo Date: 3 Oct 92 18:47:55 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- A U.S. transport plane made two deliveries of humanitarian aid to the besieged Bosnian-Hercegovina capital Saturday, ending a one-month gap that has seen food supplies dwindle to a fraction of U.N.-established minimums. Meanwhile in Strasbourg, France, Yugoslav peace negotiator Lord David Owen compared the Serbian ``ethnic cleansing'' campaign, in which Muslims have been killed in Bosnia-Hercegovina, to the Holocaust that killed millions of Jews during World War II. He added Europe could not talk of unity and at the same time turn its back on former Yugoslavia. Also Saturday, Serbian jets made bombing runs on the Bosnian towns of Zenica, Tesanj and Gradacac, and Serbian forces in the hills overlooking Sarajevo made sporadic artillery attacks on the city, Sarajevo radio reported. In Zenica, the biggest steel producing town in Bosnia-Hercegovina, jets made two bombing runs on steel production facilities, causing heavy damage to a key part of the plant, the radio said. In Tesanj, warplanes made seven bombing runs between 9:25 a.m. and 12:45 p.m., using heavy rockets, napalm and air-to-ground rockets, causing an unknown number of injuries and several fires, it said. Gradacac was bombarded from the air at 9:25 a.m., it said. Artillery fights also were reported in Doboj and in southern Bosnia- Hercegovina in and around Mostar. Sarajevo suffered sporadic shelling throughout the day, including anti-aircraft machine-gun and sniper fire. At least five people were injured by the attacks in Otes, in the southern part of the capital. A total of 24 people were reported killed and 198 wounded across Bosnia-Hercegovina, including 10 killed and 80 injured in Sarajevo, in the 24-hour period that ended at 10 a.m. Saturday, republic health officials said. Sarajevo radio also claimed Saturday that large numbers of Serbian fighters were deserting their military units, particularly in northwestern Bosnia-Hercegovina, but the reports could not be immediately verified. Serbian forces began fighting last spring to carve a separate homeland out of territory in the predominantly Muslim Slav republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Some moderate Serbs and Croats have joined the Muslim Slavs in trying to retain the territorial integrity of the newly independent republic. A Serbian siege of Sarajevo prompted U.N. relief efforts, which resumed Saturday -- one month after the air bridge was suspended because of the downing of an Italian relief plane over Croatian-controlled territory west of Sarajevo. Five U.N.-organized relief flights had been expected Saturday in Sarajevo, with three U.S. and two French deliveries scheduled to bring food and electrical equipment, said a spokesman for the U.N. High Commission for Refugees. But only one U.S. plane made two deliveries -- once from Frankfurt, Germany, and a second after reloading in Zagreb -- before bad weather stopped further flights. The deliveries included several thousand pounds of ``Meals Ready to Eat,'' pre-prepared meals usually used by U.S. troops. ``Obviously, because of the tense situation in Bosnia, there is some risk involved in these flights,'' said Capt. Mike Rein, spokesman for the U.S. effort at Rhein Mein Air Base in Germany. ``But the U.S. in coordination with the U.N. has decided that this effort is so important and the need for food is so critical, that even with the risk, the flights will continue -- unless and until it becomes too dangerous, at which time they will be suspended again,'' Rein said. The two planned French flights were canceled for unknown reasons. ``I wish someone would tell us'' why, said UNHCR spokesman Michael Keats in Zagreb. ``It is very confusing today.'' Nevertheless, U.N. Protection Force spokesman Adnan Razek in Sarajevo said the city could now expect as many as 20 flights a day to begin reaching the capital. Also Saturday, the first relief ground convoy in three days -- a nine- truck convoy from Split -- reached Sarajevo, the UNHCR said. Razek also said utility workers trying to restore the city's water and electricity supplies under U.N. protection made progress and could possibly have water running again in the city within hours. Both water and electricity have been out in most of the city for between one and two weeks. Salem Karovic, chief of the city's supply system, said Saturday he also was facing a new problem with a lacked the diesel fuel necessary to bring water tanker trucks into the city. Meanwhile in France, Owen -- the EC peace negotiator for the former Yugoslavia -- told the European Parliament that the European Community could not ignore the violence in Bosnia-Hercegovina and continue blithely toward unification. ``Those that believe that it is morally acceptable that Europe turn its back on what is happening in the former Yugoslavia, with the argument that they should work things out without us, should abandon the idea of European construction,'' Owen said. Owen also compared ``ethnic cleansing'' in Bosnia-Hercegovina, especially the systematic killing of Bosnian Muslims by Serbs, to the Holocaust that killed millions of Jews during World War II. ``This time the victims are Muslim, and we should be aware of the fact that Muslims live in the four corners of the earth, and they will keep in their memories what we let their brothers be submitted to,'' Owen said. Owen, who spoke at the opening debate of the 27-country parliament of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, also said Europe should back the principle of no acquisition of land by force and of ensuring minority rights. The Council issued a statement condemning the ``ethnic cleansing'' in the republics of the former Yugoslavia, and refusing to recognize the breakup of territory based on ethnic criteria. In a new conference later, Owen said his most urgent mission with U. N. counterpart Cyrus Vance was to succeed in efforts to demilitarize Sarajevo and its surroundings. Evoking the approaching winter, often harsh in the former Yugoslav republics, Owen said ``We need to find the the conditions, even if it takes time, to re-establish a co-existence,'' between ethnic groups. The Council called for all member countries to bring the aid necessary to the former Yugoslav populations, without which ``hundreds of thousands of people would die.'' In addition, the council called for a ban on all flights except for those carrying humanitarian aid over Bosnia-Hercegovina. The European body also supported Owen's idea to create a board for the protection of the human rights for European countries not members of the Council. Owen also said one of his next tasks with Vance was to persuade the Belgrade government of Serbia and Montenegro to recognize another ex- Yugoslav republic, Croatia, and respect its borders. He said that would be ``a real message addressed to the Serbs in Croatia and elsewhere.'' ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Humaniatarian-aid flights to Sarajevo resume Date: 4 Oct 92 01:03:50 GMT ZAGREB, Croatia (UPI) -- Humanitarian-aid flights to Sarajevo resumed Saturday after weeks of interruption caused by fierce fighting in the besieged Bosnia-Hercegovina capital. Two U.S. planes arrived without incident at Sarajevo's U.N.- controlled main airport, bringing radar equipment and 10 tons of relief supplies from Frankfurt, Germany. However, Peter Kessler, spokesman for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, said officials scrubbed a planned third flight by one of the planes because of bad weather. Two French planes had also been scheduled to fly into Sarajevo Saturday from the Croatian city of Split, but cancelled at the last minute. UNHCR did not give a reason for the delay. Hundreds of thousands of civilians in Sarajevo have been trapped without adequate food and medicine for months by fighting between Serbian guerrillas and Bosnia-Hercegovina's predominently Muslim Slav army. The Serbian fighters oppose independence from communist Yugoslav, while the Muslim Slavs favor it. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: W.H.O. cites 'desperate race against time' Date: 5 Oct 92 15:22:48 GMT GENEVA (UPI) -- Tens of thousands of lives are at stake in a ``desperate race'' against the coming winter in ex-Yugoslavia, the World Health Organization (WHO) warned Monday. Sir Donald Acheson, WHO delegate in Zagreb, said the U.N. health agency alone will need $40 million in the next seven months for medicines and medical equipment. Besides such regular medicines as antibiotics and insulin, drugs are urgently required for mental disorders caused by the trauma of hostilities, he said. ``The lives of tens of thousands of people in the former Yugoslavia re at stake in a desparate race against time: winter is coming,'' Sir Donald told a news conference. Ex-Yugoslavia, he noted, has one of the most severe winter climates in all of Europe and that the ``health crisis will cost many more lives than the conflict itself.'' There are 300,000 people without shelter, support or health services in Bosnia and Hervzogovina, the WHO official said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bombardment of Sarajevo intensifies Date: 5 Oct 92 12:47:57 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina -- Serbian forces in the hills overlooking Sarajevo unleased one of the heaviest assaults in their six- month seige of the Bosnian capital Monday, firing scores of artillery rounds that heavily damaged or set fire to apartment buildings, an electrical utility and a television transmitter. The attacks began with sporadic overnight grenading throughout the city, particularly in the southwestern area of Dobrinja, and escalated into a heavy downtown attack, using grenades, mortars and tank fire. Between 50 and 100 injured people were brought during the morning to the city's main Hosevo hospital complex, mostly from the center of the old town section and Pero Kosoric Square, a front-line area just south of the Miljacka River, a hospital official said. The city's state hospital, which said it handled only nine patients during a relatively quiet day Sunday, said at 11 a.m. Monday it already had 20 patients and more were arriving. Thick black smoke poured from a downtown business office of Elektroprivreda, BVsnia-Hercegovina's main electricity supplier, blotting out the early morning sun while loud explosions continued to thunder around it. ``The damage is so big that the building probably wont be there anymore,'' said Slobodan Primorac, deputy to the general manager at Elektroprivreda. ``After the fire was started, we counted 12 phosphorus grenades (designed to start fires), and supposed that altogether about 20 of them hit the building.'' Monday morning's barrage on the capital came from Serbian-controlled areas of Vraca, a hilly area in the southern part of the city, and nearby Ozrenska Street, Sarajevo radio reported. The mortars, grenades and tank shells repeatedly hit Pero Kosoric Square, killing and injuring an unknown number of people, the radio said. The bombardment also hit numerous apartment buildings along Darovalaca Krvi Street, setting them on fire, it said. Sporadic sniper firing into the city also began around 7 a.m., the radio said. The downtown Holiday Inn, which houses many foreign journalists, also was hit around 8:15 a.m. on the fifth floor, facing south toward Grbavica, and set on fire. Two journalists working for the French television network TF-1 were slightly injured by flying glass on the ground floor, said Amra Abadzic, a translator for the Reuters news agency. Rockets hit and set fire to the the downtown offices of the Post Telegraph and Telephone building and a nearby tobacco factory, Sarajevo radio said. The attack on the telephone exchange building caused unknown damage but no reported injuries, said Enes Arnautovic, general director of PTT in Ssarajevo. Bosnian Vice President Ejub Ganic said Sunday that Serbian forces apparently were embarking on a new campaign to wipe out major economic targets that could be left in areas they fail to control. Houses around the offices hit Monday morning in Sarajevo also were badly damaged and burning, Sarajevo radio said. The television transmitter on Hum Hill, to the north of the city, also took a direct hit, it said. Around 9 a.m. a water truck that brought water daily to Pofalici, in the north-central part of the city, was directly hit while driving along a road, it said. Vogosca, a northern suburb of Sarajevo also suffered a heavy grenada attack during the morning, Sarajevo radio said. Commercial gas supplies to the city went out around 9 p.m. Sunday evening. A gas company worker said officials traced the outage to a break in a substation and planned to investigate the cause monday. Electricity and water supplies to Sarajevo, which have been out for between several days and several weeks across the city, remained out despite continued efforts by U.N. protection force troops to accompany repair crews to damaged facilities. Sarajevo radio said electricity had been restored to the citys main wellfield and pumping station in the Serbian-controlled western suburb of Bacevo, allowing service to be resumed in the adjacent serbian- controlled city of Ilidza, but it said the lines serving Sarajevo remained badly damaged. Telephone service inside the city, which was partially disconnected Saturday because of a lack of fuel for electricity generators, was restored Monday. But Arnautovic said the telephone company only had enough diesel fuel to run the system for another two days. Dr. Bakir Nakas, director of the state hospital, said Monday morning that his facility had enough diesel fuel for run its generators for another four hours and the Kosevo complex had enough for another seven hours. Elsewhere in Bosnia-Hercegovina, the small town of Olovo, just north of Sarajevo, was hit by some 850 rounds of artillery fire over a 24-hour period ending Monday morning, Sarajevo radio reported. And the village of Mionica in Gradacac, in northeastern Bosnia- Hercegovina, was hit by an estimated 2,000 grenades in a two-hour period beginning at 4 a.m. monday, the radio said. The area had been suffering almost daily aerial bombing. Maglaj, northwest of the capital, also came under another round of heavy attacks, the radio said. The heavy attacks followed a rainy and relatively quiet weekend and came one day before the head of the newly formed UNPROFOR operation for Bosnia-Hercegovina, was due to visit Sarajevo and meet again with Bosnian Serb leaders. French Gen. Phillipe Morillon planned a Tuesday visit the Bosnian Serb headquarters in nearby Pale and travel wednesday to the Serbian capital Belgrade. Topics for the meeting were expected to include the new headquarters for the republic's UNPROFOR command. UNPROFOR officials were hoping to place it in Ilidza, which would help break a main bottleneck for humanitarian aid convoys reaching Sarajevo by land. A 10-truck convoy orgnanized by the U.N. High Commission for Refugees brought another 100 tons of food aid to SWrajevo on Monday, but workers were prevented by the heavy shelling from unloading, said Marc Vachon, the UNHCR's chief of logistics at the Sarajevo airport. Three U.N.-organized aid flights also reached the city Monday morning and another four flights were expected, but French crews canceled four scheduled flights because of the weather, Vachon said. The three flights that arrived in the morning -- two American and one Canadian -- brought two loads of food aid and more equipment for the radar system being installed at the airport, he said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bosnian Serb leader warns against ``no-fly'' zone proposal Date: 5 Oct 92 21:59:19 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic warned Monday that he would pull out of internationally brokered peace talks if the United Nations approves a proposal to close the airspace over war-torn Bosnia-Hercegovina to all but humanitarian aid flights. The Tanjug news agency in a dispatch from Geneva said Karadzic's warning was in a letter he sent to the U.N. Security Council, which was expected to consider the ``no-fly'' zone proposal late Monday in New York. The 12-nation European Community and the United States agreed in principle at an international conference on the Yugoslav crisis held in London in August to support a U.N. resolution banning all flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina except those delivering humanitarian aid. In a statement last week President Bush said that the United States will seek a new U.N. resolution of a ``no-fly'' zone , ``banning all flights in Bosnian airspace except those authorized by the U.N,'' adding that the United States would participate in the enforcement of measures if asked by the U.N. The proposal would require warplanes of the nations participating in the U.N.-sponsored humanitarian airlift to Sarajevo to interdict flights by military planes supplied to Karadzic's forces by the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army. Serbian aircraft have been used extensively in the Serbian drive to rip a self-declared state out of the former Yugoslav republic of Muslim Slavs, Serbs and Croats, reportedly making daily bombing runs in support of Serbian ground forces. Tanjug quoted Karadzic's letter as saying that if the ``no-fly'' zone was instituted, the Serbian leader would withdraw from peace negotiations being brokered in Geneva by the United Nations and the EC between the warring factions. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. readies vote on war-crimes commission for former Yugoslavia Date: 6 Oct 92 00:03:22 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The Security Council is prearing to vote Tuesday on resolutions to establish a war-crimes commission and to declare the Prevlaka peninsula in the former Yugoslavia a demilitarized zone. The 15-nation panel also is considering a third resolution over establishing a ``flight interdiction (zone) for military aircraft'' in Bosnia-Hercegovina in an effort to ground the Serbian air force. The so-called ``no-fly zone'' in Bosnia-Hercegovina, supported mostly by the United States, has not met unanimous support from other Western nations because it would be difficult to implement. Those nations said Serbian forces would retaliate against U.N. peacekeeping troops if the zone is set up. Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic warned in a letter on Monday to Secretary-General Boutros Ghali that if the council voted in favor of the ``no-fly zone,'' he would pull out of the London conference on the former Yugoslavia. ``In the event that the Security Council decides to override the negotiated agreement several days ago, I must regretfully inform you that we will immediately withdraw from the London conference and close our mission in Geneva,'' Karadzic said. Karadzic said the exclusion zone for air traffic would be ``unacceptable'' because it would give strategic advantage to Bosnian Muslims, ``which will be in breach of another London conference decision on the delivery of humanitarian aid.'' Western diplomats said the air exclusion zone would be difficult to implement and they have been trying to reach a compromise whereby the zone would be implemented in two stages, with the imposition of the zone first and military enforcement if Serbian forces did not comply with it. In a private meeting Monday, the Security Council agreed on a text for setting up the war-crimes commission. It first will call on Ghali to collect within 30 days all information related to human rights violations and ``grave violations'' of the 1949 Geneva Convention on the protection of civilians during war time in the former Yugoslavia. The council would call on Ghali to set up an impartial commission of experts to ``examine and analyze'' all information received. The experts are asked to obtain information themselves or by other means and to present to the secretary-general the evidence of those violations. British U.N. Ambassador David Hannay said he expected the council to adopt the war-crimes commission resolution unanimously. He said the council's 15 members would also support the second resolution declaring Prevlaka peninsula a demilitarized zone and demanding the withdrawal of heavy weapons from the neighboring regions in Croatia and Montenegro. Several members of the council said the establishment of the war- crimes commission would be the first step toward bringing to trial those responsible for the reported execution of Muslim Slavs in Bosnia- Hercegovina. The next step would be setting up a tribunal.
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Los Angeles Times Oct 5, 1992 ... The United Nations Protection Force said it expressed consternation to the Croatian government after two U.N. helicopters came under fire while approaching Zagreb on a medical evacuation mission Friday. It said its director of civil affairs, Cedric Thornberry, had written to Croatian Vice President Ivan Milas asking what steps the government was taking to prevent any further such occurrences. Both helicopters landed safely and without damage at Zagreb airport. A similar attack last Monday was later blamed by Croatia on a soldier opening fire without orders. ...
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New Yorker, Oct. 5/1992 NEWS FROM HELL by Anna Husarska SARAJEVO FIRST, the flak jackets. They come in many sizes, colors, and weights. The ones for ladies are shorter than the gents'. The latter have an additional flap in the front, a "quick-draw groin protector," or "tongue," which can be pulled down or unfolded for extra protection. The really good jackets (the genuinely bulletproof ones) are made of a material called Kevlar and come fitted out with a pair of H.V.P.s, or high-velocity panels. These are concave ceramic plates for the chest and back which weigh a lot but give real protection against sniper bullets. Lying down in any sort of H.V.P.-equipped gear is a bad idea; you may end up like a beetle on its back. Almost all the jackets close with Velcro straps, so at the start of any press conference in some relatively safe building here there is a terrible rasping noise as up to forty journalists tear their straps open. The main trick is to close them around the waist tightly so that the jacket sits on the hips (great for elimination of love handles) instead of hanging heavily on the shoulders (a real back killer). Some models have high- standing collars; others have smaller ones, a la Mao; and still others are cut like old-fashioned men's underwear vests, and these are particularly appreciated by cameramen, because the Kevlar shoulder pads of the standard ones are too bulky and unstable to provide a good "platform" for a camera. A label on the H.V.P. lists all the different impacts (single and multiple) that the panel will stop. -- Picture: A page found in the burned-out National Library in Sarajevo. -- ny.zip
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The following is the text of the joint declaration signed by Dr. Franjo Tudjman and Mr. Dobrica Cosic, and witnessed by Mr. Cyrus Vance and Lord David Owen in Geneva on September 30, 1992. JOINT DECLARATION Meeting under the auspices of the Co-Chairman of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia in Geneva, the undersigned Presidents wish to announce the following: 1. The two Presidents reaffirmed the commitments of the International Conference in London on the inviolability of existing borders, other than through changes reached by peaceful agreement, and agreed to intensify work towards the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia, on the basis of mutual recognition. All questions concerning succession of the former SFRY will be resolved within the framework of the International Conference or, as appropriate, bilaterally. 2. Authorities of the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in close collaboration with the United Nations Protection Force, will undertake urgent, joint measures to ensure the peaceful return to their homes in the United Nations Protected Areas of all persons displaced therefrom who so wish. To that end they propose the prompt establishment of a quadripartite mechanism - consisting of authorities of the Government of Croatia, local Serb representatives, representatives of UNPROFOR and the UNHCR - to assure that this process moves forward. Equally, Serb and Croat people formerly residing on the territory of the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia should have the right to return in peace to their former homes. Agreement was reached with regard to more resolute action concerning the return of displaced persons to their homes, and to allowing for a voluntary and humane resettlement of those persons wishing to do so between the two States. 3. The two Presidents agree that the Yugoslav Army will leave Prevlaka by October 20, 1992 in accordance with the Vance Plan. Security in the area will be resolved by demilitarization and the deployment of the UN Monitors. The overall security of Boka Kotorska and Dubrovnik will be resolved through subsequent negotiations. 4. The two Presidents agree to establish a Joint Interstate Committee for the consideration of all open issues and for the normalization of relations between the sovereign Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In order that a durable peace may be established as soon as possible, particular attention will be given to normalizing traffic and economic links. 5. The two Presidents confirm their conviction that all problems between their two States must be settled peacefully. They pledge their best efforts to this end. In that connection, they will exert all their influence towards a just, peaceful solution of the current crisis enveloping Bosnia and Herzegovina. 6. The two Presidents declare their total condemnation of all practices related to "ethnic cleansing," and commit themselves to helping reverse that which has already happened. They also declare that all statements or commitments made under duress, particularly those relating to land and property, are wholly null and void. They urge all concerned parties to cooperate fully, promptly and unconditionally with current efforts, in particular by the ICRC and the UNHCR, to free all detainees, close all detention centers, and assure safe passage of former detainees to secure and safe areas. They further urge all parties to facilitate the safe delivery of all humanitarian assistance. 7. The two Presidents welcome the early stationing of international observers on airfields in their respective countries as a confidence-building measure. 8. The two Presidents agree to meet again on October 20 with the Co-Chairman. They express their gratitude to the Co-Chairman for convening today's meeting.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian attack leaves Sarajevo in flames Subject: Yugoslav Army announces retreat from Prevlaka Subject: Serbian President Milosevic meets Bobby Fischer Subject: U.N. troops allow Bosnian refugees into Croatia ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian attack leaves Sarajevo in flames Date: 6 Oct 92 14:33:25 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- Serbian forces bombarded Sarajevo with artillery, tank and machine-gun fire Tuesday, a day after one of the most vicious assaults in their six-month seige destroyed offices and apartment buildings, leaving dozens of civilians dead and thousands homeless. Streams of the screaming and crying homeless were forced after a day of relentless bombing to flee their flaming homes with only handfulls of possessions. They fled overnight through the rain of artillery to cross the Miljacka River from front-line apartments in southern Sarajevo. The apartments, blasted head-on by tanks and artillery only a few hundred feet away, included five 20-floor buildings along Pero Kosoric Square whose multi-story infernos lit up the skies across the bosnian capital throughout the evening. The city's three main hospitals said at least 19 people died and they treated 175 injured people, many of them burned. At least eight residential buildings and four office buildings were set on fire or destroyed during the day-long attack Monday by Serbian forces in the hills ringing the strangled Bosnian capital. The republic's health officials, in their daily casualty count, said at least 34 people were killed and 241 injured across Bosnia-Hercegovina in the 24-hour period that ended at 10 a.m. Tuesday, including 25 killed and 133 injured in Sarajevo. Some 2,800 to 3,000 people were estimated to have been left homeless from the assault on Pero Kosoric Square, said Bejadin Abdulovski, commanding officer of Bosnian defense forces for the neighborhood. ``Everybody was down in the basement screaming,'' said Jasmina Jusubasic, who had lived on the top floor of one of the gutted 20-story buildings with her mother and 5-year-old daughter. The two women, who arrived Tuesday with three handbags seeking help at a small hotel a few streets back from the river, sat trembling and weeping while nursing some food and coffee and trying to telephone a friend. The grandmother, her hair tied under a shawl, shook and wrung her hands each time another boom of artillery fire rang out in the background. Her granddaughter, Ira, sat between the women playing quietly with some candy bars given to her by a hotel worker. Jusubasic said many of the 500 people who lived in her apartment were hiding in the basement when the smoke from the fires above started seeping in through the vents. In panic, the people began smashing tiny windows about 3-feet-by-2- feet wide and tried pushing themselves through. Some could not make it and remained inside, Jusubasic said. The grandmother, Semsa Solaja, said she believed at least six people in the building died, including ``one person everyone could hear inside screaming but nobody could do anything about.'' Jusubasic said the explosions were intensified when flames began falling onto a Bosnian military headquarters stationed between two of the apartment buildings, as well as when the fire caught ammunition apparently kept inside private residences. People trying to fight the fires in the square, named after a Serbian World War II military hero, carried buckets of water from the river in a futile bid to compensate for the city's lost water supply. At least two fires were still burning inside apartment buildings Tuesday morning and workers were unable to provide exact figures on casualties and homeless. But Abdulovski said only about 50 of the 900 apartments in the five 20-story buildings on Pero Kosoric square were still usable. Those treated at the city's hospitals monday included a 10-year-old girl whose arm was amputated and a 17-year-old boy who lost both legs, doctors said. The city's two main hospitals said they were operating Tuesday in the dark because they lacked diesel fuel to run generators. Both said they had run out of all but a handful of sterile instruments being saved for absolute emergency cases. The larger of the two facilities, the Kosevo complex, despite problems, reported nine births overnight, five girls and four boys, Sarajevo radio reported. Sarajevo residents have been without water and electricity for between several days and several weeks, despite continued efforts by U. N. troops to guarantee the safety of utility workers trying to make repairs. City electricians have received commitments from Serbian forces to visit only one of 16 locations they believe need repair work, Sarajevo radio said Tuesday. An official with Sarajevo's commercial gas utility said workers believe a line break that has cut off supplies to the city for the past two days is located in Serbian-controlled territory and the utility was seeking a U.N. escort to investigate. Elsewhere Tuesday, the city of Jajce, in the central part of Bosnia- Hercegovina, came under fire around 7 a.m. from 120mm mortars, 155mm artillery and tanks, Sarajevo radio reported. The shooting was aimed throughout the town and hit a mosque, a Catholic church and civilian structures, causing an unknown number of casualties, the radio said. Tesanj, in the central part of the republic, suffered an artillery barrage and an infantry attack Tuesday that was beaten back by Bosnian defenders, Sarajevo radio said. Defenders in Bihac, in the far northwestern part of the republic near the border with Croatia, also fought off a Serbian infantry attack, the radio said. Infantry battles and artillery attacks also were reported in various areas of the Zenica region, in the central part of the republic, causing an unknown number of casualties, the radio said. An uneasy calm came Tuesday to Bugojno, west of Sarajevo, after several days of heavy fighting and aerial bombardments that destroyed a major industrial complex, the radio said. The U.N. Security Council also was planning to vote Tuesday on three matters concerning the yugoslav conflicting, including a U.S. proposal for banning military flights over bosnia-hercegovina. the other two resolutions would establish a war crimes commission and declare the Prevlaka peninsula in the former Yugoslavia a demilitarized zone. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic threatened Monday to pull out of the ongoing peace talks in Geneva if the United Nations accepts the flight ban, although he reportedly later said he would accept such a restriction if Bosnian attacks on his forces are halted. French Gen. Phillipe Morillon, commander of the U.N. protection forces new Bosnian operations, flew Tuesday into Sarajevo to begin a two-day visit to the area. He planned to meet bosnian government leaders in downtown Sarajevo and visit the bosnian serb headquarters in nearby Pale before traveling Wednesday to the Serbian capital Belgrade. Another 12 U.N. High Commission for Refugees relief flights were due to arrive Tuesday in Sarajevo, although Izumi Nakamitsu, head of the operation, said the day's steady rain might force many cancellations. No truck convoys were due in the city tuesday, she said. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Yugoslav Army announces retreat from Prevlaka Date: 6 Oct 92 14:40:19 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- The army of rump Yugoslavia Tuesday reaffirmed its intention to withdraw from Croatia's disputed Adriatic peninsula of Prevlaka within the next two weeks. The announcement, carried by the official Tanjug news agency, came just hours before the U.N. Security Council was scheduled to vote on a resolution declaring Prevlaka a demilitarized zone and placing it under U.N. observation. The army of the union forged by Serbia and Montenegro said that its units and equipment would be ``transferred'' by Oct. 20 from the peninsula and the surrounding region as required by a Sept. 29 pact reached in Geneva between Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic and his Croatian counterpart, Franjo Tudjman. But the army warned that should Croatia violate the agreement to create a demilitarize zone on the peninsula, it would ``use all of its potential to defend'' the main Yugoslav navy base at adjacent Boka Kotorska Bay. Prevlaka is a 1.5 mile-long stony finger of Adriatic coast that controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska Bay, where most of the Yugoslav fleet is located. It has been the subject of a bitter dispute because it is located just inside the border of Croatia, whose secession from former Yugoslavia last year ignited a civil war. The Yugoslav army used the peninsula's strategic importance as a major justification for its year-long siege of Croatia's port city of Dubrovnik and occupation of a 100-mile-long swath of coastline stretching south from the famed Adriatic resort to Prevlaka. During talks in Geneva with Tudjman, Cosic agreed to order the Yugoslav army's withdrawl from Prevlaka on condition that it was declared a demilitarized zone and placed under U.N. observation. The agreement was met by a wave of protests by Serbian extremists, who claimed that the surrender of Prevlaka would jeopardize Yugoslavia's strategic interests, and they accused Cosic of treason. There had also been speculation that the army would refuse to leave a 50-year-old military base on Prevlaka. Political analysts saw the army's announcement as a clear sign that senior generals support ongoing efforts by Cosic and Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic to restore peace to former Yugoslavia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbian President Milosevic meets Bobby Fischer Date: 6 Oct 92 17:12:52 GMT BELGRADE, Yugoslavia (UPI) -- Communist President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia met Tuesday with former world chess champion Bobby Fischer as the grand master took a two-day break from his historic rematch with his Russian arch-rival, Boris Spassky. The authoritarian Serbian leader used the meeting to launch a new attack on U.N. economic sanctions slapped on his republic for underwriting the Serbian territorial conquests in neighboring Bosnia- Hercegovina. ``I am glad that our country is in the position to be the host of such a significant chess match between Fischer and Spassky...especially at a time when our nation is under an unjust blockade,'' Milosevic was quoted by the official Tanjug news agency as telling the American chess wizard. The Fischer-Spassky match has been extensively publicized by Milosevic's regime in a bid to counter the international isolation and economic devastation wrought to Serbia by the U.N. sanctions. The May 30 blockade included an oil, air and trade embargo and banned financial transactions with Serbia and its tiny protege, Montenegro. Despite the prohibition, Fischer and Spassky agreed to play a $5 million rematch of their 1972 world champiomship at the invitation of a private Belgrade banker, Jezdimir Vasiljevic. The U.S. Treasury Department ordered Fischer not to play, but he publicly spat on the document at a news conference on the eve of the opening game at the posh Adriatic resort of St. Stefan in Montenegro. The pair have played 15 games -- beginning in St. Stefan and then moving to Belgrade -- of which Fischer has won five and Spassky three. They were to resume the match on Wednesday after a two-day break. By the time Fischer was 14, he was U.S. chess champion. A year later he became the youngest grandmaster in chess history. He captured the world's attention by defeating Spassky and becoming the first American ever to hold the title of world champion on Sept. 1, 1972. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. troops allow Bosnian refugees into Croatia Date: 6 Oct 92 17:40:55 GMT ZAGREB, Croatia (UPI) -- Soldiers from the U.N. Protection Force have set up a tent city for about 400 Muslims who fled from war-torn Bosnia- Hercegovina over the weekend into the Serbian-occupied area of Croatia that is now under U.N. protection. The action was taken by the Danish battalion of the U.N. force even though the Croatian government has closed its border to refugees because of a lack of resources to cope with the flood of people. The refugees came across the border on foot Friday night during the first heavy rains of winter. ``It's not something we normally do but their lives were threatened,'' said a U.N. official who refused to be identified. ``Croatia certainly was not going to take them in. The Danish battalion felt compelled to act in a humanitarian way...Of course we weren't going to turn them back.'' The military unit established a tent camp for the 400 refugees in the town of Vojnic, which is located in the Serbian-occupied area of Croatia that is currently under the supervision of the Danish battalion of the U.N. force. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees has asked the Croatian government to house the refugees temporarily but has not received a reply. ``We are beholden to the mercy of the Croatian government,'' said Michael Keats, spokesman for the UNHCR in the Croatian capitol, Zagreb. Croatia is already home to about 650,000 refugees, who make up about 10 percent of the republic's current population. In mid-September the Croatian government changed it's policy toward refugees. Previously the republic allowed refugees if they had a letter of guarantee from people in Croatia that they would house and feed them. But the policy was abused Croatian government officials said. ``People would give out guarantee letters freely, then after a few days the refugees would show up at shelters saying: 'Please take us. We need a bed and food. The people can't take care of us anymore,''' said Josip Esteraher, a spokesman for the Croatian government's office for refugees. Now the refugees can only come into Croatia if they are en route to other countries. ``We can't afford it any more. Other countries have to help,'' Esteraher said. Housing and feeding the people takes up about 20 percent of the state budget, Esteraher said. This latest incident is indicative of a larger problem that the UNHCR will be facing soon, Keats said. The UNHCR estimates there are approximately 250,000 people who want to leave Bosnia-Hercegovina but they are caught in a ``Catch-22'' situation because there is nowhere for them to go, Keats said. They are often forced to become refugees in their own republic, Keats said. At the end of September, Serbian forces transported about 2,500 people, mostly Muslims from northwest Bosnia-Hercegovina, to Travnik in central Bosnia-Hercegovina. There they were forced to run across the front lines to Muslim-held territory while the Serbs fired shots at them. Four people were killed. ``In northern Bosnia there is a whole stretch of people who just want to get out, but the question is what are you going to do with them,'' Keats said.
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HU.N. SAYS SARAJEVO CHILDREN ON BRINK OF STARVATION By Philippe Naughton GENEVA, Oct 5, Reuter - A United Nations health expert warned on Monday that large numbers of Sarajevo children would begin dying of starvation by the end of this month unless an international airlift to the city was beefed up immediately. Two days after the airlift's hesitant resumption, U.N. advisor Sir Donald Acheson said the Bosnian capital's needs were greater than ever before as winter approached. ``The fuse is beginning to burn and unless 240 tonnes of food get into Sarajevo every day...you will see children dying of starvation by the end of October,'' Acheson, Britain's former public health chief, told a news conference. ``We have a situation which requires action today. We have no time for delays.'' The U.N.-run airlift was suspended on September 3 after an Italian cargo plane was downed in a missile attack. Despite security guarantees from the warring factions, only three of the 19 countries originally involved have agreed to resume flights. Acheson, who himself travelled with the ill-fated Italian crew two days before they were killed, said the airlift during the summer averaged between 190 and 220 tonnes of food a day. With the mountain city already hit by fog and winter snows expected soon to hamper flights further, he said Sarajevo needed 480 tonnes a day for the next month to build up reserves for the worst of the winter. Instead, its 380,000 besieged residents had been getting only around 40 tonnes of food a day for the past month, all of it via difficult road convoys. Citing a report by British nutritionist Philip James, who compared the siege of Sarajevo with the siege of Leningrad in World War Two, he added: ``At this rate of food supply children and adults will enter a state of profound semi-starvation with children dying within three to four weeks. ``Adult men and women will lose five to eight kilos per week and become severely deficient within eight weeks. Previous siege experience suggests an escalating mortality within two weeks of the clear signs of starvation, e.g. leg swelling. ``If food stocks run out in ten days time and road supplies continue at the current rate then the population will enter a critical state by mid-November,'' he added. Acheson, the official public health advisor to the UNHCR office in Zagreb, said there were various ways round the shortfall, including the use of large Russian Ilyushin cargo planes capable of carrying 40 tonnes at a time. He also renewed an appeal for trucks to expand road convoys into Sarajevo. The UNHCR, which currently has 80 trucks on the road in the former Yugoslavia, says it needs at least 200 just for food convoys and as many as 500 to implement a full ``winterization'' programme. According to the UNHCR, as many as 400,000 people could perish because of the cold in former Yugoslavia this winter. Acheson's warning was echoed by Lord Owen, the co- chairman of the month-old Yugoslav peace conference in Geneva. Owen told reporters on Monday it was a ``great sadness'' that plans to provide winter shelter for refugees and displaced persons was so far behind. Owen, who is trying to persuade the three warring factions to agree to the demilitarisation of Sarajevo, said large-scale starvation could only now be avoided if hostilities were ended. ``People will die of cold this winter in substantial numbers, letting alone from lack of food. The crucial question is the military one,'' Owen said.
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CHARITY LEADER CONDEMNS ``COWARDICE'' OVER YUGOSLAVIA STRASBOURG, France, Oct 5, Reuter - The head of a leading French medical charity blasted Western policy on the former Yugoslavia on Tuesday, accusing political leaders of effectively condoning atrocities through ``cowardice and resignation.'' ``The lesson for any budding dictator...is: massacre, deport, purify, build concentration camps -- do what you want as long as you let a few humanitarian convoys in,'' said Rony Brauman, head of Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF). ``Humanitarianism in these conditions is no more than a mask for political inaction, the modern name for cowardice and resignation,'' Brauman said in an outspoken speech to accept the Council of Europe's Human Rights prize. MSF has been among leading non-governmental agencies bringing relief to Bosnia-Herzegovina since the beginning of the republic's inter-ethnic war in April. It has sent in 20 tonnes of medical equipment alone. Brauman did not say what he though the West should do to stop the bloodletting between Serbs, Moslems and Croats. Western leaders have resisted calls for full-scale military intervention to halt what they see as Serb aggression, saying the goals of such an operation were too unclear and very difficult to achieve. Brauman's predecessor at MSF was Bernard Kouchner, now French Humanitarian Aid Minister and one of the architects of the West's humanitarian airlift to Bosnia. They have long been critics of each other's methods.
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Lawrence Eagleburger - MacNeil-Lehrer Tuesday 6. October Newsmaker interview: M-L: I have just received raport from the Security Council just adopted resolu- tion establishing the first ever war crimes committee to investigate the all- eged attrocities in the former Yugoslavia. Is that an important step? Eagleburger: Oh yes, I think it is. It is the proposal we introduced in the Security Council. And it has two purposes: one is to establish the facts on what is going on in the past in terms of war crimes, and it is also I hope, a warning to those in Yugoslavia who have been commiting these acts that they better watch out from now on, because it will be people watching them. So hopefully it will have a deterent effect as well. M-L: How close is the United nations now to improving the no-fly zone over Bosnia. Eagleburger: Well ther is still a debate gonig on, we have proposed a resolution which would call for a no-fly zone and at a same time said if it is violated the force may be used to police it. There was a good bit of a debate in the Security Council with the number of the other permanent members of the SC not particularly enthusiastic about moving to the enforcment stage , at least at first. So we are still in the informal debate with the number of the SC members, we will be looking at this again tomorow, but it is clasic case of that everybody needs to remember. This is multilateral institution and we have to be in a aggrement with all the parties and we are not quite there yet. M-L: tell me exactly the purpose of this no-fly zone. E: there are I think several purposes. the fact of the matter is that the Bosnian Serbs have been flying attack flights for some time now, they have benn in efect threatening the air zone where the humanitarian flights were coming in. It is more than a nuisance, it is very serious problem, and at the London conference about a month ago supposedly, everybody agreed that there will be no more such flights, but as is often the case and in this particular situation, the Bosnian Serbs are not carrying out their commitments so we think it is now time for the SC to mandate that and to make it clear in the same time that if the SC demand is not met, that there will be force to make sure that it is. There is still debate on that second part of it. M-L: Bosnian Serbs said today through their foreign minister mr Buha, that they will imediately stop military flights, and that is been interpreted as effort to head off this no-fly zone move in the UN. Do you believe them this time? E: I believe that it is an attempt to head off the resolution, they also qualify it by saying if the Bosnian Moslems or Croats took advantage of this to attack, then they would return again it's so fuzzy that you can't be particularly certain of how serious they are, but they are wery clearly worried by ehat is going on in the SC. I think they want to try to head off the SC resolution on the basis of to much past history. I wouldn't put too much creedence in their words. M-L: Now there is a difference, isn't there, in intention this time and that is actualy to protect some of the Muslim people in Bosnia from Serbian attack. Whereas previous US policy was to protect (use force if neccesaru) to protect relief supplies. E: well certanly that would be part of the consequence yes. You have to put it in two pieces. First of all there is the question of flying and what it does to threaten humanitarian flights, in addition there is no quetion, that if you impose a no-fly zone, it means that the Bosnian Serbs can't use their aircraft to attack the Bosnian Muslims. That is correct. M-L[ I gather from the reports today, that the British and the French would rather that there were two stages : you declare a no-fly zone and then observers on the ground see whether that is being observed before you move to the stage which you want US wants, of immediately having patroling flights to monitor and observe. Is that fair? E: yes, that is fair representation of their view against ours, and I dont know if we are having any argument of puting observers on the ground in this airfields, and so forth. They can I suppose watch the planes take off and land and hopefully that would have some deterent effect. But we feel very strongly that it is important for the SC to make it clear that its resolutions are to be obeyed. As I said earlier this is the multilateral institution. We will have to debate with the our collegues in the SC, and probably will have to come to some compromise. M-L: They are apparently worried that the French , who have troups on the ground and the British who will, might have those troups retaliated against by the Serbians, whereas the US has no troups on the ground to be retaliated against. E: Look. There is no question that the decision that the president finaly made to go to no-fly zone with some theeths in it, is in fact the tough decision. And there is no argument that we had debate within the US government we are now having debate with some of our allies. there is no question at all that moving to this step has some consequences with it as well and they are a lot of heavy chested ....newspaper editors who dont seem to recognize that it is a comlicated problem, and there are consequences to our alies. The president decided I think rightly that the situation in and around Sarajevo is disatruous now ,that we need to move hard and fast to prevent it becoming worse , but I can understand the argument of the French and the British or anyone else saying : look there are consequences with this that we need to pin through. M-L: Some reports are suggesting Mr. Bush have changed his policy because he was being pressured by the governor Clinton who was urging more US involvment. Is that the reason the President changed his policy. E: No no, ...... M-L: It is also being suggested that the administration was sensitive to apparent inconsistency with policy in Iraq, where a no-fly zone was .... in, Us planes together with the British and French and some other planes have been enforcing that. Why you were willing to do it in the Iraq, where there is not obvious .... danger to civilians , why not do it in Yugoslavia? Were you sensitive to that argument? E: There is no question. We are very sensitive to the Muslim world view, that the west is permiting the killing of Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina while acting differently in Iraq. The situation is totaly different. So I mean it is very clear you can impose a no-fly zone in Iraq for totaly different reasons, but the point nevertheless ... is that the Moslem world looks on the gas more and more as the Moslems in Bosnia and Herzegovina are killed, and that there is no question at all that this waights heavily on the president and on of all of us who tried to think through this problem. Again the situa- tion is totaly different but the fact of the matter is Moslems are being killed in Bosnia Herzegovina. And this government is trying to demonstrate to the Moslim world we care about it, and want to do something about it. M-L: So president is now prepared to put American war planes into the sjy ower Bosnia if the UN asks for it. E: Again I dont want to commit the president, but It seems to me that is fairly obvious that if in fact the no-fly zone were passed with the teeth in it that we want, the president would be prepared to contribute to the enforcemtn od the no-fly zone, Yes. M-L: And if the Serbian planes interfiered would they be shot down? E: Again I dont want to speculate other than to say that you can assume the US would be prepared to make sure that the no-fly zone was carried out and I suppose if that requires the use of force, we would be prepared to do that. M-L: Moving to the other piece of the situation which has so many people so concerned with, particularly with winter advancing . What is the US doing to increase the quantity or proportion of relief suplies actually reaching? E: It is a tough problem. And again, as winter comes about it is going to be much tougher to get the food in by plane becouse the airport is fogged over most of the time. One, we are trying to get as much by air as we can all being virtualy US is almost alone in flying aircraft in it at this point, and if not alone we are contributing the major part. Trying roads ... doignour best... M-L: And the US will be prepared to use force to in some way in conjuction with other countries to protect those road convoys? E: Again you are asking me to make commitment for the president. The fact of the matter is we have already SC resolution which says all necessary means to assure that humanitarian aids reach there. It is a decision for the Secretary General of the UN and the UNPROFOR as to what that force might be, obviously we will be ready to support whatever the decision is. M-L: Briefly mr Secretary, does US government believe these very alarming estimates of how many people men, women and children, would starve this winter if some solution isnt found E: Believe is probably the wrong word. We are prepared to accept as potentialy possible that a very substantial deaths this winter through starvation if food and medicine does not get to these people. It could be a herendous problem and we are doing everything we can to make sure it doesnt happen M-L: Secretary Eagleburger, thank you for joining us.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 191, 5 October 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR HEAVY FIGHTING IN ABKHAZIA. On 2 October some 3,000-4,000 Abkhaz National Guardsmen and volunteers from the North Caucasus captured the town of Gagra after heavy fighting with the 200 Georgian troops there; some 100 people were killed, Western agencies reported. The Georgian State Council announced plans to mobilize 40,000 reservists. State Council Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze flew to the Abkhaz capital, Sukhumi, where he told journalists that while Georgia had complied with the 3 September ceasefire agreement, Abkhaz forces had consistently violated it with the support of the Russian parliament. He vowed that Georgia would retake Gagra. Meeting in Tbilisi on 3 October in Shevardnadze's absence, the Georgian State Council voted to seize all former Soviet military equipment on Georgian territory. Also on 3 October, Shevardnadze's helicopter was fired upon as he travelled to Sochi for talks with Russian military officials. Gagra was reported calm on 4 October, but a representative of the State Council told AFP that the Abkhaz were committing "atrocities" against the civilian population. Georgian reinforcements were dispatched to the towns of Gantiadi and Leselidze, between Gagra and the Russian frontier. The State Council appealed to NATO Secretary-General Manfred Woerner and to the CSCE to help calm the situation, according to AFP. Addressing a rally in Sukhumi, Shevardnadze called on the Georgian population of Abkhazia to participate in the 11 October parliamentary elections which he termed the key to stabilizing the situation in the republic. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) GRACHEV WARNS GEORGIA ABOUT ARMS SEIZURES. Russian Defense Minister General Pavel Grachev on 4 October warned Georgia that any attempts to take control of Russian military equipment in the republic could lead to armed clashes between Russian and Georgian forces. Grachev was responding to the recent Georgian State Council's decision to seize all Russian arms stationed in Georgia. ITAR-TASS quoted Grachev as saying that this decision was "a flagrant breach of earlier agreements" and that he had given orders to all Russian troops to prevent any forcible seizure of military facilities. Russian and Georgian authorities had previously worked out arrangements for the transfer of some Russian military equipment to the republic. In August, the Russians announced that the 10th Motorized Rifle division in Akhaltsikhe, stationed along the Turkish border, would be disbanded and its equipment handed over to Georgia. However, on 17 September the Russian Defense Ministry charged that Georgian units were attacking Russian troops and civilians, and warned that its forces reserved the right to fight back. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) WESTERN CORRESPONDENTS VISIT TAJIKISTAN WAR ZONE. Reports on 2,3 and 4 October from Western correspondents visiting Kurgan-Tyube and other locations in southern Tajikistan provide some confirmation of charges made earlier by opponents of deposed President Rakhmon Nabiev that Russian forces stationed in the country are helping pro-Nabiev fighters. The pro-Nabiev forces from Kulyab Oblast have severely damaged the town of Kurgan-Tyube, and thousands of refugees from there were reported to be making their way to Dushanbe. In an interview on Tajik Radio on 4 October, Tajik Deputy Prime Minister Davlat Usmon, a leader of the Islamic Renaissance Party, compared the role of Russian troops in Tajikistan with that of Soviet troops in Afghanistan and accused the Russians of siding with forces opposed to the present Tajik government. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) EXPERIMENTAL LAND SALES IN RUSSIA. President Yeltsin has signed a decree "On Carrying Out an Experiment in Moscow Oblast in 1992 in Auctioning Off Plots of Land for Housing Construction," ITAR-TASS reported on 2 October. Officials in the Ramenskoye raion will be authorized to auction plots of land to residents of Moscow and the Moscow oblast for housing construction. They will be asked to submit reports within one month on the results of the experiment. The State Committee for Land Reform is expected to use the results to help determine land values in any future widespread land privatization. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA TO TIGHTEN CONTROL OF HARD- CURRENCY EARNINGS. Russian First Deputy Foreign Trade Minister Sergei Glazyev told Parliament on 2 October that the government would soon require state enterprises to sell all of their hard-currency earnings to the state, Interfax and Radio Rossii reported. At present, state enterprises must sell half of their hard-currency earnings to the state at the going market rate. Glazyev did not specify when the proposed measure would take effect. He told Interfax that firms had stashed away some $3.5 billion in foreign bank accounts, while an additional $1.5 billion was "outside government control." It is thought that anticipation of this move was a factor in last week's decline in the exchange rate of the ruble. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.) KRAVCHUK APPOINTS ACTING PRIME MINISTER. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk on 2 October appointed Valentyn Symonenko as acting prime minister, Ukrinform-TASS and Western news agencies reported. The move follows the resignation of Vitold Fokin and the parliamentary vote of no confidence in his government. Symonenko, who was appointed Kravchuk's representative in Odessa earlier this year, subsequently was named first deputy prime minister. His appointment came after Volodymyr Lanovyi, the market-oriented minister of economics and deputy prime minister, was sacked by Kravchuk. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIA, UKRAINE CONCUR ON FORMER USSR DEBT. Russian Prime Minister Egor Gaidar and Ukrainian President Kravchuk announced in Kiev on 3 October that their countries would accept responsibility for their individual shares of the $70-$80 billion debt of the former Soviet Union, but no more. The two nations are thereby rejecting the concept of "joint and several" responsibility for the debt to which they agreed with Western creditors last December. The concept of "joint and several" responsibility basically means that in case of non-payment on the former Soviet debt by one or more of the republics, the remaining republics must make up the difference. This decision by Russia and Ukraine may cause further problems in upcoming negotiations over debt repayment with Western creditors. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN AGREEMENT ON TRADE ISSUES. Gaidar's visit to Kiev also produced an agreement between Russia and Ukraine on resolving their current trade dispute. Few details were provided. Western news agencies quoted Gaidar as saying simply that the agreement would contribute to "normalizing uneasy relations between the two countries." The recent dispute concerns outstanding payments between Ukrainian and Russian enterprises for imports. Russian unilateral actions to stem the growth of this indebtedness has significantly hampered already floundering trade between the two states. The documents signed by Gaidar and acting Ukrainian Prime Minister Valentin Symonenko also appear to include provisions for the introduction of a new Ukrainian national currency. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) DEMOCRATS AND CIVIC UNION SEARCH FOR CONSENSUS. Representatives of the "Democratic Russia" movement and the Civic Union have met to discuss economic reform and decided to set up groups of joint experts of various political groups to monitor and advice the government on reform, DR-Press reported on 4 October. Representatives of the Civic Union suggested that an invitation be extended to members of a right-wing group opposed to the group of experts, but the democrats rejected the idea. Members of the Civic Union said that the Arkadii Volsky's "thirteen point program," which had been published in Izvestiya on 13 September, was not the official economic program of the Civic Union. (Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV BARRED FROM FOREIGN TRAVEL. ITAR-TASS quoted on 2 October a press release issued by the Russian Constitutional Court concerning its request that the Russian Foreign Ministry along with the Ministry of Security (formerly the KGB) ensure the appearance in the Court of former CPSU Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev. The request was made in response to Gorbachev's refusal to testify at the communist party hearings "and in the connection of his scheduled trip abroad." ITAR-TASS quoted the Constitutional Court as stating that the aforementioned ministries had taken "appropriate measures" to stop Gorbachev from going abroad. On 6 October, Gorbachev was supposed to begin a visit to South Korea; according to The Los Angeles Times of 4 October, after the authorities withdrew his passport, Gorbachev informed the Koreans that the trip had to be postponed. Gorbachev reportedly had plans to visit several Latin American countries; he also was to visit Berlin to receive that city's honorary citizenship on 6 November. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN SIGNS DECREE ON GOVERNMENT. President Boris Yeltsin has signed a decree on the reorganization of the government, ITAR-TASS reported on 2 October. It abolishes the ministry of architecture, construction and housing management, the ministry for industry and twenty-two state committees. Six new state committees, including one for industrial policy, will be created. Twenty-six other ministries will be reorganized and a new post of deputy prime minister for agriculture will be established. The former State Committee for Procurement (Gossnab) will be transformed into a share holding company called Roskontrakt. Yeltsin signed the decree before the parliament concluded its discussions on a new law on the government, which may cause new friction. In an apparent effort to minimize anticipated negative political reaction, Prime Minister Gaidar told an ITAR-TASS correspondent on 24 September that the current governmental structure was hurriedly thrown together in a moment of crisis as the Soviet Union was falling apart. The planned restructuring, he said, is simply an attempt to "instill order, [and] define functions and competence... [in] the hierarchy of agencies." (Alexander Rahr & Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) CRIMEAN MEJLIS TO HOLD EMERGENCY SESSION. Crimean Tatar leaders are calling for an emergency session of their parliament, the Mejlis, Interfax and Western news agencies reported on 4 October. The action follows a clash between Tatars and Crimean authorities after the latter ordered the removal of temporary houses built by the Tartars in the southern town of Alushta. More than 50 people were reported injured. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) EXTRAORDINARY CONGRESS OF MOUNTAIN PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS. The two-day extraordinary congress of the mountain peoples of the Caucasus held in the Chechen capital Groznyi to discuss the situation in Abkhazia ended on 4 October, ITAR-TASS reported. Its final declaration calls on the official leaders of the North Caucasian republics to denounce the federal treaty that governs their relations with Russia as not in accord with the interests of the peoples of the North Caucasus. It also recommends that political organizations and movements in the republics demand that the leaderships strive for real independence, recognize the independence of Chechnya, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia, and create joint forces of regional security. If the republican leaderships refuse to do this, the confederation threatens to organize mass protests demanding their resignations. The congress also demanded the immediate withdrawal of all Russian troops from the region. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) CONFEDERATION OF MOUNTAIN PEOPLES RENAMED. The congress decided to rename the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus the Confederation of the Peoples of the Caucasus in the hope that the local Cossacks and others would join it. In an interview with ITAR-TASS on 3 October, the confederation's president, Musa Shanibov, said that although Chechnya was the standard-bearer of freedom in the region, he still believed that the other 15 peoples who are members of the confederation should for the time being continue to link their fate with Russia to avoid a conflagration. A session of the confederation's parliament is due to take place in two weeks' time. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) PRESIDENT OF KABARDINO-BALKARIA CRITICIZES RUSSIA. Valerii Kokov, president of Kabardino-Balkaria, told Russian journalists on 4 October that Russia's policy towards the North Caucasus was "inadequate," and lacking in an understanding of the situation, ITAR-TASS reported. He said that the arrest in Nalchik of Musa Shanibov, the leader of the Confederation of the Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, had been illtimed. The arrest sparked off round-the-clock protests meetings in Nalchik that are still continuing. Interfax reported on 4 October that protesters were still awaiting a response from the republican government to their demands that Russian MVD troops withdraw and that Kokov resign. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLL ON POLITICAL PARTIES IN AZERBAIJAN. On 3 October Interfax cited the results of a poll conducted by the Baku Center for Sociological Studies which indicates that the ruling Azerbaijan Popular Front is the most popular political organization in Azerbaijan, with a rating of 37.2 per cent among an unspecified number of respondents in the cities of Baku and Sumgait. The radical National Independence Party of Azerbaijan, headed by Etibar Mamedov, was second with 26 per cent. Among the Azerbaijani leadership, Iskander Gamidov, the pan-Turkist Minister of Internal Affairs, is supported by 58.7 per cent of those polled, followed by Defense Minister Ragim Kaziev (50 per cent,) and Nakhichevan parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev (39.5 per cent). No rating was listed for President Abulfaz Elchibey. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) OIL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS. Azerbaijan has signed a preliminary agreement with Pennzoil, Remco, and Pennzoil Caspial to develop oil and gas deposits in the Guneshli offshore field in the Caspian Sea, Turan, RIA, and The Wall Street Journal reported on 2 October. The Western companies are expected to invest $2.5 billion during the next 10 years. Russia's top corruption investigator was quoted by Trud on 2 October as saying that corruption in the oil industry is "alarming" and that only one-quarter of the value of exported oil is repatriated. And the governor of Tyumen oblast told Reuters on 2 October that his oil industry will fight to keep its 20% share of oil revenues. (Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc.) KYRGYZ VICE PRESIDENT VISITS TAJIKISTAN. Kyrgyzstan's Vice President Feliks Kulov was the first representative of a CIS state to visit the war zone in southern Tajikistan, Tajik acting President Akbarsho Iskandarov told Interfax on 2 October. The following day Kulov told Interfax that the issue of a peacekeeping force for Tajikistan will be raised at the CIS summit on 9 October, and Tajik leaders will present plans for the deployment of peacekeepers. The opposing sides in the conflict agreed to support the deployment of a CIS peacekeeping force, according to Kulov, but want it to be made up of troops from a neutral state. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. International relief flights began again to Sarajevo on 3 October, following a one-month break after an Italian cargo plane was shot down by a shoulder-launched missile of undetermined origin. The thick Sarajevo fog forced a delay in additional relief flights on 3 October, but the BBC said that the first plane had brought new radar equipment to enable the airport to stay open throughout the fog season. The New York Times quoted President George Bush as calling Serbian bombing attacks in Bosnia a "flagrant disregard for human life" and supporting a ban on all flights in that republic except those authorized by the UN. In Strasbourg EC special envoy Lord Owen told an RFE/RL correspondent that the effects of ethnic cleansing by Serbian forces will eventually be undone by "persistent application of principle . . . not over months but over years." Finally, Reuters quoted UN High Commissioner for Refugees Sadako Ogata and the chief of the International Committee of the Red Cross Cornelio Sommaruga as condemning ethnic cleansing, including what Ogata referred to as encouraging "rape of women of another ethnic group." (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) ALLEGATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC ASSAULTS ON MUSLIM WOMEN. Western news agencies on 2 October quoted Bosnian Serbian leaders as denying recent media reports that their fighters are systematically raping Muslim women, and military liaison officer Momo Starcevic promised to punish any guilty parties. On 25 September the Zagreb weekly Globus reported on a particular incident in which 40 Muslim young women from one village said they had been gang-raped by Serbs over a period of several days. One of the men told them it was part of a policy to wipe out the Muslim nation. Globus further reported that a team of UN gynecologists examined the women, confirmed their stories, and concluded that such mistreatment appears to be a "war strategy . . . [ordered] from the top." The story was not corroborated, however. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) ATMOSPHERE IN CZECHOSLOVAK COALITION DETERIORATING. After deputies of Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS) supported a resolution of the leftist opposition in the federal parliament on the creation of a Czech and Slovak Union on 1 October, Czech officials charged Meciar with breaking earlier agreements between the coalition partners. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus published a statement on 2 October in which he said that he feels betrayed. He said the HZDS's shift of position is dangerous "for the future of democracy in our country." After an emergency session of the Czech government on 3 October, Klaus made it clear that he has no intention of postponing scheduled meetings with the Slovak government to discuss further steps of dividing the country, despite Meciar's urging to do so. Klaus also said that Czechoslovakia will cease to exist on 1 January 1993, thus indicating that he will not take into consideration the federal parliament's proposal on creating a union between the two republics. Former President Vaclav Havel supported the Czech government's view; he was quoted by CSTK on 3 October as saying that a union would only prolong the agony. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIVIC MOVEMENT BECOMES A PARTY. Delegates to a special congress of the Civic Movement, one of the heirs to the Civic Forum, which toppled the Czechoslovak communist regime in November 1989, voted on 4 October to transform the movement into a political party. Delegates abolished the movement's collective, open membership and replaced it with a fixed structure. Before the elections of June 1992, the Civic Movement was a dominating political actor on the federal level and in the Czech Republic, but it failed to win enough support in the elections to be represented in either the Czech or the federal parliaments. Former Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier was elected the party's chairman. He said the party's goal is to form a liberal, nonsocialist alternative in today's political scene. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) FINAL RESULTS IN ROMANIAN PRESIDENTIAL RACE. On 4 October the Constitutional Court released the final results of the 27 September presidential race. Incumbent President Ion Iliescu won 47.34% of the votes, followed by Emil Constantinescu, candidate of the centrist Democratic Convention, with 31.24%; Gheorghe Funar of the Party of Romanian National Unity (10.88%); Caius Traian Dragomir of the National Salvation Front (4.75); Ioan Manzatu from the fringe Republican Party (3.05%); and Mircea Druc, a former prime minister of Moldova who ran as an independent (2.75%). Radio Bucharest quoted the president of the court as saying that the share of invalid votes (4.65%) was "normal." A runoff between Iliescu and Constantinescu is scheduled for 11 October. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) CONSTANTINESCU CRITICIZES VOTE COUNTING. The same day Radio Bucharest broadcast a statement by Constantinescu criticizing what he termed "confusion and lack of transparency" surrounding the vote counting. Constantinescu spoke of "serious irregularities" and stressed that roughly one in ten votes for the parliament had been declared invalid. He appealed to the authorities to show "a maximum of fairness" in staging the runoff for presidency, and challenged his rival Ion Iliescu to at least three debates to be broadcast live by Romanian radio and television. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) FUNAR BECOMES INTERIM PRESIDENT OF HIS PARTY. The National Council of the Party of Romanian National Unity (PRNU), the political arm of the nationalist "Vatra Romaneasca" (Romanian Hearth) organization, announced on 3 October that Gheorghe Funar was appointed the party's interim president at a council meeting in Cluj-Napoca. Funar placed third with almost 11% of the votes in the presidential race, while his PRNU was also third in the parliamentarian elections. Before appointing Funar, the council "suspended" former party president Radu Ciontea and "discharged" another four leaders. It also appointed a delegation including Funar to conduct talks in Bucharest on the building of the next government, Radio Bucharest said. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) IN POLAND, GAIDAR AGREES TO ZERO-SUM DEBT SETTLEMENT. Mutual debt claims were the focus of talks between Russian Prime Minister Egor Gaidar and Polish officials in Warsaw on 2 October. Gaidar and Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka signed agreements on investment protection and cross-border cooperation. Gaidar pledged that Poland will be able to buy as much oil from Russia as it can afford in 1992 and 1993. Russia supports the idea of a "zero-sum settlement" of mutual debt claims, he said. President Lech Walesa earlier told Gaidar that Poland insists on a zero-sum solution. Polish TV reported that Poland owes Moscow $1.5 billion and 5 billion transfer rubles, while Russia owes Poland $300 million and 7 million transfer rubles. A joint commission was formed to settle the question. Gen. Leonid Kovalev announced that the withdrawal of Russian combat troops from Poland will conclude by the end of October, two weeks ahead of schedule. Walesa said that Poland wants good relations with Russia, but with respect for the principles of partnership and democracy. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLISH MASS PRIVATIZATION MOVES FORWARD. Poland's mass privatization program survived an important test on 2 October, when the Sejm voted down a motion to throw out the government's draft legislation. PAP reported that the vote on rejecting the legislation outright was 146 to 180, with 17 abstentions. The vote on the mass privatization program, which aims to privatize 600 selected firms and distribute shares in 20 national investment funds to the general public, had been delayed because the Sejm demanded an official reckoning of the expected costs. Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski reported that the program would begin to pay for itself as soon as the first million citizens paid their minimal participation fees. Some 10-20 million Poles are expected to take part in the mass privatization program. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) POLAND PLANS DEFENSE ACCORDS WITH NEIGHBORS. Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz told a press conference on 2 October that Poland plans to sign military cooperation agreements with Germany, Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania in the near future. These agreements will resemble those Poland has already concluded with Hungary, France, and Latvia. Onyszkiewicz added that the defense ministry will not take an official stance on the issue of Col. Ryszard Kuklinski, the Polish officer who spied for the CIA for eleven years. There were many "question marks" about Kuklinski's behavior, Onyszkiewicz said, adding that Kuklinski had access only to those Warsaw Pact operational plans that involved the participation of Polish armed forces. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) SLOVENIAN ELECTIONS IN DECEMBER. Slovenia's first multiparty parliamentary and presidential elections since declaring independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991 will be held on 6 December. A second round is scheduled on 20 December for candidates failing to win more than 50% of the vote. There are currently eight presidential candidates, including the current president, Milan Kucan. Kucan, a former chairman of the Slovenian League of Communists, won in a run-off election in April 1990 during Slovenia's first multiparty elections since 1938. Recent polls show that Kucan is the republic's most popular politician. Radio Slovenia carried the report on 1 October. (Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.) HUNGARY TO RESTORE NAGYMAROS LANDSCAPE. The Hungarian government approved a plan to restore the landscape at Nagymaros, the Hungarian section of the joint Hungarian-Czechoslovak Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric power project, MTI reports. If parliament votes to accept the plan in the coming weeks, work on restoring the landscape can begin next spring and is expected to take two and a half years. The major work involves removing the dam, filling the Danube river bed, and making the river navigable. Costs are estimated at over 7 billion forint. State Secretary in the Ministry of Transportation, Communications, and Water Conservation Zsolt Rajkai said that normal operations of the Gabcikovo dam on the Slovak side should not cause problems, but a peak operation raises the danger of flooding for both sides. Hungary started construction at Nagymaros in 1977 but pulled out of the joint project in 1989 because of environmental concerns. (Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.) ALBANIAN ECONOMY ON VERGE OF COLLAPSE. A study appearing in Business Eastern Europe, the weekly of the private consulting group, Business International, says industrial output in Europe's poorest country will likely drop by 17% this year to a level only 35% of what it was in 1990, at the time of the fall of the communist regime. Only one-third of the 300 largest enterprises are operating, unemployment in industry is at 50% and rising, and inflation, currently at about 220%, could shoot up as well. Foreign aid to Albania remains vital, the report says. At the same time Reuters reports that during a 3 October visit, Prime Minister Alexander Meksi secured an additional $30 million in emergency aid from Italy, the main donor nation to Albania, and established formal bilateral economic relations. (Charles Trumbull, RFE/RL, Inc.) OIL SPILL IN BELARUS APPROACHING LITHUANIA. On 3 October the Lithuanian Environmental Protection Department reported that nearly 200 tons of oil, spilled into the Nemunas River when a deranged person pried open oil containers at a furniture factory 70 kilometers from Grodno, are approaching Lithuania, BNS reports. Only a small portion of the Nemunas bank has been contaminated and workers at Druskininkai, Alytus, and Prienai have built barriers of hay to prevent the further spread of the contamination. (Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.) SKINHEADS ATTACK GERMANS IN CRACOW. Three German truck drivers were attacked by skinheads in Nowa Huta, near Cracow, on the night of 1 October. One of the Germans died as a result of injuries suffered in the attack. Cracow police apprehended a group of 10 teenage suspects and placed four under arrest. About 100 skinheads waged a battle with police in the center of Cracow on the night of 2 October. One policeman was seriously injured. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka expressed "deep sorrow and regret" at the incident, according to PAP. Hundreds of horrified Cracow residents placed flowers and lit candles at the site of the attack. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.)
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 192, 6 October, 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR GEORGIAN MILITIA CHIEF ISSUES ULTIMATUM TO RUSSIAN TROOPS. Georgian State Council deputy chairman Dzhaba Ioseliani, the commander of the Mkhedrioni militia, issued an ultimatum to Russian troops and volunteers from the North Caucasus fighting in Abkhazia to leave by 15 October or be driven out by force, Western agencies reported. Meanwhile a Georgian counter-offensive aimed at retaking Gagra was repulsed by the Abkhaz. A Georgian military helicopter was shot down near Gagra. The Georgian State Council press office claimed that it was shot down by two Russian jets, while the Russian Defense Ministry denied any involvement and suggested that it was brought down by a ground-to-air missile launched by Abkhaz separatists. Following a meeting with the leadership of the Transcaucasus Military District, Georgian State Council chairman Eduard Shevardnadze claimed in a radio address that Russian troops in Abkhazia have formed a military government there and are no longer obeying commands. Shevardnadze further charged that "reactionary forces" in Russia are supporting Abkhaz separatism, but warned that Georgia should not break off relations with Moscow given the presence of "healthy democratic forces" there. (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) WHILE FOREIGN MINISTER TRIES CONCILIATORY APPROACH. Addressing a news conference in Moscow on 5 October, Georgian Foreign Minister Aleksandre Chikvaidze said that his top policy priority was saving Georgian-Russian relations, which date back centuries and must not be allowed suddenly to collapse, ITAR-TASS reported. Chikvaidze also stated that nothing can prevent the holding of the parliamentary elections scheduled for 11 October, "even if they take place against a background of artillery fire." (Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, Inc.) SITUATION IN TAJIKISTAN. More than 1,000 refugees from southern Tajikistan gathered in front of the parliament building in Dushanbe to demand the removal of Russian troops from the region, Interfax reported on 5 October. Acting president Akbarsho Iskandarov told the refugees that the status of the troops will be determined when agreements are signed with the Russian Federation; the same day he told Interfax that the Tajik government is not strong enough to disarm the armed bands that have been fighting each other in the southern part of the country, and Deputy Chairman of Tajikistan's National Security Committee Jurabek Aminov commented that the government is getting weaker while the armed groups are getting stronger. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN TROOPS IN TAJIKISTAN CONFINED TO BASES. All Russian forces in Tajikistan were confined to their bases as of 5 October, Svyatoslav Nabzdorov, Chief of Staff of the Russian troops in Tajikistan, told Interfax the same day. Nabzdorov said that an agreement to this effect had been reached with the various Tajik factions the previous day. The only exception is the Russian troops guarding the Nurek dam and hydroelectric station. National Security Deputy Chairman Aminov told a Reuter correspondent on 5 October that Leninabad Oblast in the north, which has stayed out of the fighting so far, has created its own defense force, as has the self-proclaimed Autonomous Republic of Gorno-Badakhshan in the Pamirs. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVAN FOREIGN MINISTER CALLS FOR UNITED NATIONS ACTION ON MOLDOVA. Addressing the UN General Assembly on 1 October, Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu urged the dispatch of UN ceasefire monitors and human rights rapporteurs to the Dniester, where, he claimed, "pro-communist imperial forces, the military-industrial complex, and the upper ranks of the ex-Soviet army have launched a veritable war...seeking to tear off Moldova's eastern area." Characterizing Russia's 14th Army in eastern Moldova as "an army of occupation . . . and a permanent source of tension and conflict," Tiu noted that Russia is obstructing the negotiations on its withdrawal. Endorsing a proposed resolution on the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic States, Tiu urged the General Assembly to add the issue of Russian troops in Moldova to that debate. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) "DNIESTER" INSURGENTS BUILD UP MILITARY STRENGTH. "Dniester Republic President" Igor Smirnov has appointed Colonel Stanislav Khazheev as "minister of defense" of the would-be republic, DR-Press reported from Tiraspol on 2 October. On the same date, the age limit for officers serving with the "Dniester" forces was raised from 50 to 60 years of age to enable more Russian veterans to join the insurgent forces with full salaries and benefits. Interviewed by Western correspondents on 29 September, as cited by Moldovapres, Smirnov disclosed that the "Dniester" forces currently comprise 35,000 men and that arms procurement would continue despite the ceasefire agreement. Komsomolskaya Pravda had reported from Tiraspol on 24 September that Russian Cossacks are being enrolled in the "Dniester republic"'s newly formed "army" and "border guards." (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) MOLDOVA NEGOTIATES WITH GAGAUZ ON TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur and a Gagauz delegation headed by "Gagauz republic Supreme Soviet Chairman" Mikhail Kendigelyan conferred in Chisinau on 1 October, Moldovapres reported. It was Snegur's second meeting with Gagauz leaders in the space of less than two weeks to discuss a draft law on Gagauz territorial autonomy, prepared by a joint commission of the Moldovan parliament and government. In an apparent attempt to facilitate a deal, the Gagauz leaders on 28 September dismissed their most intransigent colleague, Ivan Burgudji, from his posts of "director of internal affairs" and commander of the "Gagauz defense forces." The dismissal followed a riot in Comrat against Burgudji and his guards who have long made themselves unpopular among ordinary Gagauz. (Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL, Inc.) LIGACHEV ADDRESSES CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. Addressing the Russian Constitutional Court hearings on the CPSU on 5 October, former CPSU CC Politburo member Egor Ligachev, condemned Yeltsin's ban on the Party as unconstitutional. ITAR-TASS reported that the main part of Ligachev's speech was devoted to criticism of the current situation in Russia. The country's current problems were the result of the disbandment of the CPSU, Ligachev maintained. The former Communist Party leading hard-liner accused Mikhail Gorbachev of destroying the Party and said the policies of the former Soviet president opened doors to "anti-communism and national separatism." ITAR-TASS reported the same day that the Constitutional Court again summoned Gorbachev to attend the hearings and fined him for 100 rubles for ignoring earlier summons. (Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.) GORBACHEV FOUNDATION CRITICIZES TRAVEL BAN. The Gorbachev Foundation issued a statement on 3 October criticizing the order barring Mikhail Gorbachev from leaving Russian territory, The order was issued by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs in response to Gorbachev's refusal to attend the Constitutional Court Hearings,Russian television and Western news agencies reported. "Novosti," said the foundation found the involvement of the Minstry of Security in the affair particularly worrisome. Its statement noted that such a ban "contradicts the Russian Constitution and international law," and suggested that the incident might mark the rebirth of the old Soviet technique of denying civil rights to political dissenters. According to The Los Angeles Times of 4 October, Gorbachev had asked in vain to be kept informed of all "concrete measures" taken against him, and for information about the laws permitting such measures. (Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL, Inc.) PROVISIONAL AGENDA FOR CIS SUMMIT AGREED. A meeting of the foreign ministers of CIS states in Moscow on 5 October agreed on a provisional agenda of 20 items for the CIS heads of state and of 24 items for the CIS heads of government for their joint summit meeting in Bishkek on 9 October, Interfax reported. The first item will be the draft CIS charter. The draft agenda also includes a number of economic and defense issues as well as regional conflicts. Among these are harmonizing economic legislation, progress in forming an economic arbitration council, and creating a consultative and coordinatory economic council. Most of the items have been on the agenda of earlier summits, and only limited progress can be expected this time as well. Russia's acting premier Egor Gaidar, for instance, said that Russia will not be rushed into creating the economic council, advocated by Kazakhstan president Nursultan Nazarbaev, for fear of accusations of imperial ambitions. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) YELTSIN SIGNS LAW ON DEFENSE. Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed the Law on Defense on 5 October, the Interfax news agency reported. The law sets out the basic structure and principles of organization of the Russian Armed Forces. Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet had clashed over the right of the President to appoint senior military commanders without consulting the Supreme Soviet (see the Daily Report 25 September 1992), but a compromise was reached allowing the President the exclusive right of appointment after a new Russian constitution is ratified. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) NAZARBAEV PROPOSES ASIAN SECURITY CONFERENCE. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev took his proposal for an Asian counterpart to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe to the United Nations General Assembly on 5 October, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Nazarbaev has been raising the idea of an Asian security organization since 1991; on 2 October his press secretary announced that the presidents of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran will meet in Alma-Ata at the end of October or beginning of November to begin the process of creating an Asian security system patterned on the CSCE. Nazarbaev said that talks with China and Russia about membership are already underway. (Bess Brown, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN ARMY FACES PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT PROBLEMS. The Deputy Commander of the Russian Ground Forces for Armaments, General Colonel Sergei Maev, reported that the Russian army faces serious equipment and repair problems. In an interview in Krasnaya zvezda on 3 October, Maev complained of a 30% personnel shortfall and stated that 70-75% of Russian equipment was outdated. He attributed this to Russia's inheritance of the second-echelon military districts, which held older equipment than the districts in Ukraine and Belarus. Additional difficulties are caused by the fact that 40%, in the case of armor 80%, of repair facilities are located outside Russia. Maev warned that it would require a "serious state program" to correct these deficiencies. (John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN SHIPS JOIN GULF PATROL. On 5 October two Russian naval vessels arrived in the Persian Gulf to join the international peace-keeping forces in that region. ITAR-TASS identified the ships as the "Admiral Vinogradov"--a "Udaloy"-class anti-submarine guided-missile destroyer--and the tanker "Boris Butoma." The report said that the commander of the Russian force would meet with a US naval officer on 6 October to be briefed on naval operations in the Gulf, but stressed that the Russian ships would be responsible only to Admiral Felix Gromov, the Russian Navy's commander-in-chief. The news account also emphasized that the Russian ships had no nuclear weapons onboard. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN DEFENSE DELEGATION VISITS SOUTH KOREA. Russian First Deputy of Defense Andrei Kokoshin led a delegation of military officers, academicians, and defense industrialists to South Korea on 4 October in what ITAR-TASS described as the first such visit in history. Kokoshin was quoted as telling the agency that the visit testified to "Russian's serious intentions to activate its policy in the Asia-Pacific region." During their five-day visit the Russians planned to meet with officials of the South Korean defense department and leading businessmen. Kokoshin noted that "favorable opportunities exist for the development of industrial cooperation between Moscow and Seoul, including the fulfillment of the Russian defense industry's conversion program." (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUSSIAN-AMERICAN SPACE COOPERATION. A Russian cosmonaut will fly in the American space shuttle and an American astronaut will be lifted to the Russian Mir space station by a Soyuz rocket according to plans announced on 4 October by the directors of the US and Russian space agencies. According to UPI, the agreements for these joint efforts were signed that day in Moscow. Two Russian cosmonauts will travel to Houston latter this month to start training for a November 1993 space shuttle mission. Two American astronauts will train in Russia for a 1995 flight to the Mir space station. In each case, only one person will eventually make the space trip. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) SUBMARINE SALE DOES NOT HALT AID PACKAGE. The US House of Representatives passed the $417 million aid package for the republics of the former Soviet Union and sent it to President Bush for his signature despite concerns over the recent Russian sale of diesel submarines to Iran. Western agencies on 2 October reported that the US State Department announced that day that it had been officially informed that Russia intended to go ahead with the sale. The House approved the aid bill 232 to 164. Opposition to the measure was based chiefly on the submarine sale and even several of the bill's supporters admitted that they were troubled by the deal. (Doug Clarke, RFE/RL, Inc.) WHAT IS A KARBOVANETS? The karbovanets, as described by Interfax, would be similar to the existing Ukrainian coupons that have circulated since the beginning of this year. The difference between the coupons and the karbovanets appears be twofold: 1) the former is used only for cash settlements while the latter may be also as a unit of account in non-cash settlements; and 2) the karbovanets, as they are exchanged for rubles, are intended gradually to "cycle" the ruble out of circulation. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) UKRAINE TO HAVE NEW PARALLEL CURRENCY THIS MONTH? According to a representative of the Russian State Committee on Cooperation with CIS Nations, Sergei Dubinin, Ukraine will introduce a new currency this month, Interfax reported on 5 October. The "karbovanets" will temporarily circulate together with the ruble at a fixed 1:1 exchange rate. The measure represents an attempt to avoid the economic shock associated with a sudden shift to a new exclusive currency that would likely flood Russia with Ukrainian rubles. The introduction of the "hrivnya," which will presumably replace the ruble, karbovanets and Ukraine's other quasi-money, coupons, as Ukraine's exclusive currency, is scheduled for the end of this year. (Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc.) NALCHIK RALLY ENDS. The protest meeting that had been going on for more than a week in the center of Nalchik, the capital of Kabardino-Balkaria ended late on 4 October after the government agreed to meet some of the protesters' demands, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported on 5 October. Interfax quoted Zantemira Gubochikova, deputy chairwoman of the opposition Congress of the Kabardinian People as saying that the government had agreed to most of her movement's demands. She said the government agreed to remove special militia units from government buildings, give the congress airtime on local TV on a weekly basis, and halt trials of those who volunteered to fight Georgian forces in Abkhazia. The government also agreed to remove a military unit from the capital within in one month but rejected the demand for the resignation of the republic's president. (Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.) CRIMEAN TATARS DEMONSTRATE. Crimean Tatars blocked roads leading to Simferopol, the capital, and demonstrated in front of the offices of the procurator general on October 5, a spokeswoman reported to RFE/RL. The main demand of the protestors is the release of Crimean Tatars taken into custody after a clash with the authorities several days ago. About 50 people were hurt in the incident when authorities tried to remove homes built by the Crimean Tatars on the property of state farms. A special session of the Mejlis, the Crimean Tatar parliament, is scheduled to meet on 6 October to discuss the situation. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) CIVIC CONGRESS OF UKRAINE OPENS IN DONETSK. The Civic Congress of Ukraine convened in Donetsk on 3 October, ITAR-TASS and DR-Press reported. Delegations from 18 oblasts and the Crimea are taking part. The group favors a federal structure for Ukraine and official status for the Russian and Ukrainian languages in the Donbass region. (Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE EC REBUFF FOR "TRIANGLE" COUNTRIES. European Community foreign ministers met for the first time with their counterparts from the Visegrad triangle of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia on 5 October in Luxembourg, Western agencies report. The current EC president, British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd, told the three countries that no timetable can be set for full membership in the EC. Hurd told a news conference that the EC "sympathizes with the wish of our friends here to become full members," but that economic uncertainties stood in the way. The triangle countries had requested in September that the EC agree to open negotiations on full membership in 1996, with a view to their joining the community by the end of the century. A formal reply to this request is due at an EC summit in December. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) KLAUS AND MECIAR TO MEET TODAY. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus and his Slovak counterpart Vladimir Meciar agreed to hold a meeting of their respective parties, the Civic Democratic Party and the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, today in Moravia, after Meciar unilaterally cancelled talks between the Czech and Slovak governments that were scheduled for today. The Slovak Prime Minister argued that after the rejection of a constitutional amendment by the federal parliament that would have set the modes for the division of the country, senior officials of the two coalition partners should return to the drawing board. Indicating that the main topic of the talks will be budgetary matters, Klaus said on 5 October that it will not be possible to force the parliaments to adopt a federal budget similar to those of the past three years, CSTK reported. He added that because of that, the basis for a common state will automatically cease to exist on 1 January 1993. Klaus also said that he has a "document necessary for the declaration of the independence of the Czech Republic" ready. He did not say if and when he would use it. (Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.) RUNOFF CAMPAIGN OPENS IN ROMANIA. Campaigning for the 11 October runoff for presidency started on 5 October with messages broadcast by the two candidates. The contest is between Romania's incumbent president Ion Iliescu, a former high-ranking communist official, and Bucharest University rector Emil Constantinescu, candidate of the centrist Democratic Convention. Iliescu rejected public doubts about the fairness of the 27 September first-round voting as well as charges that he is opposing reforms. He directed a particularly vehement attack at Nicolae Manolescu, the president of the Party of Civic Alliance, whom he accused of "flunkyism towards circles hostile to Romania" and of obeying "overseas patrons." In his address, Constantinescu reiterated that if elected he would respect the constitution and the will of the nation. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) WEST SHOULD LEARN "LESSON" FROM ROMANIAN VOTE. Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase, who had recently been appointed vice president of Ion Iliescu's Democratic National Salvation Front, said at a press conference on 5 October that the West should view the Romanian election results as "a lesson" and that it needs "a new strategy toward Romania." Nastase claimed that the withholding of aid by the West helped communists and radical nationalists in the 27 September elections. He added that last week's rejection by the US House of Representatives of most-favored-nation trade status for Romania will only boost support for Iliescu. Nastase, who has been widely-tipped as Romania's next prime minister, suggested that an independent would make a better choice for that position. (Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL, Inc.) YUGOSLAV AREA UPDATE. The BBC said on 5 October that Sarajevo has been subjected to renewed, particularly intense shelling from Serbian positions. Over the weekend, the Serbs began consolidating their hold on several Sarajevo districts following the expulsion of many of their Muslim inhabitants the previous week. Elsewhere, Western news agencies report that the three warring sides in Bosnia have agreed to release all civilian and military prisoners by the end of the month as part of an agreement brokered by the Red Cross. Finally, AFP quotes Croatian President Franjo Tudjman as saying that he and President of Serbia-Montenegro, Dobrica Cosic, have agreed to "voluntary and civilized transfers" of populations of unspecified size and duration. (Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.) JARUZELSKI, KISZCZAK TESTIFY IN 1981 SHOOTINGS. Former Polish party chief Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski was interrogated by the Katowice prosecutor on 5 October in an investigation into the martial law killings of nine miners in the Wujek mine. Special ZOMO troops opened fire on striking miners there on 16 December 1981. Questioned as a witness, Jaruzelski accepted "moral responsibility" but no blame for the shootings. Former Internal Affairs Minister Czeslaw Kiszczak was questioned as a suspect in the case on 1 October. The prosecutor charges that Kiszczak's coded message to local officials authorizing the use of force, including firearms, to clear the mine jeopardized the miners' lives. Kiszczak contends the shots were fired in the heat of battle. In a different case, the Warsaw prosecutor told PAP on 5 October that Adam Humer, chief investigator for the dreaded security ministry from 1945 to 1956, had admitted to murdering "suspects" during interrogation and secretly burying their corpses in the woods. Zycie Warszawy reports that Humer is the first former security official to face charges under a new law that lifts the statute of limitations on Stalinist crimes. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) SOVIET COMBAT HELICOPTER VIOLATES POLISH AIRSPACE. A police spokesman in Krosno reported on 5 October that a MI-8 combat helicopter of Soviet origin had violated Polish airspace over Ustrzyki Dolne and Ustjanowa, towns near Poland's border with Ukraine, on 3 October. The helicopter, adorned with a red star, made two low passes over buildings in Ustrzyki before departing in the direction of the border. The Polish border guard in Przemysl confirmed the report, adding that investigations are continuing. Ukrainian military officials denied that any air force operations had taken place in the area. (Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.) CANADIAN GOVERNOR GENERAL IN HUNGARY. Ramon John Hnatyshyn held talks in Budapest on 5 October with President Arpad Goncz and Prime Minister Jozsef Antall. The goal of the official visit is to expand bilateral ties between the two countries. The talks focused on economic ties, Canada's participation in the 1996 Budapest World Fair, and the situation in the former Yugoslavia. Antall urged that Western countries adopt a comprehensive strategy aimed at strengthening East Central Europe's new democracies. Goncz expressed concern about a possible spread of the Yugoslav crisis and said that future peace treaties should guarantee the exercise of minority rights. (Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.) SATELLITE TV FOR HUNGARIANS ABROAD. Spokeswoman Judit Juhasz says the Hungarian government has set up the Hungaria Television Foundation to finance a satellite station to convey Hungarian cultural values, provide an objective view of Hungary, cultivate relations between peoples, and help minorities in other countries preserve their Hungarian identity. Hungaria TV is to start transmission three hours a day on 1 November. Programs will deal with politics, culture, entertainment, and religion, with special emphasis on education. The station will be overseen by a 13-member board of trustees consisting of prominent Hungarian cultural figures, including the writer Sandor Csoori. State subsidies will amount to 300 million forint this year and 2 billion next year, but the station is expected to be self-financing by 1997. MTI and Radio Budapest carried the story. (Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.) MORE POLICEMEN IN HUNGARY. Minister of the Interior Peter Boross told a press conference that this year 2500 new police posts have been filled and 500 additional policemen are to be hired next year. Pointing out that public security is becoming a number one political issue in Hungary, Boross said that the increase in police personnel has the population's support. Boross stressed the importance of keeping the police force free of any political influence. As in all East European countries, the number of crimes in Hungary has sharply increased in the freer atmosphere brought about by democratization. (Edith Oltay, RFE/RL, Inc.) ZHELEV-DIMITROV RIFT DEEPENS. In an interview on Bulgarian radio on 5 October, Bulgarian Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov accused President Zhelyu Zhelev of knowingly telling lies about him and his UDF government. Dimitrov, who did not go into detail, was apparently referring to Zhelev's account of the background to their differences in yesterday's issue of 24 chasa. Dimitrov said the timing of such statements make him believe Zhelev has joined what he termed a "purposeful and premeditated" campaign aimed at destabilizing the government. The UDF cabinet has been at odds with Zhelev since he launched sharp criticism of some aspects of government policies in late August. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.) BULGARIA, UKRAINE SIGN ACCORDS. During a seven-hour visit by the Ukrainian president to Sofia, Leonid Kravchuk and Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation as well as bilateral agreements on trade, cultural exchange and defense matters, BTA and ITAR-TASS report. The friendship treaty confirms the territorial integrity of the two states and calls for peaceful settlement of disputes and respect for human rights. Zhelev told a press conference that he is pleased with Ukrainian authorities' attitude toward resolving the problems of the some 240,000 ethnic Bulgarians in their country, saying there was no need for a special minority clause in the agreements. Kravchuk noted that Ukraine will soon open an embassy in Sofia. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.) BULGARIAN SCHOOL STRIKE. On 5 October Bulgarian teachers went on strike to demand higher pay. BTA reports that some 70% of all teachers participated on the first day of the strike, forcing some 3,500 of the country's 4,500 schools to close. The teachers' unions are dissatisfied with the general 26% salary increase offered in the second half of 1992 and demand an agreement in principle that will put their salaries at 10% above the average. They are also seeking more public resources to improve schools. (Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.) STIPENDS FOR LATVIAN STUDENTS INCREASED. On 30 September the Latvian Supreme Council adopted a resolution raising the amount of financial aid available to students at institutions of higher learning, BNS reports. The monthly state scholarship of 1140 rubles had been less than the official minimum wage of 1500 rubles. Students may now apply for interest-free loans in an amount up to 1.5 times the state stipend in addition to the free scholarship itself. The loans, to be repaid eight years after graduation, are available to full-time students in the last two years of their studies who are Latvian citizens. Other loans are available for needy and disabled students. (Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.)
novine.55 zandric,
> The authoritarian Serbian leader used the meeting to > launch a new attack on U.N. economic sanctions slapped on > his republic for underwriting the Serbian territorial > conquests in neighboring Bosnia- Hercegovina. "PUSKINOVO NJET" Boris Spaski se nije odazvao pozivu da prisustvuje jucerasnjem prijemu kod predsednika republike Srbije. Sahovski Puskin, uprkos insistiranjima novinara, nije zeleo da obrazlozi svoju odluku. Nezvanicno se saznaje da Spaski jednostavno nije zeleo da tako provede slobodan dan. Borba,7. oktobar :>>>>>>>>>>!!!!!
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Eagleburger Says U.S. Pressing `No-Fly' Zone in Bosnia By GENE KRAMER Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) - The United States is concerned about the killing of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina and is pressing allies to enforce a ban on military flights there, says acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger. ``We are very sensitive to the Muslim world's view that the West is permitting killing of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina while acting differently in Iraq,'' where ``no-fly'' zones have been declared, Eagleburger said in a television interview Tuesday. A no-fly zone would halt Serbian or Bosnian Serbian air attacks against U.N. humanitarian flights in the war-torn former Yugoslav republic. Bosnia has no combat planes. Eagleburger said it would also mean the Serbians can't use their aircraft to attack Bosnian Muslims in their policy of ``ethnic cleansing.'' More than 14,000 people have been killed in Bosnia since Bosnian Serbs rebelled against a vote in February by majority Muslims and Croats to secede from Yugoslavia. Serbs, initially backed by the Yugoslav army, have seized about two-thirds of Bosnian territory. Informal closed debates on the flight ban are under way with Britain, France and other U.N. Security Council members, Eagleburger said, predicting the result could be a compromise involving first trying measures short of using force to enforce the ban. ``We had a debate in the U.S. government about it and are having a debate with some of our allies,'' he said on public television's ``MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour'' program. The situations are ``totally different,'' Eagleburger said, but the United States nevertheless recognizes that ``the Muslim world looks on aghast as more and more Muslims are killed. There is no question that this weighed heavily on (President Bush) and all of us ... and this government tried to demonstrate to the Muslim world that we care about that and want to do something about that. ``The president has decided, and I think rightly so, that the situation in and around Sarajevo and Bosnia is so disastrous now we need to move hard and fast to prevent it from becoming worse,'' Eagleburger added. ``But I can understand the French, British or anyone else'' with ground troops in the area wanting to think through the consequences. Eagleburger disputed a suggestion that the decision resulted from pressure from Bill Clinton, Bush's Democratic campaign rival, for stronger U.S. intervention. ``We have been debating this and ... with all respect to the governor, he had nothing to do with it,'' he said.
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Women, Children Speak of Terrors of Ethnic Cleansing By JOHN DANISZEWSKI Associated Press Writer TRAVNIK, Bosnia-Herzegovina (AP) _ Hasnija Halilovic said the Serb fighters came in the night, wearing black masks. They lined up about 200 Muslim women and children at gunpoint in three rows between a Muslim home and piled the house's contents nearby, she recalled. Then both the furniture and the house were set ablaze. For four hours, with fires in front of them and behind, the women and children stood helpless, screaming and pleading for their lives. They cried. They choked on the smoke. Their captors taunted them, threatening to shoot. Finally, they were let go. ``No one was killed, but they were beating us,'' said Mrs. Halilovic, 60, her blue eyes ablaze with anger. The scene occurred two weeks ago in Kljuc, a northern Bosnian town where thousands of Muslims from surrounding areas have been herded into a ghetto since last spring. Now, in another example of the process known as ``ethnic cleansing,'' the last Muslims are being expelled by Serb occupiers from their land and sent to Travnik, one of the few remaining Muslim-held cities in Bosnia. A key part of ethnic cleansing is to instill terror, and the Serbs in Kljuc succeeded. Mrs. Halilovic's daughter-in-law, Zijada, said the shock sent her into labor. The infant at her breast, Rashid, was born the next day. Dressed in a green scarf and five layers of shirts, sweaters and skirts, Mrs. Halilovic stood Sunday with about 1,000 other bedraggled figures outside a decaying secondary school, now their temporary home in Travnik. On this bleak, rainy day, they waited for their daily meal: rice. This front-line Muslim city, squeezed into a narrow mountain valley adorned with a dozen minarets, has become a main refuge for people forced from their homes in Serb- controlled areas of Bosnia. The city is patrolled by Croatian and Muslim troops, including units of the ``Muslim Forces'' who affect the bravado of Middle Eastern guerrillas by wrapping their heads in traditional headdresses. An occasional rifle-toting volunteer from the Middle East or North Africa also can be seen in the streets, lending credence to Serb claims that ``mujahedeen'' from Islamic countries are fighting on the Muslim side. But such foreigners resolutely refused to talk to journalists. There are now about 25,000 refugees in Travnik, normally a city of 35,000, said Meris Zulic of the humanitarian organization Merhamet. If the Serbs complete the ethnic cleansing around Banja Luka, capital of the self-proclaimed Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 80,000 more Muslims and 40,000 Croats could join them, he said. There already are shortages of food, shelter, toilets and clean water. With winter fast approaching, officials worry about bitter cold and disease. Travnik has not been shelled recently, but nearby areas have been bombed, said Zeir Krnjic, a Muslim forces commander. Mrs. Halilovic and other veterans of ethnic cleansing described their exodus from Serb-held areas as brutal. After their night between the flames, the women and children holed up for another week in the crowded Muslim quarter of Kljuc. Then, on a Thursday, about 3,000 Muslims from Kljuc and surrounding villages were put into 10 buses and eight trucks. As they were put aboard, they were beaten by about 150 soldiers who demanded money or stole from their meager belongings, Mrs. Halilovic said. ``Then they were shooting at the trucks,'' she said. ``One truck didn't arrive at all and we don't know what happened to those people.'' At the frontier of Serb-controlled territory, she said, the refugees were ordered to abandon their remaining belongings and told to start walking over mountainous terrain toward Travnik, about 12 miles away. After five hours on a treacherous track with steep cliffs, they reached a unit of Croatian soldiers. Details of such journeys are impossible to verify, but they mesh with accounts from numerous other refugees and Western journalists who have traveled with them. Zulic said large groups of such people have been arriving every two or three days since May, despite promises of Bosnia's Serbs to curb ethnic cleansing. Croats and Muslims also have been accused of purging areas of other ethnic groups, but the Serbs have been condemned internationally most often. He said he knows that at least 10 people traveling in Mrs. Halilovic's group died because the Serb side later offered to trade their bodies for a group of Serbs in Travnik. NO-FLY ZONE RESOLUTION AT A GLANCE UNITED NATIONS, Oct 7, Reuter - Following are the key elements in a draft Security Council resolution banning military aircraft over Bosnia-Herzegovina. The document, obtained by Reuters, was approved by the United States, Britain and France on Wednesday. The document -- Establishes a ban on military flights, excluding any aircraft relating to U.N. operations or supporting them. -- Requests U.N. forces to monitor compliance, including placing observers on airfields, wherever necessary. -- Requests U.N. forces to set up an inspection mechanism to make sure all flights to and from Bosnia do not violate Security Council resolutions. -- Calls on all states to take measures to help U.N. forces, including technical monitoring and ``other capabilities.'' -- In case of violations, the council would pledge to ``consider urgently'' further measures to enforce the ban. REUTER EL BRO BN Reut18:34 10-07 Serbs Shell Other Towns After Capturing Key City in Northern Bosnia By JOHN DANISZEWSKI Associated Press Writer SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina (AP) _ Serb fighters were reported cleaning out the last pockets of resistance in a northern strategic city on Wednesday, and they widened their offensive with intensified shelling throughout the region. The lightning capture of Bosanski Brod on the Croatian border was a major victory for the Serbs, who are seeking to set up their own republic within Bosnia possibly as a prelude to linking up with Serbia. The Serbian advances mean they have taken control of 70 percent of Bosnia in the 7-month-old civil war, and their offensive sought to gain further territory before winter. More than 14,000 people have been killed in Bosnia since Bosnian Serbs rebelled against a vote in February by majority Muslims and Croats to secede from Serbian-dominated Yugoslavia. The fall of Bosanski Brod, the last major government- held town in northern Bosnia, apparently was part of a Serbian offensive aimed at occupying more Bosnian territory before winter sets in. There was major shelling in Sarajevo in what the city's radio called a ``hellish'' morning. But there was major fighting in the north, according to Croatian radio reports: _Heavy Serb artillery blasted the region around Zupanja, 35 miles east of Slavonski Brod. _The city of Gradacac was hit by hundreds of missiles and cluster bombs. _Serb forces 12 miles north of Gradacac were caught in a Muslim-Croat pincer, forcing them to retreat and leave 10 artillery pieces behind. Elsewhere, Serb missiles targeted Bihac, a Bosnian border town just 40 miles south of Zagreb, Croatia's capital. Maglaj, 60 miles north of Sarajevo, was bombed by Serb warplanes. Mostar, 100 miles southwest of the Bosnian capital, was rocked by artillery barrages. The Serbs had significantly improved their position with the capture on Tuesday of Bosanski Brod, widening the corridor between the territories they control in eastern and western Bosnia. Officials in Slavonski Brod, a Croatian city across the Sava River, speaking on condition of anonymity, said small- arms fire and the boom of artillery continued to sound from the neighboring Bosnian town late Wednesday. They said Serb troops apparently were moving from house to house, firing machine gun bursts inside and throwing in hand grenades to clean up last pockets of suspected resistance. AP photographer Zoran Bozicevic said dozens of houses set on fire by the Serb invaders blazed in Bosanski Brod. A high-rise apartment building still burned Wednesday morning. The bridge across the Sava River was blown up before dawn Wednesday, destroying what for months had been a path to relative safety for tens of thousands of refugees. Just hours before its destruction, at least 5,000 refugees and Muslim-Croat forces used the bridge to flee the Serb advance. The Serb offensive appeared aimed at eliminating the entire Bosnian enclave along the river border. The enclave threatened the supply routes running from Serbia proper to areas held by Serb rebels in western Bosnia and central Croatia. A Croatian army spokesman in Zagreb told The Associated Press on Wednesday that Croat-Muslim defenders, under constant air and artillery attack for six days, were withdrawn to save lives. Slavonski Brod on the Croatian side teemed with Bosnian troops Wednesday. Some soldiers were withdrawn Tuesday night by a small ferry from a village just west of Bosanski Brod. In Sarajevo, shells landed near the presidency building and in the city's new section. One landed about 100 yards outside a stadium where a funeral was under way. Sarajevo radio called it ``one of the most hellish mornings since the beginning of the war.'' In Geneva, the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees said three U.S. and two French relief flights landed at Sarajevo airport. But they supplied only a fraction of the 200 tons of food needed daily by the besieged city's 500,000 residents. Without more food, children are expected to start dying from starvation next month, U.N. officials say. The situation of tens of thousands of Sarajevans preparing for winter worsened Tuesday, when natural gas supplies used by many to heat homes were cut. Running water and electricity already have been unavailable for weeks in many sections. BOSNIAN SERBS MOP UP AFTER BIG MILITARY VICTORY By Paul Holmes SLAVONSKI BROD, Croatia, Oct 7, Reuter - The Bosnian Serb army mopped up on Wednesday after seizing the key northern town of Bosanski Brod in their biggest military victory in three months. Thousands of people retreated in panic across the Sava river to the neighbouring town of Slavonski Brod inside Croatia before the Bosnian Serbs captured Bosanski Brod late on Tuesday and a bridge linking the two centres was blown up. A senior source close to Croatian President Franjo Tudjman said Croatia feared Serb forces would now turn their attention to central Bosnian targets such as Tuzla and Zenica. Each side accused the other of destroying the road and rail bridge, which was Croatia's last fixed link under its control across the Sava into northern Bosnia. The Serbs' victory consolidates their hold on a strategic corridor across northern Bosnia linking Serbia proper in the east with the Krajina area of Croatia taken by Serb fighters in their war with Croatia last year. The Bosnian Serbs have been fighting for six months against a shaky coalition of Bosnian Moslems and Croats whose supporters voted for independence at a referendum, leading to international recognition for an independent state whose capital is the besieged city of Sarajevo. Fierce fighting erupted again in Sarajevo on Wednesday. Tanjug reported heavy infantry duels in Novo Sarajevo, with the most intense combat in the Moslem-held Hrasno area. Heavy artillery and mortar fire broke out in the old town, Dobrinja and the centre of Sarajevo. At Slavonski Brod, some Croatian national guardsmen manning an anti-tank cannon cursed Tudjman as they withdrew from a position near the shattered bridge. ``Damn Tudjman. I voted for him. Look what he's done for this town, and the Croats over there (in Bosnia),'' one soldier said. The Bosnian Serb army said in a statement hundreds of Croat and Moslem soldiers had been killed in the Serbs' final assault on the city, their bodies littering lawns and city squares. Slavko Bilandzija, the Croatian military police chief for Slavonski Brod, said 250 people, including civilians as well as Croat and Moslem soldiers, had been killed in the last few days in air attacks and artillery bombardments to soften up resistance before the final assault. The Croatian Defence Council for northern Bosnia (HVO) said 8,000 Bosnian Serb troops had been killed in the drive to take the town, and 60 enemy tanks had been destroyed and 21 planes shot down. Bilandzija said his men watched Serb fighters blow up the steel bridge early on Wednesday morning, whereas the Bosnian Serb army said it was destroyed by retreating Croatian forces. Virtually every window in three 11-storey apartment blocks near the bridge was blown out by the force of the blast. Bilandzija said 10,000 people, mostly civilians had fled to Slavonski Brod on Tuesday, crossing the bridge or grabbing boats or barges. ``There was complete chaos,'' he said, adding that said some elderly Moslems and Croats who had been unwilling to flee remained on the Bosnian side of the river. He said Serb forces on Wednesday had used loudhailers to shout messages across the Sava to Croatian forces that they would not attack Slavonski Brod. Witnesses said the Serbs shouted: ``Don't shoot at us. We're not shooting back. We got what we wanted.'' Bilandzija said: ``There are no guarantees that they'll stick to that. They might use this (time) to do their looting, then they'll start shooting again.'' There was no official Croatian government comment on the fall of Bosanski Brod. The senior source close to Tudjman said he was deeply worried but was determined not to get Croatia openly involved in the war in Bosnia.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbs to ground jetfighters in Bosnia-Hercegovina Subject: U.N. sets up war-crimes commission for former Yugoslavia Subject: Sarajevo doctors say psychological wounds hardest to treat Subject: Bridge blown up after Serbs capture key town ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Serbs to ground jetfighters in Bosnia-Hercegovina Date: 6 Oct 92 20:54:30 GMT BELGRADE (UPI) -- Bosnian Serb leaders said Tuesday Serbian forces would ``immediately'' ground their air force in Bosnia-Hercegovina but warned they would resume combat flights if predominantly Muslim Slav forces tried to take advantage of the decision, the Serb-run Tanjug news agency reported. The ``foreign minister'' of the self-declared Serbian state in Bosnia-Hercegovina, Aleksandar Buha, said that leaders of the Bosnian Serbs, in Geneva for peace talks on former Yugoslavia, agreed Tuesday evening to ``stop military flights.'' ``This decision goes into effect immediately,'' Buha told Tanjug in a telephone conversation and added that ``it will remain in effect as long as the other side does not use it to gain a military advantage.'' Buha said Serbian forces would ``resume flights if the enemy misuses our agreement.'' Radovan Karadzic, self-styled president of the Bosnian Serb state, Monday warned his delegation would quit the internationally-sponsored peace talks in Geneva if the U.N. Security Council approved a proposal to create a ``no-fly'' zone for combat aircraft over the newly independent republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Serbian forces have been using Soviet-made MiG jetfighters and other aircraft supplied to them by the Serb-led Yugoslav army in missions supporting their ground forces fighting against Bosnia-Hercegovina government forces. Bosnian government forces are comprised of mostly Muslim Slavs but also include some Croats and moderate Serbs. Karadzic has declared a Serbian state on about 70 percent of the republic's territory. The 1.4 million Serbs in Bosnia-Hercegovina make up about 31 percent of the population. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: U.N. sets up war-crimes commission for former Yugoslavia Date: 6 Oct 92 23:49:21 GMT UNITED NATIONS (UPI) -- The U.N. Security Council decided unanimously Tuesday to establish a war-crimes commission to study charges of severe human rights violations in the former Yugoslavia and to prosecute those who may be charged in an international court. The council said the commission, to be composed of ``impartial experts,'' will ``examine and analyze'' all information obtained by them or through investigation or efforts by organizations other than the United Nations to uncover executions or human rights abuses in the Balkans. The council adopted the resolution forming the war-crimes commission with a 15-0 vote after calling on governments and international organizations to provide within 30 days ``substantiated information'' on alleged human rights violations in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. The commission was charged to provide concluding proofs that ``violations of Geneva Conventions and of other international conventions on human rights had been committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia.'' The council asked Secretary-General Boutros Ghali to name the experts on the commission and to make a report on the panel's findings. It did not specify the next step to be taken, but diplomats said they have been considering calling for a trial of those responsible for human rights violations. ``It doesn't make any sense if the commission would not lead to a trial,'' Venezuelan U.N. Ambassador Diego Arria said. U.N. officials said legal steps would be taken to establish a tribunal similar to the Nuremberg trials, the records of which were deposited to the care of the United Nations. In Geneva, a special investigator for the U.N. Commission for Human Rights, former Polish Premier Tadeusz Mazowiecki, said he will make a second visit to Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Kosovo and other parts of the former Yugoslavia to continue his investigation. Mazowiecki will begin his 10-day visit in Sarajevo on Oct. 12. Mazowiecki's first trip to Bosnia-Hercegovina in August resulted in a harsh report condemning all warring factions for violating human rights. Serbian forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina have been accused of carrying out ``ethnic cleansing'' to gain territories occupied by Muslim Slavs or Croats, thus driving hundreds of thousands of people out of their destroyed homes. The Serbs also were alleged to have tortured and killed Muslims in detention centers and prisons, but Serbian leaders denied the charges. The United States last month said it has evidence that at least 3,000 Muslim men, women and children were executed in May and June in Serb-run detention centers near the Bosnian town of Brcko. By another vote of 15-0 the council decided also to demilitarize the Prevlaka peninsula in the Adriatic Sea which had been used by Belgrade's Yugoslav army to attack Croatia's port city of Dubrovnik and control navigation on a 100-mile-long coastline. In the resolution on the Prevlaka peninsula, the council asked that Croatia and Montenegro withdraw their heavy weapons and to cooperate with monitors from the European Community. In Belgrade Tuesday the official Tanjug news agency announced that the army of rump Yugoslavia reiterated its intention to withdraw from the disputed peninsula within the next two weeks. The army of the Serbia-Montenegro federation said that its units and equipment would be ``transferred'' by Oct. 20 from the peninsula and the surrounding region as required by a Sept. 29 pact reached in Geneva between Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic and his Croatian counterpart, Franjo Tudjman. But, the army warned that should Croatia violate the agreement to create a demilitarize zone on the peninsula, it would ``use all of its potential to defend'' the main Yugoslav navy base at adjacent Boka Kotorska Bay. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Sarajevo doctors say psychological wounds hardest to treat Date: 7 Oct 92 02:08:07 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- On any given day at the bombed- out state hospital, doctors may face several dozen shrapnel injuries, close a half-dozen bullet wounds and perhaps amputate three or four limbs. But for each torn-open leg or blown-away arm bleeding onto the cots of the ground-floor emergency unit, Dr. Mirza Cisic, a neuropsychiatrist, says he and his staff, squeezed into a tiny third- floor office, handle more than twice as many injuries to the mind. ``The surgeons are doing the physical work, and we have to save the brain and the soul,'' said his colleague, Dr. Momir Smitran, sitting with Cisic and wearing a white lab coat. ``And that is a lot more work.'' The dozen or so people sitting quietly in the dark, bomb-scarred hallway outside their office are but a small part of the problem. For outside the office, where residents of Sarajevo still survive the daily rain of artillery shells and random sniper attacks, doctors feel the number of such victims is at least 10 times as great. ``Generally speaking, we must say there is no family in Sarajevo that has not been damaged or destroyed psychologically,'' Cisic said. The doctors offer both individual and group therapy, but they lack normal diagnostic and basic rehabilatative tools, such as videotapes of prosthesis patients designed to give hope to those who just lost limbs. But thousands of those needing treatment, including those with pre- existing mental problems, simply never find help. ``They feel the situation is hopeless, with not much chance that it will be improved,'' Cisic said. ``They do not come and report here because this place is always under grenade and sniper fire.'' Cisic, who is old enough to recall World War II, sees little comparison even to wartime London or Dresden because those cities were not cut off from the outside world and the aerial blitzes at least came with some warning. ``This is six months of daily shelling,'' he said. ``Here you just walk down the street and suddenly a shell is falling on you,'' Smitran said. ``When there is an air alert, it does not get any attention -- people just keep walking on the street.'' ``Now (the city) is one big concentration camp,'' Cisic said. ``The inhabitants are in a hopeless situation, not only for their vital living functions, but because their existence remains in doubt. ``I personally don't know what to bring my family, how to feed them.'' Perhaps ironically, one release from the tension could be found in the impish grin and beaming brown eyes of 40-year-old Nermin Tulic, sitting on a cot tucked away in the darkness of an elevator waiting area a couple floors below the psychiatrists' office. Tulic, a well-known Shakespearean actor in the city, was standing outside his home June 10 when a mortar grenade fell from the sky and exploded between his legs. He said his doctors tried everything to save at least one of the legs, but could not. ``I thought of suicide -- they took the knives and forks away from me -- I was trying to die,'' Tulic said, playfully wiggling his scarred stumps beneath an unbuttoned pink shirt. ``But then when I put in perspective what is behind me and what is in front of me,'' he said, recalling the sudden change of heart he had about two months ago. ``I thought that I have a girl 14 months old, that my wife is pregnant -- she had another girl just 40 days ago -- and that with good rehabilitation -- I can expect to resume about 80 percent of my activities.'' Tulic said the turning point came when, after days of struggling, he finally learned the trick of sitting up straight without his legs. ``At that point a micro-switch flipped in my brain, and I did in one night what some people take two weeks to do,'' he said. Tulic rejected any thought of bearing hatred for the rest of his life ``because I will never meet the man, the animal, the beast who shot this grenade.'' Cisic and Smitran, perhaps better than anyone else in the city, understand the psychological as well as military warfare being waged by Serbian forces against the civilian population, but are no better able to comprehend why. ``They are the most sadistic, psychopathic type of violations,'' Cisic said, doubting he could even give a professional recommendation that those shooting the guns from the hills above Sarajevo could be held legally responsible. ``It would be an understatement to say these are people with diminished capacity. And in a normal process, they couldn't even be prosecuted,'' he said. ``They would be put in an asylum.'' Early in the Bosnian phase of the Yugoslav conflict the Serbs opened the doors of a Sarajevo asylum for non-criminal patients, Cisic said. More than 100 residents were evicted, some wearing only their pajamas. Some of the patients have been returned to hospitals for treatment, he said. Others are believed among those still walking the streets. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: Bridge blown up after Serbs capture key town Date: 7 Oct 92 16:41:04 GMT SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Hercegovina (UPI) -- The military defeat of Muslim Slav and Croat forces after the fall of the key border town of Bosanski Brod was compounded Wednesday when Serbian forces blew up a strategic bridge near the town, Sarajevo radio reported. The Serbian attack on the bridge effectively cut the only road link connecting northern Bosnia-Hercegovina with Croatia, further isolating Bosnian forces. According to the report, a coalition of Croatian and Muslim Slav defenders fled the town north across a bridge into the Croatian town of Slavonski Brod and Serbian forces following behind them blew up the bridge. The explosion was so heavy it blew out the remaining windows and door frames on nearby multiple-story apartment buildings, Croatian radio said. Occupying Serbian forces began robbing those properties still standing and fires broke out in numerous buildings including the post office, oil refinery and apartment buildings, it said. The fall of Bosanski Brod, the only major town on Bosnia- Hercegovina's northern frontier with Croatia not to have been captured by the Serbs, consolidates Serbian control of a strategic corridor running from the border of Serbia, in the east, across the top of Bosnia-Hercegovina, to the Serb-held stronghold of Banja Luka and surrounding Serb-controlled areas of the republic's northwest. Aside from being territory claimed for the self-declared Serbian state in Bosnia-Hercegovina, the corridor is essential for the delivery of military, food and fuel supplies from communist-ruled Serbia to Serbian forces throughout the region and headquartered in Banja Luka. From Banja Luka, such supplies are also fowarded across the nearby Croatian border to sustain Serbian forces based in Knin, the headquarters town of the self-declared ``Republic of Serbian Krajina'' proclaimed in areas of Croatia captured by Serbs during the civil war last year. Control of Bosanski Brod will allow Serbian artillery to hit towns in central Croatia, across the Sava River, including Slavonski Brod, a major industrial center. Bosanski Brod had been linked to Slavonski Brod by the bridge that was blown up. The fall of now devastated Bosanski Brod came seven months after Serbian forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina opened their war in the town for control of territory in the breakaway Yugoslav republic. Serbs since then have captured more than 70 percent of the former Yugoslav republics' territory despite representing only 31 percent of its pre-war population. Bosanski Brod before the war had about 34,000 residents, 41 percent of whom identified themselves in a 1991 census as Croats, 34 percent Serbs and 12 percent Muslim Slavs. Serbian fighting in recent months was concentrated on cutting the land route through the Muslim Slav-dominated northeast into the large Serbian-controlled northwest as part of an overall plan to create an ``ethnically purified'' greater Serbia. In Sarajevo Wednesday Serbian forces in the hills overlooking the city unleashed a series of artillery assaults on the capital, hitting numerous apartment buildings and other civilian targets and killing at least three people and wounding 25 others. Sporadic shooting throughout the night in Sarajevo was broken open around 5 a.m. Wednesday when Serbian forces opened fire throughout the city, using 120mm mortars, 155mm artillery guns and tanks, Sarajevo radio said. The new part of the city came under the heaviest fire, from Serbian tank positions in the southern area of Vraca, it said. Three apartment buildings were burning on Ivana Krndelja Street south of the Miljacka River, and a tobacco factory was burning on the north side, the radio said. Apartments in the Cengic Vila complex in the center of the new part of the city also were hit early Wednesday, killing at least one person, Sarajevo radio said. Another civilian apartment complex further west, Alipasino Poljine, just across the street from the city's United Nations Protection Forces (UNPRFOR) headquarters, also was hit, the radio said. Serbian infantry forces, moving under the cover of grenade fire from the western suburb of Ilidza, attempted an advance into Stup but were pushed back by Bosnian defenders, the radio said. Serbian forces based in Poljine also shot artillery and tank fire Wednesday morning into the northern suburb of Vogosca and onto the road connecting it with Sarajevo, it said. In Split, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic met Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban to discuss improved military cooperation and visited Bosnian refugee camps around the Croatian port city, Sarajevo radio reported. Heavy fighting also was reported Wednesday throughout Bosnia- Hercegovina, particularly in the Muslim Slav-dominated areas of the republic's northeast. Sarajevo radio reported heavy fighting Wednesday across central Bosnia- Hercegovina, including artillery fire and infantry attacks on the towns of Gradacac, Doboj, Tesanj and Gracanica. Heavy artillery and infantry attacks also were reported Tuesday and Wednesday closer to Sarajevo, in the towns of Breza, Olovo and Ilijas, Sarajevo radio said. Srebrenica, on the eastern border with Serbia, and Jajce, in the central part of the republic, also saw more fighting and artillery attacks, the radio said. One woman was killed and six were injured since tuesday in Jajce, it said. Artillery attacks were reported against civilian regions of Mostar, southwest of Sarajevo, although the heavy fighting of previous days appeared to have eased, Sarajevo radio said. Also Wednesday, French Gen. Phillipe Morillon, commander of the UNPROFOR new Bosnian operations, was due to meet Bosnian Serb leaders at their headquarters in Pale, just outside Sarajevo, before traveling later to the Serbian capital Belgrade. U.N. troops have been trying for several days to escort utility workers into Serbian-controlled areas to restore sarajevos water and electricity supplies, but Morillon and Ganic conceded after their meeting little progress was likely while the fighting continued. Morillon said UNPROFOR troops would continue trying to help utility workers reach the areas where repairs are necessary but Ganic, frustrated by week- long outages of water and electricity, asked UNPROFOR to say clearly what it can and cannot do. Serbian forces on the eve of Morillon's arrival launched one of the most devastating assaults in their six-month seige of Sarajevo, destroying rows of offices and apartment buildings, and leaving dozens of civilians dead and thousands homeless. Earlier Tuesday, Serbian forces bombarded Sarajevo with artillery, tank and machine-gun fire, a day after one of the most vicious assaults in their six-month seige destroyed offices and apartment buildings, leaving dozens of civilians dead and thousands homeless. Streams of the screaming and crying homeless were forced after a day of relentless bombing to flee their flaming homes with only handfuls of possessions.
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RFE/RL Daily Report No. 193, 6 October, 1992 SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR YELTSIN: RUSSIAN FORCES TO DEFEND THEMSELVES, RAILROADS, IN ABKHAZIA. Abkhaz forces continued to advance north from Gagra and took the villages of Leselidze and Gantiadi early on 6 October, and they now control a 65 kilometer stretch of coastline